Host Immune Responses to Intracellular Pathogens

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunological Responses and Immune Defense Mechanisms".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 6027

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Interests: innate immunity; inflammasomes; cytosolic sensors; STING; intracellular infections
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Guest Editor
Instituto de Inmunología, Genética y Metabolismo (INIGEM), CONICET, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Interests: innate immunity; intracellular infections; immunopathology of CNS
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Innate immunity is the first arm of the immune system to be triggered in host defense against intracellular pathogens. Later, the adaptive immune response is activated and plays a major role in protection against infections; however, further studies are required to elucidate this complex circuit by which the host immune system recognizes and eliminates intracellular pathogens. Of particular interest is how intracellular pathogens escape innate immune recognition. These aspects of the host–parasite relationship will be discussed in this Special Issue, and the findings will help to advance the comprehension of host immune responses as well as pathogenesis and contribute to the future development of drugs or vaccines with which to control infections. For this Special Issue of Pathogens, we invite you to submit a review or research article related to host immune responses, inflammation, T and B cell responses, vaccine development, immune evasion, and the pathology as well as pathogenesis of bacterial, viral, fungal, or protozoan intracellular infections. We look forward to your contribution.

Prof. Dr. Sergio Costa Oliveira
Dr. Guillermo Giambartolomei
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • innate immunity
  • adaptive immunity
  • intracellular infections
  • bacteria
  • virus
  • protozoan parasites

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2798 KiB  
Article
Alterations of Plasma Biochemical and Immunological Parameters and Spatiotemporal Expression of TLR2 and TLR9 in Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after CyHV-2 Infection
by Jinwei Gao, Yiwen Hu, Min Xie, Hao Wu, Jiayu Wu, Bingwen Xi, Rui Song and Dongsheng Ou
Pathogens 2023, 12(11), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12111329 - 08 Nov 2023
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Abstract
Cyprinid herpesvirus II (CyHV-2), a highly contagious pathogen of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), causes herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis disease (HVHND) and enormous financial losses. However, there is limited information available regarding the changes in plasma biochemical and immunological parameters and the [...] Read more.
Cyprinid herpesvirus II (CyHV-2), a highly contagious pathogen of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), causes herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis disease (HVHND) and enormous financial losses. However, there is limited information available regarding the changes in plasma biochemical and immunological parameters and the response characteristics of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in gibel carp after CyHV-2 infection. To address this knowledge gap, a sub-lethal CyHV-2 infection was conducted in gibel carp, and the sample was collected daily from 1 to 7 days post infection. The plasma biochemical analyses showed significant decreases in the content of glucose, total cholesterol (TCHO), and total protein (TP), along with marked increases in the level of uric acid, urea, creatinine (CREA), Complement 3 (C3), immunoglobulin D (IgD), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) as well as in the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the infected group. Compared with the control group, the concentration of cortisol, triglyceride (TG), and Complement 4 (C4) had no noticeable alterations in the infected group. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed significant upregulation of TLR2 and TLR9 mRNA expression in the spleen, kidney, brain, liver, intestine, and gill post CyHV-2 infection. Interestingly, a time- and tissue-dependent expression profile has been comparatively observed for TLR2 and TLR9 in the above tissues of gibel carp after CyHV-2 infection, suggesting distinct roles between TLR2 and TLR9 in antiviral response to CyHV-2 infection. Overall, our results demonstrated that CyHV-2 infection led to the disruption of the physiological metabolic process and damage to the liver and kidney, and induced different spatiotemporal expression patterns of TLR2 and TLR9, ultimately stimulating antiviral response via innate and adaptive immune system. These findings may provide a deeper understanding of the host immunity response to CyHV-2 infection and offer novel perspectives for the prevention and treatment and therapeutic drug development against CyHV-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host Immune Responses to Intracellular Pathogens)
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Review

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31 pages, 1716 KiB  
Review
Antiviral Activity of Zinc Finger Antiviral Protein (ZAP) in Different Virus Families
by Kívia Queiroz de Andrade and Claudio Cesar Cirne-Santos
Pathogens 2023, 12(12), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12121461 - 17 Dec 2023
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Abstract
The CCCH-type zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) in humans, specifically isoforms ZAP-L and ZAP-S, is a crucial component of the cell’s intrinsic immune response. ZAP acts as a post-transcriptional RNA restriction factor, exhibiting its activity during infections caused by retroviruses and alphaviruses. Its [...] Read more.
The CCCH-type zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) in humans, specifically isoforms ZAP-L and ZAP-S, is a crucial component of the cell’s intrinsic immune response. ZAP acts as a post-transcriptional RNA restriction factor, exhibiting its activity during infections caused by retroviruses and alphaviruses. Its function involves binding to CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) dinucleotide sequences present in viral RNA, thereby directing it towards degradation. Since vertebrate cells have a suppressed frequency of CpG dinucleotides, ZAP is capable of distinguishing foreign genetic elements. The expression of ZAP leads to the reduction of viral replication and impedes the assembly of new virus particles. However, the specific mechanisms underlying these effects have yet to be fully understood. Several questions regarding ZAP’s mechanism of action remain unanswered, including the impact of CpG dinucleotide quantity on ZAP’s activity, whether this sequence is solely required for the binding between ZAP and viral RNA, and whether the recruitment of cofactors is dependent on cell type, among others. This review aims to integrate the findings from studies that elucidate ZAP’s antiviral role in various viral infections, discuss gaps that need to be filled through further studies, and shed light on new potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host Immune Responses to Intracellular Pathogens)
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15 pages, 1372 KiB  
Review
Immune Responses Potentially Involved in the Gestational Complications of Brucella Infection
by Lucía Zavattieri, Florencia Muñoz González, Mariana C. Ferrero and Pablo C. Baldi
Pathogens 2023, 12(12), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12121450 - 14 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Infection by Brucella species in pregnant animals and humans is associated with an increased risk of abortion, preterm birth, and transmission of the infection to the offspring. The pathogen has a marked tropism for the placenta and the pregnant uterus and has the [...] Read more.
Infection by Brucella species in pregnant animals and humans is associated with an increased risk of abortion, preterm birth, and transmission of the infection to the offspring. The pathogen has a marked tropism for the placenta and the pregnant uterus and has the ability to invade and replicate within cells of the maternal–fetal unit, including trophoblasts and decidual cells. Placentitis is a common finding in infected pregnant animals. Several proinflammatory factors have been found to be increased in both the placenta of Brucella-infected animals and in trophoblasts or decidual cells infected in vitro. As normal pregnancies require an anti-inflammatory placental environment during most of the gestational period, Brucella-induced placentitis is thought to be associated with the obstetric complications of brucellosis. A few studies suggest that the blockade of proinflammatory factors may prevent abortion in these cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host Immune Responses to Intracellular Pathogens)
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17 pages, 2341 KiB  
Review
Current Understanding of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-Mediated Trained Immunity and Its Perspectives for Controlling Intracellular Infections
by Ana Carolina V. S. C. de Araujo, Fábio Mambelli, Rodrigo O. Sanches, Fábio V. Marinho and Sergio C. Oliveira
Pathogens 2023, 12(12), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12121386 - 24 Nov 2023
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Abstract
The bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) is an attenuated bacterium derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis. It is the only licensed vaccine used for preventing severe forms of tuberculosis in children. Besides its specific effects against tuberculosis, BCG administration is also associated with beneficial non-specific [...] Read more.
The bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) is an attenuated bacterium derived from virulent Mycobacterium bovis. It is the only licensed vaccine used for preventing severe forms of tuberculosis in children. Besides its specific effects against tuberculosis, BCG administration is also associated with beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) following heterologous stimuli in humans and mice. The NSEs from BCG could be related to both adaptive and innate immune responses. The latter is also known as trained immunity (TI), a recently described biological feature of innate cells that enables functional improvement based on metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming. Currently, the mechanisms related to BCG-mediated TI are the focus of intense research, but many gaps are still in need of elucidation. This review discusses the present understanding of TI induced by BCG, exploring signaling pathways that are crucial to a trained phenotype in hematopoietic stem cells and monocytes/macrophages lineage. It focuses on BCG-mediated TI mechanisms, including the metabolic-epigenetic axis and the inflammasome pathway in these cells against intracellular pathogens. Moreover, this study explores the TI in different immune cell types, its ability to protect against various intracellular infections, and the integration of trained innate memory with adaptive memory to shape next-generation vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host Immune Responses to Intracellular Pathogens)
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