Carbon Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Applications

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "2D and Carbon Nanomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 August 2024 | Viewed by 6932

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Siegen, 57076 Siegen, Germany
Interests: thin films technology; surface- and interface-phenomena; nano-materials; thin film applications
Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
Interests: diamond; thin film; chemical vapor deposition; electrochemistry; nanomechanics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rapid development of carbon science and technology has provided new opportunities for electrochemical applications. Recently, electrochemistry has been revealed to not only be closely related to inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, analytical chemistry and chemical engineering, but also to play an important role in environmental science, energy science, biomedicine, information technology, modern industry and other fields. In this context, electrochemical science and technology have encountered unprecedented opportunities as well as challenges. The proposed Special Issue, entitled “Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Applications”, will focus on the state-of-the-art design, synthesis and characterization of various carbon electrode materials, as well as their electrochemical applications in the fields of electroanalysis, electrocatalyst, electrosynthesis, energy conversion, energy storage, and environment protection. The leading research groups in these fields will be invited to contribute to this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Xin Jiang
Dr. Nan Huang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • carbon materials
  • electrochemistry
  • electroanalysis
  • electrocatalyst
  • electrosynthesis
  • energy conversion
  • energy storage
  • environment protection

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 3207 KiB  
Article
A Highly Active Porous Mo2C-Mo2N Heterostructure on Carbon Nanowalls/Diamond for a High-Current Hydrogen Evolution Reaction
by Zhaofeng Zhai, Chuyan Zhang, Bin Chen, Lusheng Liu, Haozhe Song, Bing Yang, Ziwen Zheng, Junyao Li, Xin Jiang and Nan Huang
Nanomaterials 2024, 14(3), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano14030243 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 3330
Abstract
Developing non-precious metal-based electrocatalysts operating in high-current densities is highly demanded for the industry-level electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Here, we report the facile preparation of binder-free Mo2C-Mo2N heterostructures on carbon nanowalls/diamond (CNWs/D) via ultrasonic soaking followed by an [...] Read more.
Developing non-precious metal-based electrocatalysts operating in high-current densities is highly demanded for the industry-level electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Here, we report the facile preparation of binder-free Mo2C-Mo2N heterostructures on carbon nanowalls/diamond (CNWs/D) via ultrasonic soaking followed by an annealing treatment. The experimental investigations and density functional theory calculations reveal the downshift of the d-band center caused by the heterojunction between Mo2C/Mo2N triggering highly active interfacial sites with a nearly zero ∆GH* value. Furthermore, the 3D-networked CNWs/D, as the current collector, features high electrical conductivity and large surface area, greatly boosting the electron transfer rate of HER occurring on the interfacial sites of Mo2C-Mo2N. Consequently, the self-supporting Mo2C-Mo2N@CNWs/D exhibits significantly low overpotentials of 137.8 and 194.4 mV at high current densities of 500 and 1000 mA/cm2, respectively, in an alkaline solution, which far surpass the benchmark Pt/C (228.5 and 359.3 mV) and are superior to most transition-metal-based materials. This work presents a cost-effective and high-efficiency non-precious metal-based electrocatalyst candidate for the electrochemical hydrogen production industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Applications)
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13 pages, 2989 KiB  
Article
A Diamond/Graphene/Diamond Electrode for Waste Water Treatment
by Yibao Wang, Zhigang Gai, Fengxiang Guo, Mei Zhang, Lili Zhang, Guangsen Xia, Xu Chai, Ying Ren, Xueyu Zhang and Xin Jiang
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(23), 3043; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13233043 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 953
Abstract
Boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin film electrodes have great application potential in water treatment. However, the high electrode energy consumption due to high resistance directly limits the application range of existing BDD electrodes. In this paper, the BDD/graphene/BDD (DGD) sandwich structure electrode was prepared, [...] Read more.
Boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin film electrodes have great application potential in water treatment. However, the high electrode energy consumption due to high resistance directly limits the application range of existing BDD electrodes. In this paper, the BDD/graphene/BDD (DGD) sandwich structure electrode was prepared, which effectively improved the conductivity of the electrode. Meanwhile, the sandwich electrode can effectively avoid the degradation of electrode performance caused by the large amount of non-diamond carbon introduced by heavy doping, such as the reduction of the electrochemical window and the decrease of physical and chemical stability. The microstructure and composition of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Then, the degradation performance of citric acid (CA), catechol, and tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) by DGD electrodes was systematically studied by total organic carbon (TOC) and Energy consumption per unit TOC removal (ECTOC). Compared with the single BDD electrode, the new DGD electrode improves the mobility of the electrode and reduces the mass transfer resistance by 1/3, showing better water treatment performance. In the process of dealing with Citric acid, the step current of the DGD electrode was 1.35 times that of the BDD electrode, and the energy utilization ratio of the DGD electrode was 2.4 times that of the BDD electrode. The energy consumption per unit TOC removal (ECTOC) of the DGD electrode was lower than that of BDD, especially Catechol, which was reduced to 66.9% of BDD. The DGD sandwich electrode, as a new electrode material, has good electrochemical degradation performance and can be used for high-efficiency electrocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Applications)
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12 pages, 2852 KiB  
Article
A Nanograss Boron and Nitrogen Co-Doped Diamond Sensor Produced via High-Temperature Annealing for the Detection of Cadmium Ions
by Xiaoxi Yuan, Yaqi Liang, Mingchao Yang, Shaoheng Cheng, Nan Gao, Yongfu Zhu and Hongdong Li
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(22), 2955; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13222955 - 15 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 712
Abstract
The high-performance determination of heavy metal ions (Cd2+) in water sources is significant for the protection of public health and safety. We have developed a novel sensor of nanograss boron and nitrogen co-doped diamond (NGBND) to detect Cd2+ using a [...] Read more.
The high-performance determination of heavy metal ions (Cd2+) in water sources is significant for the protection of public health and safety. We have developed a novel sensor of nanograss boron and nitrogen co-doped diamond (NGBND) to detect Cd2+ using a simple method without any masks or reactive ion etching. The NGBND electrode is constructed based on the co-doped diamond growth mode and the removal of the non-diamond carbon (NDC) from the NGBND/NDC composite. Both the enlarged surface area and enhanced electrochemical performance of the NGBND film are achievable. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) were used to characterize the NGBND electrodes. Furthermore, we used a finite element numerical method to research the current density near the tip of NGBND. The NGBND sensor exhibits significant advantages for detecting trace Cd2+ via DPASV. A broad linear range of 1 to 100 μg L−1 with a low detection limit of 0.28 μg L−1 was achieved. The successful application of this Cd2+ sensor indicates considerable promise for the sensitive detection of heavy metal ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Applications)
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15 pages, 4223 KiB  
Article
Hierarchical Nickel Cobalt Phosphide @ Carbon Nanofibers Composite Microspheres: Ultrahigh Energy Densities of Electrodes for Supercapacitors
by Jinqiao Zhang, Meiling Cen, Tao Wei, Qianyun Wang and Jing Xu
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(22), 2927; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13222927 - 10 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 763
Abstract
Supercapacitors (SCs) are widely used in energy storage devices due to their superior power density and long cycle lifetime. However, the limited energy densities of SCs hinder their industrial application to a great extent. In this study, we present a new combination of [...] Read more.
Supercapacitors (SCs) are widely used in energy storage devices due to their superior power density and long cycle lifetime. However, the limited energy densities of SCs hinder their industrial application to a great extent. In this study, we present a new combination of metallic phosphide–carbon composites, synthesized by directly carbonizing (Ni1−xCox)5TiO7 nanowires via thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technology. The new method uses one-dimensional (1D) (Ni1−xCox)TiO7 nanowires as precursors and supporters for the in situ growth of intertwined porous CNF microspheres. These 1D nanowires undergo microstructure transformation, resulting in the formation of CoNiP nanoparticles, which act as excellent interconnected catalytic nanoparticles for the growth of porous 3D CNF microspheres. Benefiting from the synergistic effect of a unique 1D/3D structure, the agglomeration of nanoparticles can effectively be prevented. The resulting CNF microspheres exhibit an interconnected conductive matrix and provide a large specific surface area with abundant ion/charge transport channels. Consequently, at a scanning rate of 10 mV s−1, its specific capacitance in 1.0 M Na2SO4 + 0.05 M Fe(CN)63−/4− aqueous solution is as high as 311.7 mF cm−2. Furthermore, the CoNiP@CNFs composite film-based symmetrical SCs show an ultrahigh energy density of 20.08 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 7.20 kW kg−1, along with outstanding cycling stability, with 87.2% capacity retention after 10,000 cycles in soluble redox electrolytes. This work provides a new strategy for designing and applying high-performance binary transition metal phosphide/carbon composites for next-generation energy storage devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Applications)
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11 pages, 1777 KiB  
Article
An Aqueous Process for Preparing Flexible Transparent Electrodes Using Non-Oxidized Graphene/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Solution
by Min Jae Oh, Gi-Cheol Son, Minkook Kim, Junyoung Jeon, Yong Hyun Kim and Myungwoo Son
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(15), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13152249 - 03 Aug 2023
Viewed by 773
Abstract
In this study, we prepared flexible and transparent hybrid electrodes based on an aqueous solution of non-oxidized graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes. We used a simple halogen intercalation method to obtain high-quality graphene flakes without a redox process and prepared hybrid films using [...] Read more.
In this study, we prepared flexible and transparent hybrid electrodes based on an aqueous solution of non-oxidized graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes. We used a simple halogen intercalation method to obtain high-quality graphene flakes without a redox process and prepared hybrid films using aqueous solutions of graphene, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant. The hybrid films showed excellent electrode properties, such as an optical transmittance of ≥90%, a sheet resistance of ~3.5 kΩ/sq., a flexibility of up to ε = 3.6% ((R) = 1.4 mm), and a high mechanical stability, even after 103 bending cycles at ε = 2.0% ((R) = 2.5 mm). Using the hybrid electrodes, thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated, which exhibited an electron mobility of ~6.7 cm2 V−1 s−1, a current on-off ratio of ~1.04 × 107, and a subthreshold voltage of ~0.122 V/decade. These electrical properties are comparable with those of TFTs fabricated using Al electrodes. This suggests the possibility of customizing flexible transparent electrodes within a carbon nanomaterial system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Applications)
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