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Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications II

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2019) | Viewed by 34092

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
EDYTEM, University Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, 73000 Chambéry, France
Interests: green chemistry; sonochemistry; sonophotochemistry; catalysis; organic chemistry; eco-extraction; ultrasound; ionic liquids; supercritical fluids; microwaves; oxidation reactions; biomass conversion; cellulose processing; lignin valorization; waste valorization; sustainable chemical processes, circular economy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sonochemistry (i.e., the use of power ultrasound in chemistry) has huge potential for innovation in eco-friendly and eco-efficient chemistry. After a first Special Issue published in 2016 (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/molecules/special_issues/sonochemistry_green), I have the pleasure to announce a second edition of the Special Issue in Molecules called “Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications II” in order to highlight the significant progresses in this field. All areas of chemistry can contribute, such as organic chemistry and catalysis, preparation of materials, polymer chemistry, biomass valorisation, extraction, etc. Green chemistry is mainly based on basic concepts such as: (i) prevention, (ii) better use of the raw material, (iii) better waste management, (iv) energy savings, and (v) use of solvent compatible with the environment. When the experimental conditions are optimized, the use of power ultrasound is, in many cases, in favour of the twelve principles of green chemistry.

This Special Issue welcomes the submission of papers based on original research that describes sonochemical applications with a green chemistry approach. Particular attention to demonstrating this aspect in the submitted manuscript is requested, related to specific points or to the overall process. Submissions considering the 12 principles of green engineering, with notions of scale-up, energy consumption, and equipment design will also be appreciated. New combinations of power ultrasound with ionic liquids, microwave irradiation, enzymes, electrochemistry, or other technologies will be also considered.

As a conclusion, this Special Issue aims at showing that ultrasound is not just a simple mixing tool, but has a real role to play in the development of sustainable, green, and eco-efficient processes, to progress in innovations and the most exciting results.

Dr. Gregory Chatel
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sonochemistry
  • power ultrasound
  • ultrasonic applications
  • green chemistry
  • eco-efficiency
  • clean processes
  • synthesis
  • catalysis
  • material preparation
  • polymers
  • biomass conversion
  • extraction
  • mechanisms
  • scale-up
  • green metrics

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 2652 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ultrasound on the Green Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol to Benzaldehyde
by Marion L. Chevallier, Sarah Dessolin, Fanny Serres, Lucile Bruyas and Gregory Chatel
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4157; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224157 - 16 Nov 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4477
Abstract
Oxidation of alcohols plays an important role in industrial chemistry. Novel green techniques, such as sonochemistry, could be economically interesting by improving industrial synthesis yield. In this paper, we studied the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol as a model of aromatic alcohol compound [...] Read more.
Oxidation of alcohols plays an important role in industrial chemistry. Novel green techniques, such as sonochemistry, could be economically interesting by improving industrial synthesis yield. In this paper, we studied the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol as a model of aromatic alcohol compound under various experimental parameters such as substrate concentration, oxidant nature and concentration, catalyst nature and concentration, temperature, pH, reaction duration, and ultrasound frequency. The influence of each parameter was studied with and without ultrasound to identify the individual sonochemical effect on the transformation. Our main finding was an increase in the yield and selectivity for benzaldehyde under ultrasonic conditions. Hydrogen peroxide and iron sulfate were used as green oxidant and catalyst. Coupled with ultrasound, these conditions increased the benzaldehyde yield by +45% compared to silent conditions. Investigation concerning the transformation mechanism revealed the involvement of radical species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications II)
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17 pages, 2176 KiB  
Article
Antidiabetic and Cosmeceutical Potential of Common Barbery (Berberis vulgaris L.) Root Bark Extracts Obtained by Optimization of ‘Green’ Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction
by Marina Dulić, Petar Ciganović, Lovorka Vujić and Marijana Zovko Končić
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3613; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193613 - 08 Oct 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3943
Abstract
Berberis vulgaris is rich in berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, with antidiabetic activity, often used topically for skin-related problems. The aim of this work was to develop a “green” method for berberine extraction using mixtures of water with glycerol, a non-toxic, environmentally-friendly solvent. Response [...] Read more.
Berberis vulgaris is rich in berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, with antidiabetic activity, often used topically for skin-related problems. The aim of this work was to develop a “green” method for berberine extraction using mixtures of water with glycerol, a non-toxic, environmentally-friendly solvent. Response surface methodology based on Box–Behnken design was used to optimize the experimental conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of berberine and anti-radical components from B. vulgaris root bark. The independent variables were temperature (X1), glycerol concentration (X2), and ultrasound power (X3), while the responses were berberine concentration and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extracts (RSA IC50). The response values of the extracts prepared at optimum conditions were (response, X1, X2, X3): berberine yield (145.5 μg/mL; 80 °C, 50%, 144 W) and RSA IC50 (58.88 μL/mL; 80 °C, 30%, 720 W). The observed values deviated from the predicted values by −3.45% and 6.42% for berberine and RSA IC50, respectively, thus indicating the validity of the selected models. The prepared extracts demonstrated antioxidant, anti-melanogenic, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well excellent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity. The displayed biological properties and lack of glycerol toxicity makes the prepared extracts suitable for direct inclusion into antidiabetic and dermatologic food supplements and topical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications II)
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15 pages, 2702 KiB  
Article
Efficient Homogenization-Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Anthocyanins and Flavonols from Bog Bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) Marc with Carnosic Acid as an Antioxidant Additive
by Yusong Jin, Yunhui Zhang, Dongmei Liu, Dewen Liu, Chunying Zhang, Huijuan Qi, Huiyan Gu, Lei Yang and Zhiqiang Zhou
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2537; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142537 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2717
Abstract
To explore the optimum conditions for the extraction of anthocyanins and flavonols from bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) marc on a single-factor experimental basis, a response surface methodology was adopted for this intensive study. The extraction procedure was carried out in a [...] Read more.
To explore the optimum conditions for the extraction of anthocyanins and flavonols from bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) marc on a single-factor experimental basis, a response surface methodology was adopted for this intensive study. The extraction procedure was carried out in a Waring blender and followed an ultrasonic bath, and the natural antioxidant carnosic acid was added to inhibit oxidation. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: a volume fraction of ethanol of 70%, an antioxidant content of 0.02% (the mass of sample) carnosic acid, a liquid–solid ratio of 16 mL/g, a homogenization time of 3 min, a reaction temperature of 55 °C, an ultrasound irradiation frequency of 80 kHz, an ultrasound irradiation power of 200 W, and an ultrasound irradiation time of 40 min. Satisfactory yields of anthocyanins (13.95 ± 0.37 mg/g) and flavonols (3.51 ± 0.16 mg/g) were obtained. The experimental results showed that the carnosic acid played an effective antioxidant role in the extraction process of anthocyanins and flavonols with a green and safety guarantee. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications II)
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18 pages, 4775 KiB  
Article
Sonochemically-Promoted Preparation of Silica-Anchored Cyclodextrin Derivatives for Efficient Copper Catalysis
by Katia Martina, Federica Calsolaro, Alessio Zuliani, Gloria Berlier, Fernando Chávez-Rivas, Maria Jesus Moran, Rafael Luque and Giancarlo Cravotto
Molecules 2019, 24(13), 2490; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132490 - 07 Jul 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3610
Abstract
Silica-supported metallic species have emerged as valuable green-chemistry catalysts because their high efficiency enables a wide range of applications, even at industrial scales. As a consequence, the preparation of these systems needs to be finely controlled in order to achieve the desired activity. [...] Read more.
Silica-supported metallic species have emerged as valuable green-chemistry catalysts because their high efficiency enables a wide range of applications, even at industrial scales. As a consequence, the preparation of these systems needs to be finely controlled in order to achieve the desired activity. The present work presents a detailed investigation of an ultrasound-promoted synthetic protocol for the grafting of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) onto silica. Truly, ultrasound irradiation has emerged as a fast technique for promoting efficient derivatization of a silica surface with organic moieties at low temperature. Three different β-CD silica-grafted derivatives have been obtained, and the ability of β-CD to direct and bind Cu when CD is bonded to silica has been studied. A detailed characterization has been performed using TGA, phenolphthalein titration, FT-IR, diffuse reflectance (DR), DR UV-Vis, as well as the inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) of the β-CD silica-grafted systems and the relative Cu-supported catalysts. Spectroscopic characterization monitored the different steps of the reaction, highlighting qualitative differences in the properties of amino-derivatized precursors and final products. In order to ensure that the Cu-β-CD silica catalyst is efficient and robust, its applicability in Cu(II)-catalyzed alkyne azide reactions in the absence of a reducing agent has been explored. The presence of β-CD and an amino spacer has been shown to be crucial for the reactivity of Cu(II), when supported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications II)
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9 pages, 1468 KiB  
Article
Ultrasound-Assisted Heterogeneous Synthesis of Bio-Based Oligo-Isosorbide Glycidyl Ethers: Towards Greener Epoxy Precursors
by Corentin Musa, Pierre-Edouard Danjou, Antoine Pauwels, Francine Cazier-Dennin and François Delattre
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091643 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4075
Abstract
The substitution of toxic precursors such as bisphenol A by renewable and safer molecules has become a major challenge. To overcome this challenge, the 12 principles of green chemistry should be taken into account in the development of future sustainable chemicals and processes. [...] Read more.
The substitution of toxic precursors such as bisphenol A by renewable and safer molecules has become a major challenge. To overcome this challenge, the 12 principles of green chemistry should be taken into account in the development of future sustainable chemicals and processes. In this context, this paper reports the highly efficient synthesis of oligo-isosorbide glycidyl ethers from bio-based starting materials by a rapid one-pot heterogeneous ultrasound-assisted synthesis. It was demonstrated that the use of high-power ultrasound in solvent-free conditions with sodium hydroxide microbeads led for the first time to a fully epoxidated prepolymer with excellent epoxy equivalent weight (EEW). The structure of the epoxy precursor was characterized by FT-IR, NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The efficiency of the ultrasound-assisted synthesis was attributed to the physical effects caused by micro-jets on the surface of the solid sodium hydroxide microspheres following the asymmetrical collapse of cavitation bubbles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications II)
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14 pages, 2159 KiB  
Article
Sonochemical Degradation of Benzothiophene (BT) in Deionized Water, Natural Water and Sea Water
by Khadijah M. Al-Zaydi, Christian Petrier, Sameera M. M. Mousally, Sana T. Arab and Moamen S. Refat
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020257 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2770
Abstract
This paper deals with the sonochemical water treatment of polycyclic aromatic sulfur hydrocarbons (PASHs), one of the most common impurities found in waste water coming from petroleum industry. The best fit of the experimental data appears to be the kinetic parameters determined using [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the sonochemical water treatment of polycyclic aromatic sulfur hydrocarbons (PASHs), one of the most common impurities found in waste water coming from petroleum industry. The best fit of the experimental data appears to be the kinetic parameters determined using the Michaelis-Mentonmodel in the concentrations range of the study. For the initial increase in the degradation rates, it is simply considered that the more the bulk concentration increases, the more the concentration in the interfacial region increases. This will be explained by Michaelis-Menton kinetics. The influence of organic compounds in the water matrix as a mixture with Benzothiophene (BT) was also evaluated. The results indicated that BT degradation is unaffected by the presence of bisphenol A (BPA). Finally, the results indicated that ultrasonic action is involved in oxidation rather than pyrolitic processing in the BT sonochemical degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications II)
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Review

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18 pages, 3099 KiB  
Review
Hybrid Advanced Oxidation Processes Involving Ultrasound: An Overview
by Jagannathan Madhavan, Jayaraman Theerthagiri, Dhandapani Balaji, Salla Sunitha, Myong Yong Choi and Muthupandian Ashokkumar
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3341; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183341 - 13 Sep 2019
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 5674
Abstract
Sonochemical oxidation of organic pollutants in an aqueous environment is considered to be a green process. This mode of degradation of organic pollutants in an aqueous environment is considered to render reputable outcomes in terms of minimal chemical utilization and no need of [...] Read more.
Sonochemical oxidation of organic pollutants in an aqueous environment is considered to be a green process. This mode of degradation of organic pollutants in an aqueous environment is considered to render reputable outcomes in terms of minimal chemical utilization and no need of extreme physical conditions. Indiscriminate discharge of toxic organic pollutants in an aqueous environment by anthropogenic activities has posed major health implications for both human and aquatic lives. Hence, numerous research endeavours are in progress to improve the efficiency of degradation and mineralization of organic contaminants. Being an extensively used advanced oxidation process, ultrasonic irradiation can be utilized for complete mineralization of persistent organic pollutants by coupling/integrating it with homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalytic processes. In this regard, scientists have reported on sonophotocatalysis as an effective strategy towards the degradation of many toxic environmental pollutants. The combined effect of sonolysis and photocatalysis has been proved to enhance the production of high reactive-free radicals in aqueous medium which aid in the complete mineralization of organic pollutants. In this manuscript, we provide an overview on the ultrasound-based hybrid technologies for the degradation of organic pollutants in an aqueous environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications II)
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22 pages, 4424 KiB  
Review
Designing Microflowreactors for Photocatalysis Using Sonochemistry: A Systematic Review Article
by Swaraj Rashmi Pradhan, Ramón Fernando Colmenares-Quintero and Juan Carlos Colmenares Quintero
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3315; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183315 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 6254
Abstract
Use of sonication for designing and fabricating reactors, especially the deposition of catalysts inside a microreactor, is a modern approach. There are many reports that prove that a microreactor is a better setup compared with batch reactors for carrying out catalytic reactions. Microreactors [...] Read more.
Use of sonication for designing and fabricating reactors, especially the deposition of catalysts inside a microreactor, is a modern approach. There are many reports that prove that a microreactor is a better setup compared with batch reactors for carrying out catalytic reactions. Microreactors have better energy efficiency, reaction rate, safety, a much finer degree of process control, better molecular diffusion, and heat-transfer properties compared with the conventional batch reactor. The use of microreactors for photocatalytic reactions is also being considered to be the appropriate reactor configuration because of its improved irradiation profile, better light penetration through the entire reactor depth, and higher spatial illumination homogeneity. Ultrasound has been used efficiently for the synthesis of materials, degradation of organic compounds, and fuel production, among other applications. The recent increase in energy demands, as well as the stringent environmental stress due to pollution, have resulted in the need to develop green chemistry-based processes to generate and remove contaminants in a more environmentally friendly and cost-effective manner. It is possible to carry out the synthesis and deposition of catalysts inside the reactor using the ultrasound-promoted method in the microfluidic system. In addition, the synergistic effect generated by photocatalysis and sonochemistry in a microreactor can be used for the production of different chemicals, which have high value in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The current review highlights the use of both photocatalysis and sonochemistry for developing microreactors and their applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications II)
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