Special Issue "Topical Drug Delivery: Challenges, Opportunities, Novel Approaches and Recent Advances"

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Drug Delivery".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 8547

Special Issue Editors

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Health Outcomes, The Ben and Maytee Fisch College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75799, USA
Interests: drug delivery; theranostics; cancer nanomedicine; imaging; cancer therapy; extracellular vesicles; exosomes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at El Paso, 1101 N Campbell St., El Paso, TX 79902, USA
Interests: topical delivery; transdermal; permeation; IVRT; IVPT; franz cells; nanoparticles; lipid nanoparticles; skin delivery, amorphous solid dispersions, solubility enhancement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Topical drug delivery refers to the delivery of drugs via skin and is considered an attractive alternative to oral and parenteral routes. Topical drug delivery has advantages, such as non-invasive delivery, bypass of first pass metabolism, prolonged duration of action, reduced dosing frequency, constant levels of drug in the plasma, reduced drug toxicity/adverse events, and improved patient compliance. However, development of a new topical product is very challenging as skin acts as a major barrier for entry of drugs and foreign materials into the body. In addition to skin, other factors, such as physicochemical parameters of the drug (solubility, molecular weight or size, and hydrogen bonding) and formulation characteristics influence the performance of a topical drug product. Several approaches have been investigated in the literature to address these challenges, which include physical methods (iontophoresis, thermal ablation, radiofrequency, etc.) chemical methods (use of permeation enhancers) and novel formulation approaches (microneedles, nano-formulations, lipid-based drug delivery systems). In addition to these there have been advances in the techniques used to evaluate the performance/characteristics of a topical formulation. Some of them include advances in in vitro permeation testing (IVPT), in vitro release testing (IVRT), microscopy, in vitro in vivo correlations (IVIVC), use of alternatives to human skin, such as polymeric membranes, cultured human skin model and others.

In this Special Issue, we solicit the submission of research articles, reviews related to the advances in the topical formulation development. This could also include topical delivery via skin and eye.

Dr. Santosh Aryal
Dr. Pradeep Kumar Bolla
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomedicines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • topical formulation
  • skin delivery
  • in-vitro permeation test (IVPT)
  • in-vitro release test (IVRT)
  • franz cells
  • ocular drug delivery
  • creams
  • gels
  • emulsions
  • emulgels
  • lipid nanoparticles
  • nanoformulation for topical delivery

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Bioavailability Enhancement Techniques for Poorly Aqueous Soluble Drugs and Therapeutics
Biomedicines 2022, 10(9), 2055; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10092055 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 7834
The low water solubility of pharmacoactive molecules limits their pharmacological potential, but the solubility parameter cannot compromise, and so different approaches are employed to enhance their bioavailability. Pharmaceutically active molecules with low solubility convey a higher risk of failure for drug innovation and [...] Read more.
The low water solubility of pharmacoactive molecules limits their pharmacological potential, but the solubility parameter cannot compromise, and so different approaches are employed to enhance their bioavailability. Pharmaceutically active molecules with low solubility convey a higher risk of failure for drug innovation and development. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and several other parameters, such as drug distribution, protein binding and absorption, are majorly affected by their solubility. Among all pharmaceutical dosage forms, oral dosage forms cover more than 50%, and the drug molecule should be water-soluble. For good therapeutic activity by the drug molecule on the target site, solubility and bioavailability are crucial factors. The pharmaceutical industry’s screening programs identified that around 40% of new chemical entities (NCEs) face various difficulties at the formulation and development stages. These pharmaceuticals demonstrate less solubility and bioavailability. Enhancement of the bioavailability and solubility of drugs is a significant challenge in the area of pharmaceutical formulations. According to the Classification of Biopharmaceutics, Class II and IV drugs (APIs) exhibit poor solubility, lower bioavailability, and less dissolution. Various technologies are discussed in this article to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, for example, the complexation of active molecules, the utilization of emulsion formation, micelles, microemulsions, cosolvents, polymeric micelle preparation, particle size reduction technologies, pharmaceutical salts, prodrugs, the solid-state alternation technique, soft gel technology, drug nanocrystals, solid dispersion methods, crystal engineering techniques and nanomorph technology. This review mainly describes several other advanced methodologies for solubility and bioavailability enhancement, such as crystal engineering, micronization, solid dispersions, nano sizing, the use of cyclodextrins, solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug delivery systems and drug conjugates, referring to a number of appropriate research reports. Full article
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