Large Igneous Provinces: Research Frontiers

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Exploration Methods and Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 November 2024 | Viewed by 8268

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Department of Earth Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
2. Faculty of Geology and Geography, Tomsk State University, 634050 Tomsk, Russia
Interests: large igneous provinces (LIPs); links with mass extinctions and climate change; links with ore deposits; Venusian geology; dyke swarms; links with supercontinent breakup

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Earth Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
2. Faculty of Geology and Geography, Tomsk State University, 634050 Tomsk, Russia
Interests: large igneous provinces (LIPs); climate change through Earth history; Venusian geology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past decade, there have been dramatic advances in the global research of the key role that large igneous provinces (LIPs) play in a range of major geodynamic processes, including the formation and evolution of the lithosphere and mantle, supercontinent breakup, dramatic climate change (including mass extinctions, major regional topographic changes, and the formation of major ore deposits) and oil/gas exploration. This Special Issue welcomes manuscripts that represent research progress in any of these aspects, including the discovery of new LIPs or the dramatic expansion of known LIPs.

Dr. Richard E. Ernst
Dr. Hafida El Bilali
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • large igneous provinces—LIPs
  • supercontinent breakup
  • mass extinctions
  • climate change through earth history
  • magmatic sulphide ore deposits
  • dyke swarms
  • flood basalts
  • archean LIPs

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

27 pages, 7292 KiB  
Article
Mantle Sources and Geochemical Evolution of the Picture Gorge Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group
by Emily B. Cahoon, Martin J. Streck, Richard W. Carlson and Ilya N. Bindeman
Minerals 2024, 14(5), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14050440 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 601
Abstract
The Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) is the youngest continental flood basalt province, proposed to be sourced from the deep-seated plume that currently resides underneath Yellowstone National Park. If so, the earliest erupted basalts from this province, such as those in the Picture [...] Read more.
The Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) is the youngest continental flood basalt province, proposed to be sourced from the deep-seated plume that currently resides underneath Yellowstone National Park. If so, the earliest erupted basalts from this province, such as those in the Picture Gorge Basalt (PGB), aid in understanding and modeling plume impingement and the subsequent evolution of basaltic volcanism. Using geochemical and isotopic data, this study explores potential mantle sources and magma evolution of the PGB. Long known geochemical signatures of the PGB include overall large ion lithophile element (LILE) enrichment and relative depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE) typical of other CRBG main-phase units. Basaltic samples of the PGB have 87Sr/86Sr ratios on the low end of the range displayed by other CRBG lavas and mantle-like δ18O values. The relatively strong enrichment of LILE and depletion of HFSE coupled with depleted isotopic signatures suggest a metasomatized upper mantle as the most likely magmatic source for the PGB. Previous geochemical modeling of the PGB utilized the composition of two high-MgO primitive dikes exposed in the northern portion of the Monument Dike swarm as parental melt. However, fractionation of these dike compositions cannot generate the compositional variability illustrated by basaltic lavas and dikes of the PGB. This study identifies a second potential parental PGB composition best represented by basaltic flows in the extended spatial distribution of the PGB. This composition also better reflects the lowest stratigraphic flows identified in the previously mapped extent of the PGB. Age data reveal that PGB lavas erupted first and throughout eruptions of main-phase CRBG units (Steens, Imnaha, Grande Ronde Basalt). Combining geochemical signals with these age data indicates cyclical patterns in the amounts of contributing mantle components. Eruption of PGB material occurred in two pulses, demonstrated by a ~0.4 Ma temporal gap in reported ages, 16.62 to 16.23 Ma. Coupling ages with observed geochemical signals, including relative elemental abundances of LILE, indicates increased influence of a more primitive, potentially plume-like source with time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Igneous Provinces: Research Frontiers)
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19 pages, 5970 KiB  
Article
Origin of Redbeds in the Neoproterozoic Socheong Formation and Their Relation to the Dashigou Large Igneous Province
by Hawon Yun, Seung Hwan Lee and Inah Seo
Minerals 2024, 14(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14010059 - 2 Jan 2024
Viewed by 889
Abstract
During the latest Mesoproterozoic–Early Neoproterozoic era, extensional regimes generated a number of sedimentary basins in various regions in the Sino-Korean Craton. Mantle-plume emplacements are widely recognized in the sedimentary strata as mafic dikes and sills of the Dashigou Large Igneous Province (LIP). The [...] Read more.
During the latest Mesoproterozoic–Early Neoproterozoic era, extensional regimes generated a number of sedimentary basins in various regions in the Sino-Korean Craton. Mantle-plume emplacements are widely recognized in the sedimentary strata as mafic dikes and sills of the Dashigou Large Igneous Province (LIP). The occurrence of Fe-rich redbeds is first reported in the Neoproterozoic Socheong Formation of the Sangwon Supergroup in the Pyeongnam Basin. Their geochemical and mineralogical characteristics indicate basin-wide Fe enrichment due to hydrothermal fluid input. The episodic yet repetitive hydrothermal injection into the basin generated short-lived anoxia, recorded as greenish-gray coloration in the ferruginous beds. This hydrothermal fluid was likely sourced from the mafic igneous activities involved in the Dashigou LIP. The redbeds can be utilized as key beds for intra- or inter-basinal stratigraphic correlation and to study the negative carbon isotope excursions that occurred in the genetically related basins in the region (e.g., the Sangwon, Xu-Huai, and Dalian basins). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Igneous Provinces: Research Frontiers)
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34 pages, 10287 KiB  
Article
Province-Wide Tapping of a Shallow, Variably Depleted, and Metasomatized Mantle to Generate Earliest Flood Basalt Magmas of the Columbia River Basalt, Northwestern USA
by Martin J. Streck, Luke J. Fredenberg, Lena M. Fox, Emily B. Cahoon and Mary J. Mass
Minerals 2023, 13(12), 1544; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13121544 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 924
Abstract
The Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) of the Pacific Northwest of the United States is the world’s youngest and smallest large igneous province. Its earliest formations are the Imnaha, Steens, and now the Picture Gorge Basalt (PGB), and they were sourced from [...] Read more.
The Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) of the Pacific Northwest of the United States is the world’s youngest and smallest large igneous province. Its earliest formations are the Imnaha, Steens, and now the Picture Gorge Basalt (PGB), and they were sourced from three different dike swarms exposed from SE Washington to Nevada to northcentral Oregon. PGB is often viewed to be distinct from the other formations, as its magmas are sourced from a shallow, relatively depleted, and later subduction-induced metasomatized mantle, along with its young stratigraphic position. It has long been known that the lowermost American Bar flows (AB1&2) of the Imnaha Basalt are chemically similar to those of the PGB, yet the Imnaha Basalt is generally thought to carry the strongest plume source component. These opposing aspects motivated us to revisit the compositional relationships between AB1&2 and PGB. Our findings suggest that tapping a shallow, variably depleted, and metasomatized mantle reservoir to produce earliest CRBG lavas occurred across the province, now pinpointed to ~17 Ma. Moreover, compositional provinciality exists indicating regional differences in degree of depletion and subduction overprint that is preserved by regionally distributed lavas, which in turn implies relatively local lava emplacement at this stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Igneous Provinces: Research Frontiers)
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13 pages, 3220 KiB  
Article
Timing of Carbonatite Ultramafic Complexes of the Eastern Sayan Alkaline Province, Siberia: U–Pb (ID–TIMS) Geochronology of Ca–Fe Garnets
by Maria V. Stifeeva, Ekaterina B. Salnikova, Valentina B. Savelyeva, Alexander B. Kotov, Yulia V. Danilova, Ekaterina P. Bazarova and Boris S. Danilov
Minerals 2023, 13(8), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13081086 - 14 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 971
Abstract
In this study, we present the results of U–Pb (ID-TIMS) geochronological studies of calcic garnet from the alkaline ultramafic complexes of Eastern Sayan province (eastern Siberia). New U–Pb ID–TIMS garnet ages obtained from different rocks of Bolshaya Tagna (632 ± 2 Ma) and [...] Read more.
In this study, we present the results of U–Pb (ID-TIMS) geochronological studies of calcic garnet from the alkaline ultramafic complexes of Eastern Sayan province (eastern Siberia). New U–Pb ID–TIMS garnet ages obtained from different rocks of Bolshaya Tagna (632 ± 2 Ma) and Srednaya Zima intrusions (624 ± 5 Ma), as well as previously published garnet ages of the Belaya Zima complex (646 ± 6 Ma), allow us to constrain the timing and duration of episodes of alkaline ultramafic magmatism in Eastern Sayan province (619–651 Ma). Variations in the chemical compositions of rocks from three massifs indicate that the parental melts were separated from different magmatic chambers generated during the same episode of mantle melting. This study further highlights garnet U–Pb dating as a potentially robust, high-resolution geochronometer to constrain the evolution of the main pulse of alkaline ultramafic magmatism in the large magmatic provinces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Igneous Provinces: Research Frontiers)
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24 pages, 34695 KiB  
Article
Petrology and Age of the Yamaat Uul Mafic Complex, Khangai Mountains, Western Mongolia
by Roman Shelepaev, Maria Shapovalova, Vera Egorova, Yaroslav Shelepov, Tumen-Ulzii Oyunchimeg and Nadezhda Tolstykh
Minerals 2023, 13(6), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13060833 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1058
Abstract
The Yamaat Uul mafic complex with Cu-Ni mineralization is located in the Khangai Mountains of Western Mongolia. We have received new unique data for mafic rocks of the complex: U-Pb dating (SHRIMP II), mineralogy (WDS) and geochemistry (XRF, ICP-MS), Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope [...] Read more.
The Yamaat Uul mafic complex with Cu-Ni mineralization is located in the Khangai Mountains of Western Mongolia. We have received new unique data for mafic rocks of the complex: U-Pb dating (SHRIMP II), mineralogy (WDS) and geochemistry (XRF, ICP-MS), Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope data and sulphur isotopes. The Yamaat Uul mafic complex consists of two intrusions: Intrusion 1 is represented by rocks of plagioclase cumulates and olivine–pyroxene cumulates; Intrusion 2 consists of monzogabbro. Intrusions 1 and 2 are different in composition of minerals such as olivine, plagioclase and biotite. The monzogabbro has higher contents of incompatible elements (REE, K, Ti, P) than rocks of Intrusion 1. Zircon U-Pb dating of the anorthosite and Bt-Am-Ol gabbronorite shows a Late Permian age (255.8 ± 2.9 Ma and 262.6 ± 3.1 Ma, respectively) for the Yamaat Uul mafic complex. All of the rocks of the complex are derived from a unified parental melt due to different amounts of trapped melts in plagioclase and olivine–pyroxene cumulates and without crustal contamination. The Cu-Ni mineralization of the complex has a low degree of evolution of the sulphide melt, similar to PGE-Cu-Ni mafic–ultramafic intrusions of the Khangai Mountains (Nomgon and Oortsog Uul). The Yamaat Uul mafic complex together with other mafic–ultramafic intrusions of the Khangai Mountains is related to the Khangai LIP and can be considered as potential for the PGE-Cu-Ni. The new geological, petrological, geochemical and isotope–geochronological data can later be used to reconstruct the geotectonics of the Khangai Mountains and the Central Asian orogenic belt as a whole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Igneous Provinces: Research Frontiers)
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23 pages, 9503 KiB  
Article
Reconstruction of the Magma Transport Patterns in the Permian-Triassic Siberian Traps from the Northwestern Siberian Platform on the Basis of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Data
by Anton Latyshev, Victor Radko, Roman Veselovskiy, Anna Fetisova, Nadezhda Krivolutskaya and Sofia Fursova
Minerals 2023, 13(3), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13030446 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Patterns of magma transport during the emplacement of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are extremely important for the understanding of their formation. The Permian-Triassic Siberian Traps LIP is considered to be one of the largest in the Phanerozoic; however, mechanisms of magma transfer within [...] Read more.
Patterns of magma transport during the emplacement of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are extremely important for the understanding of their formation. The Permian-Triassic Siberian Traps LIP is considered to be one of the largest in the Phanerozoic; however, mechanisms of magma transfer within and under the crust are still poorly studied. This problem is vital for the reconstruction of the dynamics of magmatic activity and eruption styles, ascertaining the position of magmatic centers and feeding zones, and conception of ore deposits genesis. Here, we present the detailed results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility measurements for lava flows and intrusions from the Noril’sk and Kulumbe regions (the northwestern Siberian platform). We reconstructed patterns of magma flow based on the magnetic fabric analysis of more than 100 sites. Distribution of the magnetic lineation in the studied intrusions and flows points out that the lateral magma flow of NW-SE directions was predominant. Our results support the idea of a magma-controlling role of Noril’sk-Kharaelakh and Imangda-Letninskiy regional fault zones. Furthermore, the reconstructed geometry of magma transport in intrusions is contrasting with that in the Angara-Taseeva depression (the southern part of the LIP) due to the presence of the long-lived mobile zones in the northwestern Siberian platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Igneous Provinces: Research Frontiers)
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18 pages, 7947 KiB  
Article
Thermobarometry of the Rajmahal Continental Flood Basalts and Their Primary Magmas: Implications for the Magmatic Plumbing System
by Nilanjan Chatterjee and Naresh C. Ghose
Minerals 2023, 13(3), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13030426 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1488
Abstract
The Late Aptian Rajmahal Traps originated through Kerguelen-Plume-related volcanism at the eastern margin of the Indian Shield. Clinopyroxene and whole-rock thermobarometry reveals that the Rajmahal magmas crystallized at P-T conditions of ≤~5 kbar/~1100–1200 °C. These pressures correspond to upper crustal depths (≤~19 km). [...] Read more.
The Late Aptian Rajmahal Traps originated through Kerguelen-Plume-related volcanism at the eastern margin of the Indian Shield. Clinopyroxene and whole-rock thermobarometry reveals that the Rajmahal magmas crystallized at P-T conditions of ≤~5 kbar/~1100–1200 °C. These pressures correspond to upper crustal depths (≤~19 km). Modeling shows that the Rajmahal primary magmas were last in equilibrium with mantle at P-T conditions of ~9 kbar/~1280 °C. The corresponding depths (~33 km) are consistent with gravity data that indicate a high-density layer at lower crustal depths below an upwarped Moho. Thus, the high-density layer probably represents anomalous mantle. It is likely that the mantle-derived magmas accumulated below the upwarped Moho and were subsequently transported via trans-crustal faults/fractures to the upper crust where they evolved by fractional crystallization in small staging chambers before eruption. In the lower part of the Rajmahal plumbing system, buoyant melts from the Kerguelen Plume may have moved laterally and upward along the base of the lithosphere to accumulate and erode the eastern Indian lithospheric root. The Rajmahal plumbing system was probably shaped by tectonic forces related to the breakup of Gondwana. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Igneous Provinces: Research Frontiers)
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