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Food-Derived Nanomaterials: Preparations, Characterizations, and Applications

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020) | Viewed by 79068

Special Issue Editor

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Interests: biomaterials; hydrogels; nanoparticles; encapsulation; controlled delivery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up numerous possibilities for the food industry, including (but not limited to) improving food safety, extending shelf life, improving texture and taste, and enhancing bioavailability of poorly-absorbed nutrients. However, exploitation of synthetic nanomaterials in food is often associated with major safety concern for potential long-term and latent side effects on human health and environment. Therefore, over the last decade, exhaustive efforts have been made to discover food-derived nanomaterials that can be explored in developing nanoscale systems with potential applications in the food industry. By unraveling the physical and chemical properties of food ingredients, scientists have deciphered many nanostructures that are either naturally present in foods or can be fabricated using natural biomaterials under facile conditions. In particular, polysaccharides, proteins and lipids are the three major food biomaterials, and with the advancement of the preparation and characterization of their nanostructures, various novel nanoscale systems have been continuously developed for food applications.

In this Special Issue, we invite investigators to contribute short communications, full research articles, and timely reviews that are related to the preparations, characterizations, and applications of food-derived nanomaterials. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Discovery of novel nanostructures in food biomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanocrystals, etc.
  • Characterization of molecular interactions among food biomaterials at the dimension of nanoscale
  • Innovative techniques to fabricate nanoscale systems for food-related applications, such as encapsulation and oral delivery
  • Development of nanocomposites from a combination of food-derived biomaterials and inorganic nanomaterials, including metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, clay nanosheets, and others.
  • In vitro and in vivo evaluations of nanoscale systems prepared with food-derived nanomaterial

Dr. Yangchao Luo
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Food nanotechnology
  • Polysaccharide
  • Protein
  • Lipid
  • Nanoparticles
  • Nanoemulsions
  • Micelles
  • Nanofibers
  • Nanocomposites
  • Self-assembly
  • Colloids
  • Encapsulation
  • Delivery
  • Bioavailability
  • Food safety
  • Food packaging
  • Shelf-life extension

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 4815 KiB  
Article
Toxicity Assessment of SiO2 and TiO2 in Normal Colon Cells, In Vivo and in Human Colon Organoids
by Sung Bum Park, Won Hoon Jung, Ki Young Kim and Byumseok Koh
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3594; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163594 - 7 Aug 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3366
Abstract
We conducted systemic assessments on the toxicity of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using different forms of normal colon cells (CCD-18Co), in vivo and in human colon organoids. The in vivo acute oral toxicity data showed [...] Read more.
We conducted systemic assessments on the toxicity of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using different forms of normal colon cells (CCD-18Co), in vivo and in human colon organoids. The in vivo acute oral toxicity data showed that the LD50 values are greater than 2000 mg/kg for both the SiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles; however, the SiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles induced cytotoxicity in two-dimensional CCD-18Co cells and three-dimensional CCD-18Co spheroids and human colon organoids, with IC50 values of 0.6, 0.8 and 0.3 mM for SiO2 and 2.5, 1.1 and 12.5 mM for TiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. The data suggest that, when SiO2 and TiO2 are in nanoparticle form, cytotoxicity is induced; thus, care should be taken with these materials. Full article
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16 pages, 2681 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nano-SiOx/Chitosan Complex Coating on the Physicochemical Characteristics and Preservation Performance of Green Tomato
by Yingjie Zhu, Dong Li, Tarun Belwal, Li Li, Hangjun Chen, Tingqiao Xu and Zisheng Luo
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4552; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244552 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 3684
Abstract
A novel nano-silicon oxides (SiOx)/chitosan complex film was prepared using ultrasonic assistant in the process of dissolving chitosan and silicon oxides (SiOx), and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Its effect on quality preservation of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Zheza 205) was [...] Read more.
A novel nano-silicon oxides (SiOx)/chitosan complex film was prepared using ultrasonic assistant in the process of dissolving chitosan and silicon oxides (SiOx), and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Its effect on quality preservation of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Zheza 205) was investigated under ambient temperature. The results revealed that the nano-SiOx/chitosan complex (NSCC) film retarded weight loss and softness, delayed the titratable acids and total soluble solids loss, and thus markedly extended shelf life of green tomatoes. The antimicrobial activity of tomatoes coated with NSCC film was also recorded higher compared to chitosan (Ch) films and control. In addition, the NSCC film-coated tomatoes prevent the increase of malondialdehyde content and total polyphenol content. Moreover, the peroxidase activity, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, and polyphenoloxidase activity of tomatoes coated with NSCC film were found lower than that in other treatments. These data indicated that the beneficial effects of nano-SiOx/chitosan complex coating on postharvest quality were possibly associated with the lower rate of O2/CO2 transmission coefficient, limiting food-borne pathogenic bacterial growth, higher antioxidant activities, and also higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and anti-browning activities of related enzymes in the tomatoes. Further, the results of the study could be used to successfully develop a novel nano-SiOx/chitosan complex film for improving the postharvested quality of tomatoes and thus effectively utilized by the food packaging industry. Full article
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15 pages, 3630 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Characterisation of Polyphenol-HP-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex that Protects Lamb Tripe Protein against Oxidation
by Wenhui Li, Lidan Ran, Fei Liu, Ran Hou, Wei Zhao, Yingbiao Li, Chunyan Wang and Juan Dong
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4487; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244487 - 7 Dec 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3818
Abstract
Grape seed extract (GSE) displays strong antioxidant activity, but its instability creates barriers to its applications. Herein, three HP-β-CD/GSE inclusion complexes with host–guest ratios of 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2 were successfully prepared by co-precipitation method to improve stability. Successful embedding of GSE in [...] Read more.
Grape seed extract (GSE) displays strong antioxidant activity, but its instability creates barriers to its applications. Herein, three HP-β-CD/GSE inclusion complexes with host–guest ratios of 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2 were successfully prepared by co-precipitation method to improve stability. Successful embedding of GSE in the HP-β-CD cavity was confirmed by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The Autodock Tools 1.5.6 was used to simulate the three-dimensional supramolecular structure of the inclusion complex of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and grape seed extract (HP-β-CD/GSE) by molecular docking. The MALDI-TOF-MS technology and chemical database Pubchem, and structural database PDB were combined to reconstitute the three-dimensional structure of target protein. The binding mode of the HP-β-CD/GSE inclusion complex to target protein was studied at the molecular level, and the antioxidant ability of the resulting HP-β-CD/GSE inclusion complexes was investigated by measuring 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. The effects of HP-β-CD/GSE on myofibrillar protein from lamb tripe were also investigated under oxidative conditions. The positions and interactions of the binding sites of HP-β-CD/GSE inclusion complexes and target protein receptors were simulated by molecular docking. The results showed that HP-β-CD/GSE inclusion complexes were successfully prepared, optimally at a molar ratio of 1:2. At low (5 μmol/g) to medium (105 μmol/g) concentrations, HP-β-CD/GSE inclusion complexes decreased the carbonyl content, hydrophobicity, and protein aggregation of myofibrillar protein from lamb tripe, and increased the sulphydryl content. Furthermore, high concentration (155 μmol/g) of HP-β-CD/GSE inclusion complexes promoted protein oxidation. Full article
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14 pages, 3880 KiB  
Article
Oxidized Dextran as a Macromolecular Crosslinker Stabilizes the Zein/Caseinate Nanocomplex for the Potential Oral Delivery of Curcumin
by Nikolas J. Rodriguez, Qiaobin Hu and Yangchao Luo
Molecules 2019, 24(22), 4061; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24224061 - 9 Nov 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4244
Abstract
In this study, we prepared complex nanoparticles from a combination of two proteins and one polysaccharide for the encapsulation and delivery of lipophilic bioactive compounds. Two proteins, zein and sodium caseinate (NaCas), provided a hydrophobic core for the encapsulation of a lipophilic compound [...] Read more.
In this study, we prepared complex nanoparticles from a combination of two proteins and one polysaccharide for the encapsulation and delivery of lipophilic bioactive compounds. Two proteins, zein and sodium caseinate (NaCas), provided a hydrophobic core for the encapsulation of a lipophilic compound (curcumin), while a polysaccharide dialdehyde, oxidized dextran, served as the coating material and macromolecular crosslinker to create covalent linkage with two proteins for stabilization purposes. The heating time and crosslinker concentration were optimized to achieve the desirable colloidal stability in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. Our results suggested that heating time played a more important role than the concentration of oxidized dextran. The optimized complex nanoparticles had a particle size of around 150 nm with a PDI < 0.1 and negative surface charge. Morphological observation by transmission electron microscopy revealed a spherical shape and uniform size distribution. Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies evidenced the formation of Schiff base complex, confirming the validity of covalent crosslinking. Furthermore, the complex nanoparticles demonstrated superior encapsulation properties for curcumin, showing an efficiency of >90% at 10% loading. A rather slow kinetic release profile of curcumin from complex nanoparticles was observed under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The complex nanoparticles prepared from zein, NaCas, and oxidized dextran hold promising potential for the oral delivery of lipophilic bioactive compounds. Full article
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17 pages, 2700 KiB  
Article
Synthesis, Characterization of Liposomes Modified with Biosurfactant MEL-A Loading Betulinic Acid and Its Anticancer Effect in HepG2 Cell
by Qin Shu, Jianan Wu and Qihe Chen
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3939; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213939 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3068
Abstract
As a novel natural compound delivery system, liposomes are capable of incorporating lipophilic bioactive compounds with enhanced compound solubility, stability and bioavailability, and have been successfully translated into real-time clinical applications. To construct the soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC)–cholesterol (Chol) liposome system, the optimal formulation [...] Read more.
As a novel natural compound delivery system, liposomes are capable of incorporating lipophilic bioactive compounds with enhanced compound solubility, stability and bioavailability, and have been successfully translated into real-time clinical applications. To construct the soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC)–cholesterol (Chol) liposome system, the optimal formulation was investigated as 3:1 of SPC to Chol, 10% mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) and 1% betulinic acid. Results show that liposomes with or without betulinic acid or MEL-A are able to inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells with a dose-effect relation remarkably. In addition, the modification of MEL-A in liposomes can significantly promote cell apoptosis and strengthen the destruction of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Liposomes containing MEL-A and betulinic acid have exhibited excellent anticancer activity, which provide factual basis for the development of MEL-A in the anti-cancer applications. These results provide a design thought to develop delivery liposome systems carrying betulinic acid with enhanced functional and pharmaceutical attributes. Full article
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12 pages, 2285 KiB  
Article
Nature-Inspired Polymerization of Quercetin to Produce Antioxidant Nanoparticles with Controlled Size and Skin Tone-Matching Colors
by Suhair Sunoqrot, Eveen Al-Shalabi, Lina Hasan Ibrahim and Hiba Zalloum
Molecules 2019, 24(21), 3815; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213815 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3673
Abstract
Plant polyphenols have received considerable attention in recent years due to their ability to undergo oxidation-triggered self-polymerization, forming biocompatible versatile coatings and templated nanoparticles (NPs) that can be leveraged for a variety of biomedical applications. Here we show for the first time that [...] Read more.
Plant polyphenols have received considerable attention in recent years due to their ability to undergo oxidation-triggered self-polymerization, forming biocompatible versatile coatings and templated nanoparticles (NPs) that can be leveraged for a variety of biomedical applications. Here we show for the first time that untemplated NPs can be conveniently synthesized from the abundant plant polyphenol quercetin (QCT) simply by incubation with an oxidizing agent in a universal organic solvent, followed by self-assembly upon gradual addition of water. The process yielded NPs of around 180–200 nm in size with a range of colors that resembled light to medium-brown skin tones. The NPs were characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy and by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy to understand their physicochemical properties. Antioxidant and cell viability assays were also conducted to demonstrate the NPs’ free-radical scavenging activity and biocompatibility, altogether providing valuable insights into the structure and function of this emerging class of nanomaterials to guide future biomedical applications. Full article
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18 pages, 5653 KiB  
Article
Formation of Nanocomplexes between Carboxymethyl Inulin and Bovine Serum Albumin via pH-Induced Electrostatic Interaction
by Guiying Huang, Jun Liu, Weiping Jin, Zihao Wei, Chi-Tang Ho, Suqing Zhao, Kun Zhang and Qingrong Huang
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3056; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173056 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3584
Abstract
As a functional polysaccharide, inulin was carboxymethylated and it formed nanocomplexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The success of obtaining carboxymethyl inulin (CMI) was confirmed by a combination of Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and titration. The effects [...] Read more.
As a functional polysaccharide, inulin was carboxymethylated and it formed nanocomplexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The success of obtaining carboxymethyl inulin (CMI) was confirmed by a combination of Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and titration. The effects of pH and ionic strength on the formation of CMI/BSA nanocomplexes were investigated. Our results showed that the formation of complex coacervate (pHφ1) and dissolution of CMI/BSA insoluble complexes (pHφ2) appeared in pH near 4.85 and 2.00 respectively. FT-IR and Raman data confirmed the existence of electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding between CMI and BSA. The isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) results suggested that the process of complex formation was spontaneous and exothermic. The complexation was dominated by enthalpy changes (∆Η < 0, ∆S < 0) at pH 4.00, while it was contributed by enthalpic and entropic changes (∆Η < 0, ∆S > 0) at pH 2.60. Irregularly shaped insoluble complexes and globular soluble nanocomplexes (about 150 nm) were observed in CMI/BSA complexes at pH 4.00 and 2.60 while using optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The sodium chloride suppression effect on CMI/BSA complexes was confirmed by the decrease of incipient pH for soluble complex formation (or pHc) and pHφ1 under different sodium chloride concentrations. This research presents a new functional system with the potential for delivering bioactive food ingredients. Full article
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17 pages, 3361 KiB  
Article
Se Nanoparticles Induce Changes in the Growth, Antioxidant Responses, and Fruit Quality of Tomato Developed under NaCl Stress
by Mónica Carolina Morales-Espinoza, Gregorio Cadenas-Pliego, Marissa Pérez-Alvarez, Alma Delia Hernández-Fuentes, Marcelino Cabrera de la Fuente, Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza, Jesús Valdés-Reyna and Antonio Juárez-Maldonado
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3030; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173030 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 91 | Viewed by 5389
Abstract
Nanotechnology represents an opportunity to improve the use of elements in agriculture. Selenium is an element that is beneficial to plants and essential to the human diet. The size of nanoparticles gives them characteristics that can enhance the benefits that selenium provides to [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology represents an opportunity to improve the use of elements in agriculture. Selenium is an element that is beneficial to plants and essential to the human diet. The size of nanoparticles gives them characteristics that can enhance the benefits that selenium provides to plants. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, antioxidant responses, and fruit quality of tomato developed under NaCl stress. Four doses of selenium nanoparticles (1, 5, 10, and 20 mg L−1) under NaCl stress, only NaCl, and a control were evaluated. The results showed that the impact of salinity on the growth of the tomato crop can be reduced with the application of selenium nanoparticles. However, the amount of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic compounds significantly increased in the leaves and fruits of tomato. The results suggest that the application of selenium nanoparticles generated a positive effect against salinity in the tomato crop; moreover, it had a positive impact on the content of beneficial biocompounds for human health in tomato fruits. Full article
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16 pages, 3261 KiB  
Article
Spray-Drying Performance and Thermal Stability of L-ascorbic Acid Microencapsulated with Sodium Alginate and Gum Arabic
by Pabla A. Barra, Katherine Márquez, Oscar Gil-Castell, Javiera Mujica, Amparo Ribes-Greus and Mirko Faccini
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 2872; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24162872 - 7 Aug 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5073
Abstract
The potential of sodium alginate (ALG) and gum arabic (GA) as wall polymers for L-ascorbic acid (AA) encapsulation as a tool for their preservation against the thermo-oxidative degradation was investigated. The influence of such polymers used as wall material on the AA-content, size, [...] Read more.
The potential of sodium alginate (ALG) and gum arabic (GA) as wall polymers for L-ascorbic acid (AA) encapsulation as a tool for their preservation against the thermo-oxidative degradation was investigated. The influence of such polymers used as wall material on the AA-content, size, encapsulation efficiency, encapsulation yield and thermo-oxidative stability were evaluated. The AA-microparticles were obtained using the spray-drying technique. An experimental Taguchi design was employed to assess the influence of the variables in the encapsulation process. The microparticles morphology and size distribution were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction. The thermal stability of AA microparticles was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry analysis. This work points out the viability to encapsulate AA using GA and ALG through a spray-drying process. In general, a product yield ranging from 35.1% to 83.2% and an encapsulation efficiency above 90% were reached. Spherical microparticles with a smooth surface were obtained with a mean diameter around 6 μm and 9 μm for the those prepared with GA and ALG, respectively. The thermo-oxidative analysis showed that both polymers allow maintaining AA stable up to 188 °C, which is higher than the traditional processing temperature used in the fish feed industry. Full article
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12 pages, 1529 KiB  
Article
Effect of Surfactant Concentrations on Physicochemical Properties and Functionality of Curcumin Nanoemulsions Under Conditions Relevant to Commercial Utilization
by Thanida Chuacharoen, Sehanat Prasongsuk and Cristina M. Sabliov
Molecules 2019, 24(15), 2744; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152744 - 29 Jul 2019
Cited by 78 | Viewed by 4856
Abstract
Surfactants are used to stabilize nanoemulsions by protecting their physical stability and preventing deterioration of the entrapped bioactive during processing and storage. The effect of surfactant concentration on physical-chemical properties of nanoemulsions with entrapped curcumin, relevant to commercial applications, was addressed in this [...] Read more.
Surfactants are used to stabilize nanoemulsions by protecting their physical stability and preventing deterioration of the entrapped bioactive during processing and storage. The effect of surfactant concentration on physical-chemical properties of nanoemulsions with entrapped curcumin, relevant to commercial applications, was addressed in this research. Furthermore, the functionality of nanoemulsified curcumin in terms of lipid oxidation inhibition was determined. Protection against varying pH and thermal treatments was more significant in the nanoemulsions at the elevated surfactant level, but at these high concentrations, the surface charges of the emulsions dramatically decreased under sodium salt addition, which may result in instability over time. Nanoemulsions showed the potential to inhibit malondialdehyde (MDA) formulation by protecting the entrapped curcumin and enhance its antioxidant activity when added to milk. The fortified milk with added curcumin systems had a yellow color compared to the control. The results of the study are critical in choosing the surfactant concentration needed to stabilize emulsified curcumin, and to protect the entrapped curcumin under specific conditions of use to support the utilization of curcumin nanoemulsions as a food additive in different commercial products. Full article
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14 pages, 2334 KiB  
Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Zein Composite Particles Coated by Caseinate-Pectin Electrostatic Complexes with Improved Structural Stability in Acidic Aqueous Environments
by Yaqiong Zhang, Bo Wang, Yan Wu, Boyan Gao and Liangli (Lucy) Yu
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2535; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142535 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3295
Abstract
Zein composite particles coated with caseinate-pectin electrostatic complexes (zein-caseinate-pectin particles) were fabricated using an electrostatic deposition and liquid-liquid dispersion method without heating treatment. Compared to zein particles coated only with caseinate, the acidic stability of zein-caseinate-pectin particles was greatly improved, and the particle [...] Read more.
Zein composite particles coated with caseinate-pectin electrostatic complexes (zein-caseinate-pectin particles) were fabricated using an electrostatic deposition and liquid-liquid dispersion method without heating treatment. Compared to zein particles coated only with caseinate, the acidic stability of zein-caseinate-pectin particles was greatly improved, and the particle aggregation was suppressed at pH 3–6, especially at pH values near the isoelectric point of caseinate (pH 4–5). Besides, desirable long-term storage stability and re-dispersibility were observed. Under different zein to curcumin (Cur) feeding ratios (10:1, 20:1, 30:1 and 40:1, w/w), the Cur-loaded zein-caseinate-pectin particles had a spherical shape with an average diameter ranging from 358.37 to 369.20 nm, a narrow size distribution (polydispersity index < 0.2) and a negative surface charge ranging from −18.87 to −19.53 mV. The relatively high encapsulation efficiencies of Cur (81.27% to 94.00%) and desirable re-dispersibility were also achieved. Fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the encapsulated Cur interacted with carrier materials mainly through hydrophobic interactions. The in-vitro release profile showed a sustained release of Cur from zein-caseinate-pectin particles in acidic aqueous environment (pH 4) up to 24 h, without any burst effect. In addition, the encapsulation retained more ABTS•+ radical scavenging capacity of Cur during 4 weeks of storage. These results suggest that zein-caseinate-pectin particles may be used as a potential delivery system for lipophilic nutrients in acidic beverages. Full article
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11 pages, 2019 KiB  
Article
Interactions between β-Lactoglobulin and 3,3′-Diindolylmethane in Model System
by Cuina Wang, Xinhui Zhou, Hao Wang, Xiaomeng Sun and Mingruo Guo
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2151; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112151 - 7 Jun 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3321
Abstract
The compound 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) has a broad spectrum of anticancer activities. However, low stability and bioavailability limit its application. Elucidating interactions between DIM and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) may be useful for fabricating whey protein-based protecting systems. Interaction with DIM increased the diameter and absolute [...] Read more.
The compound 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) has a broad spectrum of anticancer activities. However, low stability and bioavailability limit its application. Elucidating interactions between DIM and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) may be useful for fabricating whey protein-based protecting systems. Interaction with DIM increased the diameter and absolute zeta potential value of β-LG. UV-absorption spectra suggested that there was a complex of DIM and β-LG. β-LG showed enhanced fluorescence intensity by complexing with DIM with a binding constant of 6.7 × 105 M−1. Upon interaction with DIM, β-LG was decreased in secondary structure content of helix and turn while increased in β-sheet and unordered. FT-IR spectra and molecular docking results indicated the roles of hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond for the formation of DIM and β-LG nanocomplexes. Data suggested that β-LG may be a good vehicle for making a protein-based DIM protection and delivery system due to the tight binding of DIM to β-LG. Full article
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12 pages, 1233 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Properties and Cellular Uptake of Astaxanthin-Loaded Emulsions
by Xue Shen, Tianqi Fang, Jian Zheng and Mingruo Guo
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040727 - 18 Feb 2019
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4486
Abstract
Astaxanthin, a natural pigment carotenoid, is well known for its potential benefits to human health. However, its applications in the food industry are limited, due to its poor water-solubility and chemical instability. Six different emulsifiers were used to prepare astaxanthin-loaded emulsions, including whey [...] Read more.
Astaxanthin, a natural pigment carotenoid, is well known for its potential benefits to human health. However, its applications in the food industry are limited, due to its poor water-solubility and chemical instability. Six different emulsifiers were used to prepare astaxanthin-loaded emulsions, including whey protein isolate (WPI), polymerized whey protein (PWP), WPI-lecithin, PWP-lecithin, lecithin, and Tween20. The droplet size, zeta potential, storage stability, cytotoxicity, and astaxanthin uptake by Caco-2 cells were all investigated. The results showed that the droplet size of the emulsions ranged from 194 to 287 nm, depending on the type of emulsifier used. The entrapment efficiency of astaxanthin was as high as 90%. The astaxanthin-loaded emulsions showed good physicochemical stability during storage at 4 °C. The emulsifier type had a significant impact on the degradation rate of astaxanthin (p < 0.05). Cellular uptake of astaxanthin encapsulated into the emulsions was significantly higher than free astaxanthin (p < 0.05). Emulsion stabilized with WPI had the highest cellular uptake of astaxanthin (10.0 ± 0.2%), followed, in order, by that with PWP (8.49 ± 0.1%), WPI-lecithin (5.97 ± 0.1%), PWP-lecithin (5.05 ± 0.1%), lecithin (3.37 ± 0.2%), and Tween 20 (2.1 ± 0.1%). Results indicate that the whey protein-based emulsion has a high potential for improving the cellular uptake of astaxanthin. Full article
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16 pages, 4368 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical and Microstructural Properties of Polymerized Whey Protein Encapsulated 3,3′-Diindolylmethane Nanoparticles
by Abbas Khan, Cuina Wang, Xiaomeng Sun, Adam Killpartrick and Mingruo Guo
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040702 - 15 Feb 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3227
Abstract
The fat-soluble antioxidant 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), is a natural phytochemical found in Brassica vegetables, such as cabbage, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts. The stability of this compound is a major challenge for its applications. Polymerized whey protein (PWP)-based DIM nanoparticles were prepared at different mass [...] Read more.
The fat-soluble antioxidant 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), is a natural phytochemical found in Brassica vegetables, such as cabbage, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts. The stability of this compound is a major challenge for its applications. Polymerized whey protein (PWP)-based DIM nanoparticles were prepared at different mass ratios of protein and DIM by mixing PWP and DIM followed by ultrasound treatment for 4 min. All the nanoparticles were studied for particle size, zeta potential, rheological and microstructural properties, and storage stability. The mean particle size of the PWP-based nanoparticles was significantly increased (p < 0.05) by the addition of DIM at different mass ratios, ranging from 241.33 ± 14.82 to 270.57 ± 15.28 nm. Zeta potential values of all nanoparticles were highly negative (greater than ±30 mV), suggesting a stable solution due its electrostatic repulsive forces. All samples exhibited shear thinning behavior (n < 1), fitted with Sisko model (R2 > 0.997). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)spectra revealed that the secondary structure was changed and the absorption intensity for hydrogen bonding got stronger by further incorporating DIM into PWP. Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) images showed spherical and smooth surface shape of the PWP-based nanoparticles. DIM encapsulated by PWP showed enhanced stability at 4, 37 and 55 °C for 15 days evidenced by changes in mean particle size and color (a*-value and b*-value) compared with control (DIM only). In conclusion, the polymerized whey protein based 3,3′-diindolylmethane nanoparticles are stable and the encapsulation may protect the core material from oxidation. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

29 pages, 4885 KiB  
Review
Food-Derived Nanoscopic Drug Delivery Systems for Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis
by Dong Han, Qilei Chen and Hubiao Chen
Molecules 2020, 25(15), 3506; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153506 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4237
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a severe systemic inflammatory disease with no cure at present. Recent developments in the understanding of inflammation and nanomaterial science have led to increased applications of nanostructured drug delivery systems in the treatment of RA. The present review summarizes [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a severe systemic inflammatory disease with no cure at present. Recent developments in the understanding of inflammation and nanomaterial science have led to increased applications of nanostructured drug delivery systems in the treatment of RA. The present review summarizes novel fabrications of nanoscale drug carriers using food components as either the delivered drugs or carrier structures, in order to achieve safe, effective and convenient drug administration. Polyphenols and flavonoids are among the most frequently carried anti-RA therapeutics in the nanosystems. Fatty substances, polysaccharides, and peptides/proteins can function as structuring agents of the nanocarriers. Frequently used nanostructures include nanoemulsions, nanocapsules, liposomes, and various nanoparticles. Using these nanostructures has improved drug solubility, absorption, biodistribution, stability, targeted accumulation, and release. Joint vectorization, i.e., using a combination of bioactive molecules, can bring elevated therapeutic outcomes. Utilization of anti-arthritic chemicals that can self-assemble into nanostructures is a promising research orientation in this field. Full article
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37 pages, 2130 KiB  
Review
Food-Grade Nanoemulsions: Preparation, Stability and Application in Encapsulation of Bioactive Compounds
by Qingqing Liu, He Huang, Honghong Chen, Junfan Lin and Qin Wang
Molecules 2019, 24(23), 4242; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24234242 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 128 | Viewed by 13105
Abstract
Nanoemulsions have attracted significant attention in food fields and can increase the functionality of the bioactive compounds contained within them. In this paper, the preparation methods, including low-energy and high-energy methods, were first reviewed. Second, the physical and chemical destabilization mechanisms of nanoemulsions, [...] Read more.
Nanoemulsions have attracted significant attention in food fields and can increase the functionality of the bioactive compounds contained within them. In this paper, the preparation methods, including low-energy and high-energy methods, were first reviewed. Second, the physical and chemical destabilization mechanisms of nanoemulsions, such as gravitational separation (creaming or sedimentation), flocculation, coalescence, Ostwald ripening, lipid oxidation and so on, were reviewed. Then, the impact of different stabilizers, including emulsifiers, weighting agents, texture modifiers (thickening agents and gelling agents), ripening inhibitors, antioxidants and chelating agents, on the physicochemical stability of nanoemulsions were discussed. Finally, the applications of nanoemulsions for the delivery of functional ingredients, including bioactive lipids, essential oil, flavor compounds, vitamins, phenolic compounds and carotenoids, were summarized. This review can provide some reference for the selection of preparation methods and stabilizers that will improve performance in nanoemulsion-based products and expand their usage. Full article
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17 pages, 2407 KiB  
Review
Development and Characterization of Whey Protein-Based Nano-Delivery Systems: A Review
by Ho-Kyung Ha, Scott A. Rankin, Mee-Ryung Lee and Won-Jae Lee
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3254; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183254 - 6 Sep 2019
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 5957
Abstract
Various bioactive compounds (BCs) often possess poor stability and bioavailability, which makes it difficult for them to exert their potential health benefits. These limitations can be countered by the use of nano-delivery systems (NDSs), such as nanoparticles and nanoemulsions. NDSs can protect BCs [...] Read more.
Various bioactive compounds (BCs) often possess poor stability and bioavailability, which makes it difficult for them to exert their potential health benefits. These limitations can be countered by the use of nano-delivery systems (NDSs), such as nanoparticles and nanoemulsions. NDSs can protect BCs against harsh environments during food processing and digestion, and thereby, could enhance the bioavailability of BCs. Although various NDSs have been successfully produced with both synthetic and natural materials, it is necessary to fulfill safety criteria in the delivery materials for food applications. Food-grade materials for the production of NDSs, such as milk proteins and carbohydrates, have received much attention due to their low toxicity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. Among these, whey proteins—from whey, a byproduct of cheese manufacturing—have been considered as excellent delivery material because of their high nutritional value and various functional properties, such as binding capability to various compounds, gelation, emulsifying properties, and barrier effects. Since the functional and physicochemical properties of whey protein-based NDSs, including size and surface charge, can be key factors affecting the applications of NDSs in food, the objectives of this review are to discuss how manufacturing variables can modulate the functional and physicochemical properties of NDSs and bioavailability of encapsulated BCs to produce efficient NDSs for various BCs. Full article
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