Special Issue "Magnetic Nanomaterials for Hyperthermia-Based Therapy, Imaging, and Drug Delivery"

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2023 | Viewed by 7283

Special Issue Editor

Department of Pharmaceutical Physics-Biophysics, Faculty of Pharmacy, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Pasteur 6, 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: magnetic nanoparticles; magnetic hyperthermia; plasmonic nanoparticles; vibrational spectroscopy; surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS); liposomes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, we have witnessed tremendous developments in the field of nanomedicine. Among other nanoformulations, magnetic nanoparticles have been proven to possess numerous benefits over conventional medicines, making them valuable candidates in various fields of biomedical applications due to their ability to be remotely controlled by external magnetic fields.

By either functionalizing their surface or creating hybrid nanoformulations in combination with polymers, fluorophores, liposomes, and plasmonic or silica shells, magnetic nanoparticles gain multiplexing capabilities, making them suitable for combined applications, leading to what we now call theranostic nanoparticles. The capacity of these magnetic nanomaterials to diagnose and treat medical conditions, combined with the possibilities of remotely controlling their position or triggering their activity, make them one of the most investigated classes of theranostic materials.

In this Special Issue, we kindly invite authors to report both experimental and theoretical results on their recently developed magnetic nanomaterials in the medical field for imaging, diagnostics, and the treatment of diseases.

Prof. Dr. Constantin Mihai Lucaciu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • magnetic hyperthermia 
  • magnetoplasmonic nanoparticles 
  • targeted drug delivery 
  • magnetoliposomes 
  • magnetic resonance imaging 
  • magnetic particle imaging 
  • magnetorelaxometry imaging

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
High Efficacy on the Death of Breast Cancer Cells Using SPMHT with Magnetite Cyclodextrins Nanobioconjugates
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(4), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15041145 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 506
Abstract
In this study, we present the experimental results obtained in vitro on the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) by applying superparamagnetic hyperthermia (SPMHT) using novel Fe3O4-PAA–(HP-γ-CDs) (PAA is polyacrylic acid and HP-γ-CDs is hydroxypropyl gamma-cyclodextrins) nanobioconjugates previously obtained [...] Read more.
In this study, we present the experimental results obtained in vitro on the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) by applying superparamagnetic hyperthermia (SPMHT) using novel Fe3O4-PAA–(HP-γ-CDs) (PAA is polyacrylic acid and HP-γ-CDs is hydroxypropyl gamma-cyclodextrins) nanobioconjugates previously obtained by us. In the in vitro SPMHT experiments, we used concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 mg/mL of Fe3O4 ferrimagnetic nanoparticles from Fe3O4-PAA–(HP-γ-CDs) nanobioconjugates suspended in culture media containing 1 × 105 MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. The harmonic alternating magnetic field used in the in vitro experiments that did not affect cell viability was found to be optimal in the range of 160–378 Gs and at a frequency of 312.2 kHz. The appropriate duration of the therapy was 30 min. After applying SPMHT with these nanobioconjugates under the above conditions, MCF-7 cancer cells died out in a very high percentage, of until 95.11%. Moreover, we studied the field up to which magnetic hyperthermia can be safely applied without cellular toxicity, and found a new upper biological limit H × f ~9.5 × 109 A/m⋅Hz (H is the amplitude and f is the frequency of the alternating magnetic field) to safely apply the magnetic field in vitro in the case of MCF-7 cells; the value was twice as high compared to the currently known value. This is a major advantage for magnetic hyperthermia in vitro and in vivo, because it allows one to achieve a therapy temperature of 43 °C safely in a much shorter time without affecting healthy cells. At the same time, using the new biological limit for a magnetic field, the concentration of magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic hyperthermia can be greatly reduced, obtaining the same hyperthermic effect, while at the same time, reducing cellular toxicity. This new limit of the magnetic field was tested by us in vitro with very good results, without the cell viability decreasing below ~90%. Full article
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Article
Multimodal Radiobioconjugates of Magnetic Nanoparticles Labeled with 44Sc and 47Sc for Theranostic Application
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(3), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15030850 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
This study was performed to synthesize multimodal radiopharmaceutical designed for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. To achieve this goal, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles were used as a platform for targeting molecule (PSMA-617) and for complexation of two scandium radionuclides, 44 [...] Read more.
This study was performed to synthesize multimodal radiopharmaceutical designed for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. To achieve this goal, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles were used as a platform for targeting molecule (PSMA-617) and for complexation of two scandium radionuclides, 44Sc for PET imaging and 47Sc for radionuclide therapy. TEM and XPS images showed that the Fe3O4 NPs have a uniform cubic shape and a size from 38 to 50 nm. The Fe3O4 core are surrounded by SiO2 and an organic layer. The saturation magnetization of the SPION core was 60 emu/g. However, coating the SPIONs with silica and polyglycerol reduces the magnetization significantly. The obtained bioconjugates were labeled with 44Sc and 47Sc, with a yield higher than 97%. The radiobioconjugate exhibited high affinity and cytotoxicity toward the human prostate cancer LNCaP (PSMA+) cell line, much higher than for PC-3 (PSMA-) cells. High cytotoxicity of the radiobioconjugate was confirmed by radiotoxicity studies on LNCaP 3D spheroids. In addition, the magnetic properties of the radiobioconjugate should allow for its use in guide drug delivery driven by magnetic field gradient. Full article
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Article
Paclitaxel-Loaded Lipid-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Dual Chemo-Magnetic Hyperthermia Therapy of Melanoma
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(3), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15030818 - 02 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 722
Abstract
Melanoma is the most aggressive and metastasis-prone form of skin cancer. Conventional therapies include chemotherapeutic agents, either as small molecules or carried by FDA-approved nanostructures. However, systemic toxicity and side effects still remain as major drawbacks. With the advancement of nanomedicine, new delivery [...] Read more.
Melanoma is the most aggressive and metastasis-prone form of skin cancer. Conventional therapies include chemotherapeutic agents, either as small molecules or carried by FDA-approved nanostructures. However, systemic toxicity and side effects still remain as major drawbacks. With the advancement of nanomedicine, new delivery strategies emerge at a regular pace, aiming to overcome these challenges. Stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems might considerably reduce systemic toxicity and side-effects by limiting drug release to the affected area. Herein, we report the development of paclitaxel-loaded lipid-coated manganese ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (PTX-LMNP) as magnetosomes synthetic analogs, envisaging the combined chemo-magnetic hyperthermia treatment of melanoma. PTX-LMNP physicochemical properties were verified, including their shape, size, crystallinity, FTIR spectrum, magnetization profile, and temperature profile under magnetic hyperthermia (MHT). Their diffusion in porcine ear skin (a model for human skin) was investigated after intradermal administration via fluorescence microscopy. Cumulative PTX release kinetics under different temperatures, either preceded or not by MHT, were assessed. Intrinsic cytotoxicity against B16F10 cells was determined via neutral red uptake assay after 48 h of incubation (long-term assay), as well as B16F10 cells viability after 1 h of incubation (short-term assay), followed by MHT. PTX-LMNP-mediated MHT triggers PTX release, allowing its thermal-modulated local delivery to diseased sites, within short timeframes. Moreover, half-maximal PTX inhibitory concentration (IC50) could be significantly reduced relatively to free PTX (142,500×) and Taxol® (340×). Therefore, the dual chemo-MHT therapy mediated by intratumorally injected PTX-LMNP stands out as a promising alternative to efficiently deliver PTX to melanoma cells, consequently reducing systemic side effects commonly associated with conventional chemotherapies. Full article
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Article
Doxorubicin Loaded Thermosensitive Magneto-Liposomes Obtained by a Gel Hydration Technique: Characterization and In Vitro Magneto-Chemotherapeutic Effect Assessment
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(11), 2501; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14112501 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
The combination of magnetic hyperthermia with chemotherapy is considered a promising strategy in cancer therapy due to the synergy between the high temperatures and the chemotherapeutic effects, which can be further developed for targeted and remote-controlled drug release. In this paper we report [...] Read more.
The combination of magnetic hyperthermia with chemotherapy is considered a promising strategy in cancer therapy due to the synergy between the high temperatures and the chemotherapeutic effects, which can be further developed for targeted and remote-controlled drug release. In this paper we report a simple, rapid, and reproducible method for the preparation of thermosensitive magnetoliposomes (TsMLs) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX), consisting of a lipidic gel formation from a previously obtained water-in-oil microemulsion with fine aqueous droplets containing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) dispersed in an organic solution of thermosensitive lipids (transition temperature of ~43 °C), followed by the gel hydration with an aqueous solution of DOX. The obtained thermosensitive magnetoliposomes (TsMLs) were around 300 nm in diameter and exhibited 40% DOX incorporation efficiency. The most suitable MNPs to incorporate into the liposomal aqueous lumen were Zn ferrites, with a very low coercive field at 300 K (7 kA/m) close to the superparamagnetic regime, exhibiting a maximum absorption rate (SAR) of 1130 W/gFe when dispersed in water and 635 W/gFe when confined inside TsMLs. No toxicity of Zn ferrite MNPs or of TsMLs was noticed against the A459 cancer cell line after 48 h incubation over the tested concentration range. The passive release of DOX from the TsMLs after 48h incubation induced a toxicity starting with a dosage level of 62.5 ug/cm2. Below this threshold, the subsequent exposure to an alternating magnetic field (20–30 kA/m, 355 kHz) for 30 min drastically reduced the viability of the A459 cells due to the release of incorporated DOX. Our results strongly suggest that TsMLs represent a viable strategy for anticancer therapies using the magnetic field-controlled release of DOX. Full article
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Article
The Anti-Obesity Potential of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles against High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats: Possible Involvement of Mitochondrial Biogenesis in the Adipose Tissues
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(10), 2134; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14102134 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Background: Obesity is a pandemic disease that is rapidly growing into a serious health problem and has economic impact on healthcare systems. This bleak image has elicited creative responses, and nanotechnology is a promising approach in obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity is a pandemic disease that is rapidly growing into a serious health problem and has economic impact on healthcare systems. This bleak image has elicited creative responses, and nanotechnology is a promising approach in obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) on a high-fat-diet rat model of obesity and compared their effect to a traditional anti-obesity drug (orlistat). Methods: The obese rats were treated daily with orlistat and/or SPIONs once per week for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for biochemical assays. Then, the animals were sacrificed to obtain white adipose tissues (WAT) and brown adipose tissues (BAT) for assessment of the expression of thermogenic genes and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN). Results: For the first time, we reported promising ameliorating effects of SPIONs treatments against weight gain, hyperglycemia, adiponectin, leptin, and dyslipidemia in obese rats. At the molecular level, surprisingly, SPIONs treatments markedly corrected the disturbed expression and protein content of inflammatory markers and parameters controlling mitochondrial biogenesis and functions in BAT and WAT. Conclusions: SPIONs have a powerful anti-obesity effect by acting as an inducer of WAT browning and activator of BAT functions. Full article
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Review

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Review
Bioimaging Probes Based on Magneto-Fluorescent Nanoparticles
by and
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(2), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15020686 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Novel nanomaterials are of interest in biology, medicine, and imaging applications. Multimodal fluorescent-magnetic nanoparticles demand special attention because they have the potential to be employed as diagnostic and medication-delivery tools, which, in turn, might make it easier to diagnose and treat cancer, as [...] Read more.
Novel nanomaterials are of interest in biology, medicine, and imaging applications. Multimodal fluorescent-magnetic nanoparticles demand special attention because they have the potential to be employed as diagnostic and medication-delivery tools, which, in turn, might make it easier to diagnose and treat cancer, as well as a wide variety of other disorders. The most recent advancements in the development of magneto-fluorescent nanocomposites and their applications in the biomedical field are the primary focus of this review. We describe the most current developments in synthetic methodologies and methods for the fabrication of magneto-fluorescent nanocomposites. The primary applications of multimodal magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles in biomedicine, including biological imaging, cancer treatment, and drug administration, are covered in this article, and an overview of the future possibilities for these technologies is provided. Full article
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Review
Iron-Based Ceramic Composite Nanomaterials for Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia and Drug Delivery
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(12), 2584; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14122584 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
Because of the unique physicochemical properties of magnetic iron-based nanoparticles, such as superparamagnetism, high saturation magnetization, and high effective surface area, they have been applied in biomedical fields such as diagnostic imaging, disease treatment, and biochemical separation. Iron-based nanoparticles have been used in [...] Read more.
Because of the unique physicochemical properties of magnetic iron-based nanoparticles, such as superparamagnetism, high saturation magnetization, and high effective surface area, they have been applied in biomedical fields such as diagnostic imaging, disease treatment, and biochemical separation. Iron-based nanoparticles have been used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to produce clearer and more detailed images, and they have therapeutic applications in magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). In recent years, researchers have used clay minerals, such as ceramic materials with iron-based nanoparticles, to construct nanocomposite materials with enhanced saturation, magnetization, and thermal effects. Owing to their unique structure and large specific surface area, iron-based nanoparticles can be homogenized by adding different proportions of ceramic minerals before and after modification to enhance saturation magnetization. In this review, we assess the potential to improve the magnetic properties of iron-based nanoparticles and in the preparation of multifunctional composite materials through their combination with ceramic materials. We demonstrate the potential of ferromagnetic enhancement and multifunctional composite materials for MRI diagnosis, drug delivery, MFH therapy, and cellular imaging applications. Full article
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