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Food Biopolymers and Colloids: A Theme Issue in Honor of Professor David Julian McClements

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021) | Viewed by 34118

Special Issue Editors


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Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
Interests: food chemistry; food authentication; food analysis; analysis of contaminants in foods; analytical aspects of food packaging; non thermal methods of food preservation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Interests: biomaterials; hydrogels; nanoparticles; encapsulation; controlled delivery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

David Julian McClements is a Distinguished Professor at the Department of Food Science at the University of Massachusetts. He specializes in the areas of (i) Food Biopolymers and Colloids, and in particular on the development of food-based structured delivery systems for bioactive components and (ii) Food Nanotechnology. More specifically, Prof. McClements’ work includes but is not limited to:

  • Developing structural design approaches to create innovative colloidal delivery systems to encapsulate, protect, and deliver bioactive agents, such as vitamins, minerals, and nutraceuticals;
  • Developing soft matter physics approaches to increase the quality and healthiness of food products, g., reduced calorie or slowly digestible foods;
  • Creating high-quality plant-based alternatives to animal foods, such as meat, milk, and eggs. Replacing animal or synthetic food ingredients with plant-based alternatives;
  • Understanding the molecular and physicochemical events occurring inside the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of foods, so as to better control the gastrointestinal fate of foods;
  • Establishing standardized methods to categorize the functional properties of food emulsifiers and emulsions, which will enable food manufacturers to select ingredients in a more systematic and informed manner.

Prof. McClements received his Ph.D. in Food Science (1989) at the University of Leeds (UK) in ultrasonic spectrometry. He then did his Post-Doctoral Research at the University of Leeds (1989–1992), University of California-Davis (1992–1994) and University College Cork-Ireland (1994). He was appointed Assistant Professor in the Department of Food science, University of Massachusetts (UMASS), Amherst, where he was promoted to Full Professor in 2016, and to Distinguished Professor in 2019. Since 2016, he has also been a Visiting Professor at the Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA. and since 2019, an Adjunct Professor at the School of Food Science and Bioengineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Prof. McClements is the author of Future Foods: How Modern Science is Changing the Way We Eat (2019), three editions of Food Emulsions: Principles, Practice and Techniques (1999, 2005, 2015) and of Nanoparticle- and Microparticle-based Delivery Systems: Encapsulation, Protection and Release of Active Components (2014), co-author of Advances in Food Colloids (1996) with Prof. Eric Dickinson, and co-editor of Developments in Acoustics and Ultrasonics, Understanding and Controlling the Microstructure of Complex Foods, Designing Functional Foods, Oxidation in Foods and Beverages (Volumes 1 and 2), and Encapsulation and Delivery Systems for Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals. In addition, he has published over 1000 scientific articles in peer-reviewed journals (with an H-index of 115 on Scopus) more than 57,000 citations, 12 patents, as well as numerous book chapters and conference proceedings. 

Prof. McClements has previously received awards from the American Chemical Society, American Oil Chemists Society, Society of Chemical Industry (UK), Institute of Food Technologists, and University of Massachusetts in recognition of his scientific achievements. Dr. McClements is a fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry, American Chemical Society (Agricultural and Food Division), and Institute of Food Technologists. His research has been funded by grants from the United States Department of Agriculture, National Science Foundation, US Department of Commerce, NASA, and the food industry. He has secured funding worth over $11.5 million as a PI or co-PI while working at UMASS. He is the co-editor of Annual Reviews in Food Science and Technology, and a member of the editorial boards of a number of other journals. He has organized numerous workshops, symposia, and international conferences in the field of food colloids, emulsions, and delivery systems.

Dr. Yangchao Luo
Prof. Dr. Michael G. Kontominas
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 5005 KiB  
Article
Effect of Gel Structure on the In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion Behaviour of Whey Protein Emulsion Gels and the Bioaccessibility of Capsaicinoids
by Nan Luo, Aiqian Ye, Frances M. Wolber and Harjinder Singh
Molecules 2021, 26(5), 1379; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051379 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of gel structure on the digestion of heat-set whey protein emulsion gels containing capsaicinoids (CAP), including the bioaccessibility of CAP. Upon heat treatment at 90 °C, whey protein emulsion gels containing CAP (10 wt% whey protein isolate, 20 [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of gel structure on the digestion of heat-set whey protein emulsion gels containing capsaicinoids (CAP), including the bioaccessibility of CAP. Upon heat treatment at 90 °C, whey protein emulsion gels containing CAP (10 wt% whey protein isolate, 20 wt% soybean oil, 0.02 wt% CAP) with different structures and gel mechanical strengths were formed by varying ionic strength. The hard gel (i.e., oil droplet size d4,3 ~ 0.5 μm, 200 mM NaCl), with compact particulate gel structure, led to slower disintegration of the gel particles and slower hydrolysis of the whey proteins during gastric digestion compared with the soft gel (i.e., d4,3 ~ 0.5 μm, 10 mM NaCl). The oil droplets started to coalesce after 60 min of gastric digestion in the soft gel, whereas minor oil droplet coalescence was observed for the hard gel at the end of the gastric digestion. In general, during intestinal digestion, the gastric digesta from the hard gel was disintegrated more slowly than that from the soft gel. A power-law fit between the bioaccessibility of CAP (Y) and the extent of lipid digestion (X) was established: Y = 49.2 × (X − 305.3)0.104, with R2 = 0.84. A greater extent of lipid digestion would lead to greater release of CAP from the food matrix; also, more lipolytic products would be produced and would participate in micelle formation, which would help to solubilize the released CAP and therefore result in their higher bioaccessibility. Full article
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13 pages, 3074 KiB  
Article
The Formation of Chitosan-Coated Rhamnolipid Liposomes Containing Curcumin: Stability and In Vitro Digestion
by Wei Zhou, Ce Cheng, Li Ma, Liqiang Zou, Wei Liu, Ruyi Li, Yupo Cao, Yuhuan Liu, Roger Ruan and Jihua Li
Molecules 2021, 26(3), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030560 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3191
Abstract
There is growing interest in developing biomaterial-coated liposome delivery systems to improve the stability and bioavailability of curcumin, which is a hydrophobic nutraceutical claimed to have several health benefits. The curcumin-loaded rhamnolipid liposomes (Cur-RL-Lips) were fabricated from rhamnolipid and phospholipids, and then chitosan [...] Read more.
There is growing interest in developing biomaterial-coated liposome delivery systems to improve the stability and bioavailability of curcumin, which is a hydrophobic nutraceutical claimed to have several health benefits. The curcumin-loaded rhamnolipid liposomes (Cur-RL-Lips) were fabricated from rhamnolipid and phospholipids, and then chitosan (CS) covered the surface of Cur-RL-Lips by electrostatic interaction to form CS-coated Cur-RL-Lips. The influence of CS concentration on the physical stability and digestion of the liposomes was investigated. The CS-coated Cur-RL-Lips with RL:CS = 1:1 have a relatively small size (412.9 nm) and positive charge (19.7 mV). The CS-coated Cur-RL-Lips remained stable from pH 2 to 5 at room temperature and can effectively slow the degradation of curcumin at 80 °C; however, they were highly unstable to salt addition. In addition, compared with Cur-RL-Lips, the bioavailability of curcumin in CS-coated Cur-RL-Lips was relatively high due to its high transformation in gastrointestinal tract. These results may facilitate the design of a more efficacious liposomal delivery system that enhances the stability and bioavailability of curcumin in nutraceutical-loaded functional foods and beverages. Full article
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15 pages, 8041 KiB  
Article
Formation and Stabilization of W1/O/W2 Emulsions with Gelled Lipid Phases
by Anna Molet-Rodríguez, Olga Martín-Belloso and Laura Salvia-Trujillo
Molecules 2021, 26(2), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020312 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2140
Abstract
Water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) emulsions are emulsion-based systems where the dispersed phase is an emulsion itself, offering great potential for the encapsulation of hydrophilic bioactive compounds. However, their formation and stabilization is still a challenge mainly due to water migration, which [...] Read more.
Water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) emulsions are emulsion-based systems where the dispersed phase is an emulsion itself, offering great potential for the encapsulation of hydrophilic bioactive compounds. However, their formation and stabilization is still a challenge mainly due to water migration, which could be reduced by lipid phase gelation. This study aimed to assess the impact of lipid phase state being liquid or gelled using glyceryl stearate (GS) at 1% (w/w) as well as the hydrophilic emulsifier (T80: Tween 80 or lecithin) and the oil type (MCT:medium chain triglyceride or corn oil (CO) as long chain triglyceride) on the formation and stabilization of chlorophyllin W1/O/W2 emulsions. Their colloidal stability against temperature and light exposure conditions was evaluated. Gelling both lipid phases (MCT and CO) rendered smaller W1 droplets during the first emulsification step, followed by formation of W1/O/W2 emulsions with smaller W1/O droplet size and more stable against clarification. The stability of W1/O/W2 emulsions was sensitive to a temperature increase, which might be related to the lower gelling degree of the lipid phase at higher temperatures. This study provides valuable insight for the formation and stabilization of W1/O/W2 emulsions with gelled lipid phases as delivery systems of hydrophilic bioactive compounds under common food storage conditions. Full article
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12 pages, 5176 KiB  
Article
Electrohydrodynamic Processing of Potato Protein into Particles and Fibers
by Ana C. Mendes, Elena Saldarini and Ioannis S. Chronakis
Molecules 2020, 25(24), 5968; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245968 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1812
Abstract
Potato protein particles and fibers were produced using electrohydrodynamic processing (electrospray and electrospinning). The effect of different solvents and protein concentration on the morphology of the potato protein particles and fibers was investigated. Electrosprayed particles with average diameters ranging from 0.3 to 1.4 [...] Read more.
Potato protein particles and fibers were produced using electrohydrodynamic processing (electrospray and electrospinning). The effect of different solvents and protein concentration on the morphology of the potato protein particles and fibers was investigated. Electrosprayed particles with average diameters ranging from 0.3 to 1.4 µm could be obtained using water and mixtures of water: ethanol (9:1) and water:glycerol (9:1). Electrosprayed particles were also obtained using the solvent hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) at a protein concentration of 5% wt/v. For protein concentrations above 10% wt/v, using HFIP, electrospun fibers were produced. The release of vitamin B12, as a model bioactive compound, from potato protein electrospun fibers, was also investigated, demonstrating their potential to be utilized as encapsulation and delivery systems. Full article
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14 pages, 2027 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Ultrasound and Heat Enhance Functional Properties of Glycosylated Lactoferrin
by Zhipeng Li, Dexue Ma, Yiyang He, Siqi Guo, Fuguo Liu and Xuebo Liu
Molecules 2020, 25(23), 5774; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235774 - 07 Dec 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
Protein-polysaccharide covalent complexes exhibit better physicochemical and functional properties than single protein or polysaccharide. To promote the formation of the covalent complex from lactoferrin (LF) and beet pectin (BP), we enhanced the Maillard reaction between LF and BP by using an ultrasound-assisted treatment [...] Read more.
Protein-polysaccharide covalent complexes exhibit better physicochemical and functional properties than single protein or polysaccharide. To promote the formation of the covalent complex from lactoferrin (LF) and beet pectin (BP), we enhanced the Maillard reaction between LF and BP by using an ultrasound-assisted treatment and studied the structure and functional properties of the resulting product. The reaction conditions were optimized by an orthogonal experimental design, and the highest grafting degree of 55.36% was obtained by ultrasonic treatment at 300 W for 20 min and at LF concentration of 20 g/L and BP concentration of 9 g/L. The formation of LF-BP conjugates was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Ultrasound-assisted treatment can increase the surface hydrophobicity, browning index, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) free radicals scavenging activity of LF due to the changes in the spatial configuration and formation of Maillard reaction products. The thermal stability, antioxidant activity and emulsifying property of LF were significantly improved after combining with BP. These findings reveal the potential application of modified proteins by ultrasonic and heat treatment. Full article
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13 pages, 3931 KiB  
Article
Structure and Rheological Properties of Glycerol Monolaurate-Induced Organogels: Influence of Hydrocolloids with Different Surface Charge
by Runan Zhao, Shan Wu, Shilin Liu, Bin Li and Yan Li
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5117; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215117 - 04 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2522
Abstract
Organogel (OG) is a class of semi-solid gel, entrapping organic solvent within a three-dimensional network, which is formed via the self-assembly of organogelators. In the present study, OG was produced by glycerol monolaurate (GML) as organogelator. The influence of hydrocolloids with different surface [...] Read more.
Organogel (OG) is a class of semi-solid gel, entrapping organic solvent within a three-dimensional network, which is formed via the self-assembly of organogelators. In the present study, OG was produced by glycerol monolaurate (GML) as organogelator. The influence of hydrocolloids with different surface charges (chitosan (CS), konjac glucomannan (KGM) and sodium alginate (SA)) on the physiochemical properties of OG was investigated. Rheological studies demonstrated that OG and pure hydrocolloid solution showed shear-thinning behavior. After incorporation of the hydrocolloid, the initial viscosity of OG was lowered from ~100 Pa·s to <10 Pa·s, and then the viscosity increased to more than 100 Pa·s at a low shear rate of 0.1–0.2 s−1, which subsequently decreased with a higher shear rate. OGs in the presence of hydrocolloids still kept the thermo-sensitivity, while the melting point of the OG decreased with the incorporation of hydrocolloids. Hydrocolloid addition greatly shortened the gelling time of the OG from 21 min to less than 2 min. The presence of hydrocolloids increased the particle size of oil droplets in the molten OG. Some aggregation and coalescence of oil droplets occurred in the presence of positive-charged CS and negative-charged SA, respectively. After gelling, the gel structure converted into a biphasic-like network. Hydrocolloids improved the hardness, stickiness and the oil-holding stability of OGs by 18.8~33.9%. Overall, hydrocolloid incorporation could modulate the properties of OGs through their different surface charge properties. These novel OGs have potential as nutrient carriers or low-fat margarine alternatives and avoid the trans-fatty acid intake. Full article
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13 pages, 3234 KiB  
Article
Gliadin Nanoparticles Pickering Emulgels for β-Carotene Delivery: Effect of Particle Concentration on the Stability and Bioaccessibility
by Ce Cheng, Yi Gao, Zhihua Wu, Jinyu Miao, Hongxia Gao, Li Ma, Liqiang Zou, Shengfeng Peng, Chengmei Liu and Wei Liu
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4188; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184188 - 12 Sep 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2437
Abstract
β-carotene is a promising natural active ingredient for optimum human health. However, the insolubility in water, low oral bioavailability, and instability in oxygen, heat, and light are key factors to limit its application as incorporation into functional foods. Therefore, gliadin nanoparticles (GNPs) Pickering [...] Read more.
β-carotene is a promising natural active ingredient for optimum human health. However, the insolubility in water, low oral bioavailability, and instability in oxygen, heat, and light are key factors to limit its application as incorporation into functional foods. Therefore, gliadin nanoparticles (GNPs) Pickering emulgels were chosen as food-grade β-carotene delivery systems. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the influence of GNPs concentration on the rheological properties, stability, and simulated gastrointestinal fate of β-carotene of Pickering emulgels. The formulations of Pickering emulgels at low GNPs concentration had better fluidity, whereas at high GNPs concentration, they had stronger gel structures. Furthermore, the thermal stability of β-carotene loaded in Pickering emulgels after two pasteurization treatments was significantly improved with the increase of GNPs concentration. The Pickering emulgels stabilized with higher GNPs concentration could improve the protection and bioaccessibility of β-carotene after different storage conditions. This study demonstrated the tremendous potential of GNPs Pickering emulgels to carry β-carotene. Full article
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12 pages, 2406 KiB  
Article
Formation and Characterization of β-Lactoglobulin and Gum Arabic Complexes: the Role of pH
by Ziyuan Wang, Jie Liu, Jian Gao, Mengna Cao, Gerui Ren, Hunjun Xie and Mingfei Yao
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 3871; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173871 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
Protein–polysaccharide complexes have received increasing attention as delivery systems to improve the stability and bioavailability of multiple bioactive compounds. However, deep and comprehensive understanding of the interactions between proteins and polysaccharides is still required for enhancing their loading efficiency and facilitating targeted delivery. [...] Read more.
Protein–polysaccharide complexes have received increasing attention as delivery systems to improve the stability and bioavailability of multiple bioactive compounds. However, deep and comprehensive understanding of the interactions between proteins and polysaccharides is still required for enhancing their loading efficiency and facilitating targeted delivery. In this study, we fabricated a type of protein–polysaccharide complexes using food-grade materials of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and gum arabic (GA). The formation and characteristics of β-Lg–GA complexes were investigated by determining the influence of pH and other factors on their turbidity, zeta-potential, particle size and rheology. Results demonstrated that the β-Lg and GA suspension experienced four regimes including co-soluble polymers, soluble complexes, insoluble complexes and co-soluble polymers when the pH ranged from 1.2 to 7 and that β-Lg–GA complexes formed in large quantities at pH 4.2. An increased ratio of β-Lg in the mixtures was found to promote the formation of β-Lg and GA complexes, and the optimal β-Lg/GA ratio was found to be 2:1. The electrostatic interactions between the NH3+ group in β-Lg and the COO group in GA were confirmed to be the main driving forces for the formation of β-Lg/GA complexes. The formed structure also resulted in enhanced thermal stability and viscosity. These findings provide critical implications for the application of β-lactoglobulin and gum arabic complexes in food research and industry. Full article
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Review

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14 pages, 1340 KiB  
Review
Plant-Based Seafood Analogs
by Meital Kazir and Yoav D. Livney
Molecules 2021, 26(6), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061559 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 13471
Abstract
There is a growing global need to shift from animal- towards plant-based diets. The main motivations are environmental/sustainability-, human health- and animal welfare concerns. The aim is to replace traditional animal-based food with various alternatives, predominantly plant-based analogs. The elevated consumption of fish [...] Read more.
There is a growing global need to shift from animal- towards plant-based diets. The main motivations are environmental/sustainability-, human health- and animal welfare concerns. The aim is to replace traditional animal-based food with various alternatives, predominantly plant-based analogs. The elevated consumption of fish and seafood, leads to negative impacts on the ecosystem, due to dwindling biodiversity, environmental damage and fish diseases related to large-scale marine farming, and increased intake of toxic substances, particularly heavy metals, which accumulate in fish due to water pollution. While these facts lead to increased awareness and rising dietary shifts towards vegetarian and vegan lifestyles, still the majority of seafood consumers seek traditional products. This encourages the development of plant-based analogs for fish and seafood, mimicking the texture and sensorial properties of fish-meat, seafood, or processed fish products. Mimicking the internal structure and texture of fish or seafood requires simulating their nanometric fibrous-gel structure. Common techniques of structuring plant-based proteins into such textures include hydrospinning, electrospinning, extrusion, and 3D printing. The conditions required in each technique, the physicochemical and functional properties of the proteins, along with the use of other non-protein functional ingredients are reviewed. Trends and possible future developments are discussed. Full article
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