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2D Nanomaterials and Composites for Energy and Environmental Sustainability

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 26317

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales (CENM), Universidad del Valle, A.A, Cali 25360, Colombia
2. Grupo de Transiciones de Fase y Materiales Funcionales, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, A.A, Cali 25360, Colombia
Interests: nanomaterials and processes; carbonaceous materials; energy conversion and storage; environmental remediation; materials characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales (CENM), Universidad del Valle, A.A, Cali 25360, Colombia
2. Grupo de Transiciones de Fase y Materiales Funcionales, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, A.A, Cali 25360, Colombia
Interests: micro and nanomagnetic materials; micromagnetic simulations; thin films and nanomaterials; hrtem and electron holography; material characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This special issue focuses mainly on theoretical and experimental studies conducted in 2D nanomaterials and composites, specially designed for energy and environmental sustainability applications. A large specific surface area with submicrometer and nanometer thicknesses (2D nanomaterials), and the possibility to combine more than two materials either by a multilayer architecture or by a heterogeneous mixture of particles with micro- and nano-meter grain sizes, allow these systems to exhibit extraordinary properties, improving those that their constituent materials have separately or inducing a multifunctional behavior. Taking advantage of relevant properties such as quantum-size effect, electron confinement, electrical/thermal conductivity, and optical transparency, 2D nanomaterials are essential for energy and environmental applications that include H2 production, CO2 reduction, supercapacitors, electro- and photo-catalytic devices, solar cells, batteries, membrane separation, advanced oxidation process, and water remediation. In the case of composite, their multifunctional character offers the ability to improve specific properties for a targeted implementation. Like 2D nanomaterials, composite materials have contributed to improving the energy production and storage processes, and they are responsible for the circular economy model has sense.

Prof. Dr. Edgar Mosquera-Vargas
Prof. Dr. Luis Alfredo Rodríguez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • film processes
  • flexible substrates
  • carbon capture and conversion
  • nano-electronics and devices
  • ink-jet printing
  • nanostructured permanent magnets
  • carbon-based nanomaterials
  • membrane separation
  • solar cells
  • photonic materials
  • OLED
  • polymer-based nanocomposites
  • gas capture
  • H2 storage and conversion

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 3995 KiB  
Article
One-Pot Synthesis of Semiconducting Quantum Dots–Organic Linker–Carbon Nanotubes for Potential Applications in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells
by Mallika Dasari, Baleeswaraiah Muchharla, Saikat Talapatra and Punit Kohli
Molecules 2023, 28(23), 7702; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28237702 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 811
Abstract
Materials and composites with the ability to convert light into electricity are essential for a variety of applications, including solar cells. The development of materials and processes needed to boost the conversion efficiency of solar cell materials will play a key role in [...] Read more.
Materials and composites with the ability to convert light into electricity are essential for a variety of applications, including solar cells. The development of materials and processes needed to boost the conversion efficiency of solar cell materials will play a key role in providing pathways for dependable light to electric energy conversion. Here, we show a simple, single-step technique to synthesize photoactive nanocomposites by coupling carbon nanotubes with semiconducting quantum dots using a molecular linker. We also discuss and demonstrate the potential application of nanocomposite for the fabrication of bulk heterojunction solar cells. Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) were attached to multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using perylene-3, 4, 9, 10-tetracarboxylic-3, 4, 9, 10-dianhydride (PTCDA) as a molecular linker through a one-step synthetic route. Our investigations revealed that PTCDA tremendously boosts the density of QDs on MWCNT surfaces and leads to several interesting optical and electrical properties. Furthermore, the QD–PTCDA–MWCNTs nanocomposites displayed a semiconducting behavior, in sharp contrast to the metallic behavior of the MWCNTs. These studies indicate that, PTCDA interfaced between QDs and MWCNTs, acted as a molecular bridge which may facilitate the charge transfer between QDs and MWCNTs. We believe that the investigations presented here are important to discover simple synthetic routes for obtaining photoactive nanocomposites with several potential applications in the field of opto-electronics as well as energy conversion devices. Full article
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12 pages, 17559 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Eu3+-Doped NaGd9Si6O26 Sub-Microcrystals from a NaGdF4@SiO2 Structure
by Tianyun Du, Xiaojie Xue and Xiuxun Han
Molecules 2023, 28(10), 4214; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28104214 - 20 May 2023
Viewed by 1278
Abstract
Rare earth silicate phosphors of high quantum efficiency with a stable performance are promising materials in the fields of display and illumination. The grain sizes of products synthesized via the conventional solid-state reaction method are usually too large to satisfy the requirements of [...] Read more.
Rare earth silicate phosphors of high quantum efficiency with a stable performance are promising materials in the fields of display and illumination. The grain sizes of products synthesized via the conventional solid-state reaction method are usually too large to satisfy the requirements of color cast and extraction efficiency in high-resolution light-emitting devices (LEDs). We designed a synthetic route and successfully fabricated rare earth silicate NaGd9Si6O26 (NGSO) sub-microcrystals with a size ranging from 550 to 1200 nm. The reaction mechanism and optical properties were systematically investigated. The quantum efficiency of Eu3+-activated NGSO sub-microcrystals was about 36.6%. The LED encapsulated with these sub-microcrystals showed lower color deviation and higher lumen efficiency and lumen flux compared to that with NGSO fabricated using the conventional solid state reaction method. Full article
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12 pages, 3034 KiB  
Article
Study of the Properties of CdS:Al (R = [Al3+]/[Cd2+] = 0.30, 0.40, 0.50) Thin Films Grown by the CBD Method in an Ammonia-Free System
by Raju Prasanna-Kumari, Daniela Herrera-Molina, Arturo Fernández-Pérez, Jesús E. Diosa and Edgar Mosquera-Vargas
Molecules 2023, 28(8), 3626; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28083626 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2044
Abstract
CdS:Al thin films were fabricated on a glass substrate using the CBD method. The effect of aluminum incorporation on the structural, morphological, vibrational, and optical properties of CdS thin layers was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), [...] Read more.
CdS:Al thin films were fabricated on a glass substrate using the CBD method. The effect of aluminum incorporation on the structural, morphological, vibrational, and optical properties of CdS thin layers was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-visible (UV-vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. XRD analysis of deposited thin films confirmed a hexagonal structure with a preferred (002) orientation in all samples. The crystallite size and surface morphology of the films are modified with aluminum content. Raman spectra exhibit fundamental longitudinal optical (LO) vibrational modes and their overtones. Optical properties were studied for each thin film. Here, it was observed that the optical properties of thin films are affected by the incorporation of aluminum into the CdS structure. Full article
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11 pages, 2254 KiB  
Article
Morphological Electrical and Hardness Characterization of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) Nanocomposite Plates
by José Muñoz-Chilito, José A. Lara-Ramos, Lorena Marín, Fiderman Machuca-Martínez, Juan P. Correa-Aguirre, Miguel A. Hidalgo-Salazar, Serafín García-Navarro, Luis Roca-Blay, Luis A. Rodríguez, Edgar Mosquera-Vargas and Jesús E. Diosa
Molecules 2023, 28(8), 3598; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28083598 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
The impacts on the morphological, electrical and hardness properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) plates using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as reinforcing fillers have been investigated, using MWCNT loadings between 1 and 7 wt%. Plates of the TPU/MWCNT nanocomposites were fabricated by compression molding [...] Read more.
The impacts on the morphological, electrical and hardness properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) plates using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as reinforcing fillers have been investigated, using MWCNT loadings between 1 and 7 wt%. Plates of the TPU/MWCNT nanocomposites were fabricated by compression molding from extruded pellets. An X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the incorporation of MWCNTs into the TPU polymer matrix increases the ordered range of the soft and hard segments. SEM images revealed that the fabrication route used here helped to obtain TPU/MWCNT nanocomposites with a uniform dispersion of the nanotubes inside the TPU matrix and promoted the creation of a conductive network that favors the electronic conduction of the composite. The potential of the impedance spectroscopy technique has been used to determine that the TPU/MWCNT plates exhibited two conduction mechanisms, percolation and tunneling conduction of electrons, and their conductivity values increase as the MWCNT loading increases. Finally, although the fabrication route induced a hardness reduction with respect to the pure TPU, the addition of MWCNT increased the Shore A hardness behavior of the TPU plates. Full article
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9 pages, 2612 KiB  
Communication
Efficient Near-Infrared Luminescence Based on Double Perovskite Cs2SnCl6
by Xiaofei Qing, Chuanli Wu and Xiuxun Han
Molecules 2023, 28(8), 3593; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28083593 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1795
Abstract
Cs2SnCl6 double perovskite has attracted wide attention as a promising optoelectronic material because of its better stability and lower toxicity than its lead counterparts. However, pure Cs2SnCl6 demonstrates quite poor optical properties, which usually calls for active [...] Read more.
Cs2SnCl6 double perovskite has attracted wide attention as a promising optoelectronic material because of its better stability and lower toxicity than its lead counterparts. However, pure Cs2SnCl6 demonstrates quite poor optical properties, which usually calls for active element doping to realize efficient luminescence. Herein, a facile co-precipitation method was used to synthesize Te4+ and Er3+-co-doped Cs2SnCl6 microcrystals. The prepared microcrystals were polyhedral, with a size distribution around 1–3 μm. Highly efficient NIR emissions at 1540 nm and 1562 nm due to Er3+ were achieved in doped Cs2SnCl6 compounds for the first time. Moreover, the visible luminescence lifetimes of Te4+/Er3+-co-doped Cs2SnCl6 decreased with the increase in the Er3+ concentration due to the increasing energy transfer efficiency. The strong and multi-wavelength NIR luminescence of Te4+/Er3+-co-doped Cs2SnCl6 originates from the 4f→4f transition of Er3+, which was sensitized by the spin-orbital allowed 1S03P1 transition of Te4+ through a self-trapped exciton (STE) state. The findings suggest that ns2-metal and lanthanide ion co-doping is a promising method to extend the emission range of Cs2SnCl6 materials to the NIR region. Full article
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11 pages, 3716 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Applications in Catalytic Activity in the Adsorption/Degradation of Methylene Blue and Esterification
by Juan Sebastian Trujillo Hernandez, Alberto Aragón-Muriel, Willinton Corrales Quintero, Juan Camilo Castro Velásquez, Natalia Andrea Salazar-Camacho, German Antonio Pérez Alcázar and Jesús Anselmo Tabares
Molecules 2022, 27(24), 8976; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27248976 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the catalytic activity (CA) of the Fe3O4 magnetic system in the adsorption/degradation of methylene blue and esterification. The thermal decomposition method allowed the preparation of Fe3O4 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the catalytic activity (CA) of the Fe3O4 magnetic system in the adsorption/degradation of methylene blue and esterification. The thermal decomposition method allowed the preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The crystallites of the Fe3O4 structural phase present an acicular form confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy results identified the acicular shape and agglomeration of the nanoparticles. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the spectrum is composed of five components at room temperature, a hyperfine magnetic field distribution (HMFD), two sextets, a doublet, and a singlet. The presence of the HMFD means that a particle size distribution is present. Fluorescence spectroscopy studied the CA of the nanoparticles with methylene blue and found adsorption/degradation properties of the dye. The catalytic activity of the nanoparticles was evaluated in the esterification reaction by comparing the results in the presence and absence of catalyst for the reaction with isobutanol and octanol, where it is observed that the selectivity for the products MIBP and MNOP is favored in the first three hours of reaction. Full article
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11 pages, 3405 KiB  
Article
Optimized Route for the Fabrication of MnAlC Permanent Magnets by Arc Melting
by Hugo Martínez-Sánchez, Juan David Gámez, José Luis Valenzuela, Hernan Dario Colorado, Lorena Marín, Luis Alfredo Rodríguez, Etienne Snoeck, Christophe Gatel, Ligia Edith Zamora, Germán Antonio Pérez Alcázar and Jesús Anselmo Tabares
Molecules 2022, 27(23), 8347; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27238347 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
The rare-earth-free MnAlC alloy is currently considered a very promising candidate for permanent magnet applications due to its high anisotropy field and relatively high saturation magnetization and Curie temperature, besides being a low-cost material. In this work, we presented a simple fabrication route [...] Read more.
The rare-earth-free MnAlC alloy is currently considered a very promising candidate for permanent magnet applications due to its high anisotropy field and relatively high saturation magnetization and Curie temperature, besides being a low-cost material. In this work, we presented a simple fabrication route that allows for obtaining a magnetically enhanced bulk τ-MnAlC magnet. In the fabrication process, an electric arc-melting method was carried out to melt ingots of MnAlC alloys. A two-step solution treatment at 1200 °C and 1100 °C allowed us to synthesize a pure room-temperature ε-MnAlC ingot that completely transformed into τ-MnAlC alloy, free of secondary phases, after an annealing treatment at 550 °C for 30 min. The Rietveld refinements and magnetization measurements demonstrated that the quenched process produces a phase-segregated ε-MnAlC alloy that is formed by two types of ε-phases due to local fluctuation of the Mn. Room-temperature hysteresis loops showed that our improved τ-MnAlC alloy exhibited a remanent magnetization of 42 Am2/kg, a coercive field of 0.2 T and a maximum energy product, (BH)max, of 6.07 kJ/m3, which is higher than those reported in previous works using a similar preparation route. Experimental evidence demonstrated that the synthesis of a pure room-temperature ε-MnAlC played an important role in the suppression of undesirable phases that deteriorate the permanent magnet properties of the τ-MnAlC. Finally, magnetic images recorded by Lorentz microscopy allowed us to observe the microstructure and magnetic domain walls of the optimized τ-MnAlC. The presence of magnetic contrasts in all the observed grains allowed us to confirm the high-quality ferromagnetic behavior of the system. Full article
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12 pages, 2464 KiB  
Article
Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Fe–Co Bimetallic Oxide Nanosheets for Separator Modification of Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
by Jun Pu, Yun Tan, Tao Wang, Xiaomei Zhu and Shanshan Fan
Molecules 2022, 27(22), 7762; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27227762 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
The shuttle effect is understood to be the most significant issue that needs to be solved to improve the performance of lithium–sulfur batteries. In this study, ultrathin two-dimensional Fe–Co bimetallic oxide nanosheets were prepared using graphene as a template, which could rapidly catalyze [...] Read more.
The shuttle effect is understood to be the most significant issue that needs to be solved to improve the performance of lithium–sulfur batteries. In this study, ultrathin two-dimensional Fe–Co bimetallic oxide nanosheets were prepared using graphene as a template, which could rapidly catalyze the conversion of polysulfides and inhibit the shuttle effect. Additionally, such ultrathin nanostructures based on graphene provided sufficient active sites and fast diffusion pathways for lithium ions. Taking into account the aforementioned benefits, the ultrathin two-dimensional Fe–Co bimetallic oxide nanosheets modified separator assembled lithium–sulfur batteries delivered an incredible capacity of 1044.2 mAh g−1 at 1 C and retained an excellent reversible capacity of 859.4 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles. Even under high loading, it still achieved high area capacity and good cycle stability (92.6% capacity retention). Full article
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12 pages, 4351 KiB  
Article
Production and Characterization of Nanostructured Powders of Nd2Fe14B and Fe90Al10 by Mechanical Alloying
by Alvaro Javier Gómez Rodríguez, Dagoberto Oyola Lozano, Humberto Bustos Rodríguez, Yebrail Rojas Martínez, German Antonio Pérez Alcázar, Ligia Edith Zamora Alfonso and Juan Sebastian Trujillo Hernandez
Molecules 2022, 27(21), 7190; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27217190 - 24 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1200
Abstract
The objective of this work is to evaluate the applicability of exchange coupling between nanoparticles of Nd2Fe14B (hard magnetic material) and Fe90Al10 (soft magnetic material), as permanent magnets produced by surfactant-assisted mechanical alloying. The obtained powders [...] Read more.
The objective of this work is to evaluate the applicability of exchange coupling between nanoparticles of Nd2Fe14B (hard magnetic material) and Fe90Al10 (soft magnetic material), as permanent magnets produced by surfactant-assisted mechanical alloying. The obtained powders were then mixed with 85% of the Nd2Fe14B system and 15% of the Fe90Al10 system and subsequently sintered at 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C for one hour. The results obtained by Mössbauer spectrometry (MS) show a ferromagnetic behavior with six magnetic sites represented by sextets (16k1, 16k2, 8j1, 8j2, 4c and 4e), characteristic of the Nd2Fe14B system. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show a tetragonal and BCC structure for the Nd2Fe14B and FeAl systems, respectively. The results obtained by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), for mixtures of the Nd2Fe14B and Fe90Al10 sy stems sintered at 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C, allow for the conclusion that the coercive field (Hc) decreases drastically with temperature and the percentage of soft phase at values of Hc = 132 Oe compared to the coercive field values reported for Nd2Fe14B Hc = 6883 Oe, respectively. Images obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), for the Fe90Al10 system, show a tendency for the nanoparticles to agglomerate. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

20 pages, 12837 KiB  
Review
Controlling Molecular Orientation of Small Molecular Dopant-Free Hole-Transport Materials: Toward Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells
by Wenhui Li, Chuanli Wu and Xiuxun Han
Molecules 2023, 28(7), 3076; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28073076 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2018
Abstract
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have great potential for future application. However, the commercialization of PSCs is limited by the prohibitively expensive and doped hole-transport materials (HTMs). In this regard, small molecular dopant-free HTMs are promising alternatives because of their low cost and high [...] Read more.
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have great potential for future application. However, the commercialization of PSCs is limited by the prohibitively expensive and doped hole-transport materials (HTMs). In this regard, small molecular dopant-free HTMs are promising alternatives because of their low cost and high efficiency. However, these HTMs still have a lot of space for making further progress in both efficiency and stability. This review firstly provides outlining analyses about the important roles of molecular orientation when further enhancements in device efficiency and stability are concerned. Then, currently studied strategies to control molecular orientation in small molecular HTMs are presented. Finally, we propose an outlook aiming to obtain optimized molecular orientation in a cost-effective way. Full article
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23 pages, 6798 KiB  
Review
Progress and Prospect of Zn Anode Modification in Aqueous Zinc-Ion Batteries: Experimental and Theoretical Aspects
by Kaiyong Feng, Dongxu Wang and Yingjian Yu
Molecules 2023, 28(6), 2721; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28062721 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3554
Abstract
Aqueous zinc-ion batteries (AZIBs), the favorite of next-generation energy storage devices, are popular among researchers owing to their environmental friendliness, low cost, and safety. However, AZIBs still face problems of low cathode capacity, fast attenuation, slow ion migration rate, and irregular dendrite growth [...] Read more.
Aqueous zinc-ion batteries (AZIBs), the favorite of next-generation energy storage devices, are popular among researchers owing to their environmental friendliness, low cost, and safety. However, AZIBs still face problems of low cathode capacity, fast attenuation, slow ion migration rate, and irregular dendrite growth on anodes. In recent years, many researchers have focused on Zn anode modification to restrain dendrite growth. This review introduces the energy storage mechanism and current challenges of AZIBs, and then some modifying strategies for zinc anodes are elucidated from the perspectives of experiments and theoretical calculations. From the experimental point of view, the modification strategy is mainly to construct a dense artificial interface layer or porous framework on the anode surface, with some research teams directly using zinc alloys as anodes. On the other hand, theoretical research is mainly based on adsorption energy, differential charge density, and molecular dynamics. Finally, this paper summarizes the research progress on AZIBs and puts forward some prospects. Full article
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17 pages, 3552 KiB  
Review
Synthesis and Application of Liquid Metal Based-2D Nanomaterials: A Perspective View for Sustainable Energy
by Gengcheng Liao, Long Ren, Zixuan Guo, Hui Qiao, Zongyu Huang, Ziyu Wang and Xiang Qi
Molecules 2023, 28(2), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28020524 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
With the continuous exploration of low-dimensional nanomaterials, two dimensional metal oxides (2DMOs) has been received great interest. However, their further development is limited by the high cost in the preparation process and the unstable states caused by the polarization of surface chemical bonds. [...] Read more.
With the continuous exploration of low-dimensional nanomaterials, two dimensional metal oxides (2DMOs) has been received great interest. However, their further development is limited by the high cost in the preparation process and the unstable states caused by the polarization of surface chemical bonds. Recently, obtaining mental oxides via liquid metals have been considered a surprising method for obtaining 2DMOs. Therefore, how to scientifically choose different preparation methods to obtain 2DMOs applying in different application scenarios is an ongoing process worth discussing. This review will provide some new opportunities for the rational design of 2DMOs based on liquid metals. Firstly, the surface oxidation process and in situ electrical replacement reaction process of liquid metals are introduced in detail, which provides theoretical basis for realizing functional 2DMOs. Secondly, by simple sticking method, gas injection method and ultrasonic method, 2DMOs can be obtained from liquid metal, the characteristics of each method are introduced in detail. Then, this review provides some prospective new ideas for 2DMOs in other energy-related applications such as photodegradation, CO2 reduction and battery applications. Finally, the present challenges and future development prospects of 2DMOs applied in liquid metals are presented. Full article
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32 pages, 5274 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in g-C3N4-Based Materials and Their Application in Energy and Environmental Sustainability
by Qian Wang, Yongfei Li, Fenglin Huang, Shaofu Song, Ganggang Ai, Xin Xin, Bin Zhao, Yajun Zheng and Zhiping Zhang
Molecules 2023, 28(1), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28010432 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4208
Abstract
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), with facile synthesis, unique structure, high stability, and low cost, has been the hotspot in the field of photocatalysis. However, the photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4 is still unsatisfactory due to insufficient capture [...] Read more.
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), with facile synthesis, unique structure, high stability, and low cost, has been the hotspot in the field of photocatalysis. However, the photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4 is still unsatisfactory due to insufficient capture of visible light, low surface area, poor electronic conductivity, and fast recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Thus, different modification strategies have been developed to improve its performance. In this review, the properties and preparation methods of g-C3N4 are systematically introduced, and various modification approaches, including morphology control, elemental doping, heterojunction construction, and modification with nanomaterials, are discussed. Moreover, photocatalytic applications in energy and environmental sustainability are summarized, such as hydrogen generation, CO2 reduction, and degradation of contaminants in recent years. Finally, concluding remarks and perspectives on the challenges, and suggestions for exploiting g-C3N4-based photocatalysts are presented. This review will deepen the understanding of the state of the art of g-C3N4, including the fabrication, modification, and application in energy and environmental sustainability. Full article
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