Special Issue "Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections in the Immunocompromised Host"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunological Responses and Immune Defense Mechanisms".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 April 2024 | Viewed by 974

Special Issue Editors

1. Senior Researcher, Centre of Excellence for Health, Immunity and Infections (CHIP), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
2. Consultant in Infectious Diseases, Department of Respiratory Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Interests: tuberculosis; HIV; non-tuberculosis mycobacteria; respiratory infections
1. Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
2. Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital – Rigshospitalet, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Interests: HIV infection (with a special focus on Eastern Europe); HIV treatment - effect and adverse events; tuberculosis and HIV; opportunistic infections and HIV
1. I. Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
2. German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Hamburg-Lübeck-Borstel-Riems, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
Interests: tuberculosis; M. tuberculosis; nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM); respiratory infections; epidemiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The number of immunocompromised patients is steadily increasing due to novel treatment strategies for cancer and autoimmune diseases, as well as prolonged survival in solid and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. However, those patients are vulnerable to a wide range of infections. These include tuberculosis (TB) and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections, which are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. TB and NTM infections remain major causes of death among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), particularly in regions with a high burden of TB. The increasing importance of these infections in immunocompromised hosts is accompanied by a need for a deeper understanding of the respective epidemiology, clinical spectrum, and effective prevention and treatment strategies.

We hope that this Special Issue may act as an appropriate platform to enrich our understanding of tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in the immunocompromised host and make a positive contribution to tackling current challenges associated with these infections. We are welcoming all types of articles for publication, including short reports, original research articles and reviews, and very much look forward to receiving contributions for this Special Issue of Pathogens.

Dr. Daria Podlekareva
Prof. Dr. Ole Kirk
Dr. Thomas Theo Brehm
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • tuberculosis (TB)
  • nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)
  • Mycobacterium spp.
  • immunocompromised host
  • immunosuppression
  • HIV

Published Papers (1 paper)

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13 pages, 973 KiB  
Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Associated Risk Factors among People Living with HIV and HIV-Uninfected Individuals in Lithuania
Pathogens 2023, 12(8), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12080990 - 28 Jul 2023
Viewed by 626
Background: People living with HIV (PLHIV) with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are at increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation compared to the HIV-negative population. Lithuania belongs to the 18 high-priority TB countries in the European region. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Background: People living with HIV (PLHIV) with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are at increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation compared to the HIV-negative population. Lithuania belongs to the 18 high-priority TB countries in the European region. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of LTBI and LTBI-related risk factors between PLHIV and HIV-uninfected populations. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three Lithuanian Infectious Diseases centres from August 2018 to May 2022 using the interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) and tuberculin skin test (TST) in Vilnius, and IGRA only in Siauliai and Klaipeda. Cohen’s kappa was used to assess IGRA and TST agreement. A structured questionnaire was completed by the study participants. LTBI-related risk factors were identified using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results: In total, 391 PLHIV and 443 HIV-uninfected individuals enrolled, with a median age of 41 (IQR 36–48) and 43 (IQR 36–50), consisting of 69.8% and 65.5% male, respectively. The prevalence of LTBI defined by positive IGRA and/or TST among PLHIV was higher compared to that in the HIV-uninfected population (20.5% vs. 15.3%; OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.02–2.03; p = 0.04). The concordance between IGRA and TST was fair: kappa = 0.23 (95% CI 0.09–0.34). In multivariable analyses, association with injecting drug use (IDU) (ORa 2.25, 95% CI 1.27–3.99, p = 0.01) and imprisonment (ORa 1.99, 95% CI 1.13–3.52, p = 0.02) in all participants, IDU (ORa 2.37, 95% CI 1.09–5.15; p = 0.029) in PLHIV and a history of contact with an active TB patient (ORa 3.33, 95% CI 1.53–7.24; p = 0.002) in HIV-uninfected individuals were significant associations evidenced by LTBI. Conclusions: The prevalence of LTBI among PLHIV in Lithuania is higher compared to that in the HIV-uninfected population and the European average. The association with IDU in PLHIV emphasizes the need for integrated HIV, TB and substance abuse treatment to provide patient-centred care. Full article
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