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Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory Research on Application in Food and Health

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2023) | Viewed by 37085

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Sunway Biofunctional Molecules Discovery Centre, School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, Petaling Jaya 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Interests: natural products; microbial drug discovery; molecular oncology; ethnopharmacology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Centre for Drug Discovery and Molecular Pharmacology (CDDMP), Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences (FHMS), Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia
Interests: macrophage foam cells; inflammation pharmacology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today, bioactive compounds from nature continue to benefit mankind in various fields, including pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, pesticide, and cosmetic. Many naturally-derived secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential have immense potential in the research pipeline for their application as functional foods, therapeutic and cosmetic agents for the benefit of mankind. They exhibit various biological effects, including their ability to regulate cellular and metabolic processes, as well as activate or inhibit protein targets, such as receptors or enzymes with a beneficial response in the human body. Their consumption has been correlated to the prevention and treatment of different diseases and to the promotion of good health. In this Special Issue, we would like to emphasize the high value of natural products, which can be used for the development of health and food supplements and as potential cosmeceutical applications.

Dr. Bey-Hing Goh
Dr. Wei Hsum Yap
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 196 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial: Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory Research on Application in Food and Health
by Wei Hsum Yap and Bey Hing Goh
Molecules 2023, 28(13), 5089; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28135089 - 29 Jun 2023
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Biofunctional molecules with pharmacological activities are reported in various fields of application, including in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, agriculture, and food industries [...] Full article

Research

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11 pages, 5220 KiB  
Article
Kavalactone Kawain Impedes Urothelial Tumorigenesis in UPII-Mutant Ha-Ras Mice via Inhibition of mTOR Signaling and Alteration of Cancer Metabolism
by Zhongbo Liu, Liankun Song, Jun Xie, Xue-Ru Wu, Greg E. Gin, Beverly Wang, Edward Uchio and Xiaolin Zi
Molecules 2023, 28(4), 1666; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28041666 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3232
Abstract
UPII-mutant Ha-ras transgenic mice develop urothelial hyperplasia and low-grade papillary carcinoma, which mimics human non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We investigated the effects and mechanisms of kawain, a main kavalactone in the kava plant, on oncogenic Ha-ras-driven urothelial carcinoma in these mice. The [...] Read more.
UPII-mutant Ha-ras transgenic mice develop urothelial hyperplasia and low-grade papillary carcinoma, which mimics human non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We investigated the effects and mechanisms of kawain, a main kavalactone in the kava plant, on oncogenic Ha-ras-driven urothelial carcinoma in these mice. The mice were fed at six weeks of age with vehicle control or kawain (6 g/kg) formulated food for approximately five months. Seventy-eight percent of the mice or more fed with kawain food survived more than six months of age, whereas only 32% control food-fed male mice survived, (p = 0.0082). The mean wet bladder weights (a surrogate for tumor burden) of UPII-mutant Ha-ras transgenic mice with kawain diet was decreased by approximately 56% compared to those fed with the control diet (p = 0.035). The kawain diet also significantly reduced the occurrence of hydronephrosis and hematuria in UPII-mutant Ha-ras transgenic mice. Histological examination and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that vehicle control-treated mice displayed more urothelial carcinoma and Ki67-positive cells in the bladder compared to kawain treated mice. Global metabolic profiling of bladder tumor samples from mice fed with kawain food showed significantly more enrichment of serotonin and less abundance of xylulose, prostaglandin A2, D2 and E2 compared to those from control diet-fed mice, suggesting decreased shunting of glucose to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and reduced inflammation. In addition, kawain selectively inhibited the growth of human bladder cancer cell lines with a significant suppression of 4E-BP1 expression and rpS6 phosphorylation. These observations indicate a potential impact of kawain consumption on bladder cancer prevention by rewiring the metabolic programs of the tumor cells. Full article
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15 pages, 3182 KiB  
Article
Tannins-Based Extracts: Effects on Gut Chicken Spontaneous Contractility
by Laura Beatrice Mattioli, Ivan Corazza, Matteo Micucci, Marco Pallavicini and Roberta Budriesi
Molecules 2023, 28(1), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28010395 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
The impossibility of using drugs for the health of farm animals leads to the search for alternative strategies with two purposes: to maintain animal health and safeguard human health. In this perspective, tannins have shown great promises. These phytocomplexes obtained from natural matrices [...] Read more.
The impossibility of using drugs for the health of farm animals leads to the search for alternative strategies with two purposes: to maintain animal health and safeguard human health. In this perspective, tannins have shown great promises. These phytocomplexes obtained from natural matrices with multiple health properties may be used as a feed supplement in chicken farms. In this work, we studied two tannin-based extracts (from Castanea sativa Mill. wood and from Schinopsis balansae Engl. Quebracho Colorado hardwood) with different chemical compositions on the spontaneous contractility on the isolated intestinal tissues of healthy chicken. The results showed that the chemical composition of the two phytocomplexes influenced the spontaneous intestinal contractility in different ways by regulating the tone and consequent progression of the food bolus. The chemical analysis of the two extracts revealed that Castanea sativa Mill. wood mainly contains hydrolysable tannins, while Schinopsis balansae Engl. hardwood mainly contains condensed tannins. The two phytocomplexes showed different effects towards gastrointestinal smooth muscle contractility, with Castanea sativa Mill. wood providing a better activity profile than Schinopsis balansae Engl. hardwood. Full article
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14 pages, 1767 KiB  
Article
Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End-Products by Tamarindus indica and Mitragyna inermis Extracts and Effects on Human Hepatocyte and Fibroblast Viability
by Relwendé Justin Ouédraogo, Umair Aleem, Lassina Ouattara, Muhammad Nadeem-ul-Haque, Georges Anicet Ouédraogo, Humera Jahan and Farzana Shaheen
Molecules 2023, 28(1), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28010393 - 02 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
Tamarindus indica and Mitragyna inermis are widely used by herbalists to cure diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to investigate the inhibitory potential of aqueous and various organic solvent fractions from both plants and some isolated compounds against advanced glycation end-products [...] Read more.
Tamarindus indica and Mitragyna inermis are widely used by herbalists to cure diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to investigate the inhibitory potential of aqueous and various organic solvent fractions from both plants and some isolated compounds against advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). For this purpose, an in vitro BSA–fructose glycation model was used to evaluate the inhibition of AGE formation. Furthermore, the effects of the fractions on mouse fibroblast (NIH-3T3) and human hepatocyte (HepG2) survival were evaluated. The leaf, stem, and root fractions of both plants exhibited significant inhibition of AGEs formation. The IC50 values appeared to be less than 250 µg/mL; however, all fractions presented no adverse effects on NIH-3T3 up to 500 µg/mL. Otherwise, our phytochemical investigation afforded the isolation of a secoiridoid from the Mitragyna genus named secoiridoid glucoside sweroside (1), along with three known quinovic acid glycosides: quinovic acid-3β-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), quinovic acid-3-O-β-d-6-deoxy-glucopyranoside, 28-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (3), and quinovic acid 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(4→1)-β-d-glucopyranoside (4). In particular, 13 are compounds which have not previously been described in Mitragyna inermis roots. However, the isolated compounds did not exhibit AGE inhibitory activity. Further investigation on these potent antiglycation fractions may allow for the isolation of new antidiabetic drug candidates. Full article
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22 pages, 2706 KiB  
Article
Fractionation Coupled to Molecular Networking: Towards Identification of Anthelmintic Molecules in Terminalia leiocarpa (DC.) Baill
by Esaïe Tchetan, Sergio Ortiz, Pascal Abiodoun Olounladé, Kristelle Hughes, Patrick Laurent, Erick Virgile Bertrand Azando, Sylvie Mawule Hounzangbe-Adote, Fernand Ahokanou Gbaguidi and Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq
Molecules 2023, 28(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28010076 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
Terminalia leiocarpa is a medicinal plant widely used in ethnoveterinary medicine to treat digestive parasitosis whose extracts were shown to be active against gastrointestinal nematodes of domestic ruminants. The objective of our study was to identify compounds responsible for this activity. Column fractionation [...] Read more.
Terminalia leiocarpa is a medicinal plant widely used in ethnoveterinary medicine to treat digestive parasitosis whose extracts were shown to be active against gastrointestinal nematodes of domestic ruminants. The objective of our study was to identify compounds responsible for this activity. Column fractionation was performed, and the activity of the fractions was assessed in vitro on Haemonchus contortus and Caenorhabditis elegans as well as their cytotoxicity on WI38 fibroblasts. Two fractions were the most active on both nematode models and less cytotoxic. LC-MS/MS analysis and manual dereplication coupled to molecular networking allowed identification of the main compounds: ellagic acid and derivatives, gallic acid, astragalin, rutin, quinic acid, and fructose. Other potentially identified compounds such as shikimic acid, 2,3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-D-glucose or an isomer, quercetin-3-O-(6-O-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside or an isomer, and a trihydroxylated triterpenoid bearing a sugar as rosamultin are reported in this plant for the first time. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity of the available major compounds showed that ellagic and gallic acids were the most effective in inhibiting the viability of C. elegans. Their quantification in fractions 8 and 9 indicated the presence of about 8.6 and 7.1 µg/mg ellagic acid and about 9.6 and 2.0 µg/mg gallic acid respectively. These concentrations are not sufficient to justify the activity observed. Ellagic acid derivatives and other compounds that were found to be positively correlated with the anthelmintic activity of the fractions may have additive or synergistic effects when combined, but other unidentified compounds could also be implicated in the observed activity. Full article
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30 pages, 3288 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of New 2,3-Dihydroindole Derivatives and Evaluation of Their Melatonin Receptor Binding Affinity
by Maria S. Volkova, Alexander M. Efremov, Elena N. Bezsonova, Michael D. Tsymliakov, Anita I. Maksutova, Maria A. Salykina, Sergey E. Sosonyuk, Elena F. Shevtsova and Natalia A. Lozinskaya
Molecules 2022, 27(21), 7462; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27217462 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
2,3-Dihydroindoles are promising agents for the synthesis of new compounds with neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. Usually, these compounds are obtained by direct reduction of the corresponding indoles containing acceptor groups in the indole ring for its activation. In this work, we propose a [...] Read more.
2,3-Dihydroindoles are promising agents for the synthesis of new compounds with neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. Usually, these compounds are obtained by direct reduction of the corresponding indoles containing acceptor groups in the indole ring for its activation. In this work, we propose a synthetic strategy to obtain new 2,3-dihydroindole derivatives from the corresponding polyfunctional 2-oxindoles. Three methods were proposed for reduction of functional groups in the 2-oxindole and 2-chloroindole molecules using various boron hydrides. The possibility of chemoselective reduction of the nitrile group in the presence of an amide was shown. The proposed synthetic strategy can be used, for example, for the synthesis of new analogs of the endogenous hormone melatonin and other compounds with neuroprotective properties. Full article
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12 pages, 2949 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and In-Vivo Evaluation of Benzoxazole Derivatives as Promising Anti-Psoriatic Drugs for Clinical Use
by Rami Ayoub, Jamal Jilani, Qais Jarrar, Raad Alani, Chrismawan Ardianto, Khang Wen Goh, Dalia Ali and Said Moshawih
Molecules 2022, 27(9), 3023; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27093023 - 08 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-5-benzoxazoleacetic acid (CBA) and its ester, methyl-2-(4-chloro-phenyl)-5-benzoxazoleacetate (MCBA), were synthesized, and their structures were confirmed by 1HNMR, IR, and mass spectrophotometry. The anti-psoriatic activities of CBA and MCBA were tested using an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriatic mouse model, in which mice were treated [...] Read more.
2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-5-benzoxazoleacetic acid (CBA) and its ester, methyl-2-(4-chloro-phenyl)-5-benzoxazoleacetate (MCBA), were synthesized, and their structures were confirmed by 1HNMR, IR, and mass spectrophotometry. The anti-psoriatic activities of CBA and MCBA were tested using an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriatic mouse model, in which mice were treated both topically (1% w/w) and orally (125 mg/kg) for 14 days. The erythema intensity, thickness, and desquamation of psoriasis were scored by calculating the psoriasis area severity index (PASI). The study also included the determination of histopathological alterations in the skin tissues of treated mice. Topical and oral administration of CBA and MCBA led to a reduction in erythema intensity, thickness, and desquamation, which was demonstrated by a significant decrease in the PASI value. In addition, skin tissues of mice treated with CBA and MCBA showed less evidence of psoriatic alterations, such as hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, scale crust, edema, psoriasiform, and hyperplasia. After administration of either topical or oral dosing, the anti-psoriatic effects were found to be stronger in MCBA-treated than in CBA-treated mice. These effects were comparable to those produced by Clobetasol propionate, the reference drug. This drug discovery could be translated into a potential new drug for future clinical use in psoriasis treatment. Full article
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17 pages, 6550 KiB  
Article
Inhibitory Effect of Ursolic Acid on the Migration and Invasion of Doxorubicin-Resistant Breast Cancer
by Li Zong, Guorong Cheng, Jingwu Zhao, Xiaoyu Zhuang, Zhong Zheng, Zhiqiang Liu and Fengrui Song
Molecules 2022, 27(4), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27041282 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2300
Abstract
The cause of death in most breast cancer patients is disease metastasis and the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR). Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which is involved into multiple pathways, is closely related to carcinogenesis and development. Ursolic acid (UA), a natural triterpenoid compound, has [...] Read more.
The cause of death in most breast cancer patients is disease metastasis and the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR). Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which is involved into multiple pathways, is closely related to carcinogenesis and development. Ursolic acid (UA), a natural triterpenoid compound, has been shown to reverse the MDR characteristics of tumor cells. However, the effect of UA on the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells with MDR is not known. Therefore, we investigated the effects of UA on invasion and metastasis, ODC-related polyamine metabolism, and MAPK-Erk-VEGF/MMP-9 signaling pathways in a doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cell (MCF-7/ADR) model. The obtained results showed that UA significantly inhibited the adhesion and migration of MCF-7/ADR cells, and had higher affinities with key active cavity residues of ODC compared to the known inhibitor di-fluoro-methyl-ornithine (DFMO). UA could downregulate ODC, phosphorylated Erk (P-Erk), VEGF, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity. Meanwhile, UA significantly reduced the content of metabolites of the polyamine metabolism. Furthermore, UA increased the intracellular accumulation of Dox in MCF-7/ADR cells. Taken together, UA can inhibit against tumor progression during the treatment of breast cancer with Dox, and possibly modulate the Erk-VEGF/MMP-9 signaling pathways and polyamine metabolism by targeting ODC to exert these effects. Full article
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16 pages, 21351 KiB  
Article
Glutamate Dehydrogenase Functions in Glutamic Acid Metabolism and Stress Resistance in Pyropia haitanensis
by Shuang Li, Zhanru Shao, Chang Lu, Jianting Yao, Yongdong Zhou and Delin Duan
Molecules 2021, 26(22), 6793; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26226793 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2125
Abstract
Pyropia haitanensis is an important laver species in China. Its quality traits are closely related to the content of glutamic acid. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a crucial enzyme in the glutamic acid metabolism. In this study, two GDH genes from P. haitanensis, [...] Read more.
Pyropia haitanensis is an important laver species in China. Its quality traits are closely related to the content of glutamic acid. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a crucial enzyme in the glutamic acid metabolism. In this study, two GDH genes from P. haitanensis, PhGDH1 and PhGDH2, were cloned and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The in vitro enzyme activity assay demonstrated that the catalytic activity of PhGDHs is mainly in the direction of ammonium assimilation. The measured Km values of PhGDH1 for NADH, (NH4)2SO4, and α-oxoglutarate were 0.12, 4.99, and 0.16 mM, respectively, while the corresponding Km values of PhGDH2 were 0.02, 3.98, and 0.104 mM, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis results showed that Gly193 and Thr361 were important catalytic residues for PhGDH2. Moreover, expression levels of both PhGDHs were significantly increased under abiotic stresses. These results suggest that PhGDHs can convert α-oxoglutarate to glutamic acid, and enhance the flavor and stress resistance of P. haitanensis. Full article
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Review

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24 pages, 1713 KiB  
Review
Sophorolipids—Bio-Based Antimicrobial Formulating Agents for Applications in Food and Health
by Wei Yan Cho, Jeck Fei Ng, Wei Hsum Yap and Bey Hing Goh
Molecules 2022, 27(17), 5556; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27175556 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3369
Abstract
Sophorolipids are well-known glycolipid biosurfactants, produced mainly by non-pathogenic yeast species such as Candida bombicola with high yield. Its unique environmental compatibility and high biodegradable properties have made them a focus in the present review for their promising applications in diverse areas. This [...] Read more.
Sophorolipids are well-known glycolipid biosurfactants, produced mainly by non-pathogenic yeast species such as Candida bombicola with high yield. Its unique environmental compatibility and high biodegradable properties have made them a focus in the present review for their promising applications in diverse areas. This study aims to examine current research trends of sophorolipids and evaluate their applications in food and health. A literature search was conducted using different research databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, EBSCOhost, and Wiley Online Library to identify studies on the fundamental mechanisms of sophorolipids and their applications in food and health. Studies have shown that various structural forms of sophorolipids exhibit different biological and physicochemical properties. Sophorolipids represent one of the most attractive biosurfactants in the industry due to their antimicrobial action against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms for applications in food and health sectors. In this review, we have provided an overview on the fundamental properties of sophorolipids and detailed analysis of their applications in diverse areas such as food, agriculture, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities. Full article
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20 pages, 2800 KiB  
Review
General Health Benefits and Pharmacological Activities of Triticum aestivum L.
by Said Moshawih, Rabi’atul Nur Amalia Abdullah Juperi, Ganesh Sritheran Paneerselvam, Long Chiau Ming, Kai Bin Liew, Bey Hing Goh, Yaser Mohammed Al-Worafi, Chee-Yan Choo, Shobna Thuraisingam, Hui Poh Goh and Nurolaini Kifli
Molecules 2022, 27(6), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27061948 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4468
Abstract
Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the world’s most consumed cereal grains, is known for its uses in baking and cooking in addition to its medicinal uses. As this plant’s medical benefits are enormous and scattered, this narrative review was aimed [...] Read more.
Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the world’s most consumed cereal grains, is known for its uses in baking and cooking in addition to its medicinal uses. As this plant’s medical benefits are enormous and scattered, this narrative review was aimed at describing the pharmacological activities, phytochemistry, and the nutritional values of Triticum aestivum. It is a good source of dietary fiber, resistant starch, phenolic acids, alkylresorcinols, lignans, and diverse antioxidant compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols. These constituents provide Triticum aestivum with a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anticancer, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, hypolipemic, antioxidant, laxative, and moisturizing effects. This review summarized the established benefits of wheat in human health, the mode of action, and different clinical, in vitro and in vivo studies for different varieties and cultivars. This review also gives an insight for future research into the better use of this plant as a functional food. More clinical trials, in vivo and in vitro studies are warranted to broaden the knowledge about the effect of Triticum aestivum on nutrition-related diseases prevention, and physical and mental well-being sustenance. Full article
19 pages, 1661 KiB  
Review
Coriandrum sativum L.: A Review on Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Cardiovascular Benefits
by Nisa Najibah Mahleyuddin, Said Moshawih, Long Chiau Ming, Hanis Hanum Zulkifly, Nurolaini Kifli, Mei Jun Loy, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Yaser Mohammed Al-Worafi, Bey Hing Goh, Shobna Thuraisingam and Hui Poh Goh
Molecules 2022, 27(1), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010209 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 6253
Abstract
Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum), belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family, is widely recognized for its uses in culinary and traditional medicine. C. sativum contains various phytochemicals such as polyphenols, vitamins, and many phytosterols, which account for its properties including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, [...] Read more.
Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum), belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family, is widely recognized for its uses in culinary and traditional medicine. C. sativum contains various phytochemicals such as polyphenols, vitamins, and many phytosterols, which account for its properties including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and analgesic effects. The cardiovascular benefits of C. sativum have not been summarized before, hence this review aims to further evaluate and discuss its effectiveness in cardiovascular diseases, according to the recent literature. An electronic search for literature was carried out using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, preprint platforms, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Articles were gathered from the inception of the database until August 2021. Moreover, the traditional uses and phytochemistry of coriander were surveyed in the original resources and summarized. As a result, most of the studies that cover cardiovascular benefits and fulfilled the eligibility criteria were in vivo, while only a few were in vitro and clinical studies. In conclusion, C. sativum can be deemed a functional food due to its wide range of cardiovascular benefits such as antihypertensive, anti-atherogenic, antiarrhythmic, hypolipidemic as well as cardioprotective effects. Full article
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16 pages, 335 KiB  
Review
Review of Nephelium lappaceum and Nephelium ramboutan-ake: A High Potential Supplement
by Jia Ling Tsong, Lucky Poh Wah Goh, Jualang Azlan Gansau and Siew-Eng How
Molecules 2021, 26(22), 7005; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26227005 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2958
Abstract
Nephelium lappaceum (N. lappaceum) and Nephelium ramboutan-ake (N. ramboutan-ake) are tropical fruits that gain popularity worldwide due to their tastiness. Currently, their potential to be used as pharmaceutical agents is underestimated. Chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes and aging [...] Read more.
Nephelium lappaceum (N. lappaceum) and Nephelium ramboutan-ake (N. ramboutan-ake) are tropical fruits that gain popularity worldwide due to their tastiness. Currently, their potential to be used as pharmaceutical agents is underestimated. Chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes and aging have high incidence rates in the modern world. Furthermore, pharmaceutical agents targeting pathogenic microorganisms have been hampered by the growing of antimicrobial resistance threats. The idea of food therapy leads to extensive nutraceuticals research on the potential of exotic fruits such as N. lappaceum and N. ramboutan-ake to act as supplements. Phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds that present in the fruit act as potent antioxidants that contribute to the protective effects against diseases induced by oxidative stress. Fruit residuals such as the peel and seeds hold greater nutraceutical potential than the edible part. This review highlights the antioxidant and biological activities (anti-neoplastic, anti-microbial, hypoglycemic actions and anti-aging), and chemical contents of different parts of N. lappaceum and N. ramboutan-ake. These fruits contain a diverse and important chemical profile that can alleviate or cure diseases. Full article
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