Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Basic–Ultrabasic and Alkaline Intrusions and Related Magmatic Deposits

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Deposits".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 6740

Special Issue Editors

Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of Russian Academу of Sciences, Kosygin str. 19, 119334 Moscow, Russia
Interests: PGE-Cu-Ni deposits; Siberian traps; geochemistry; melt inclusions; olivine
Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of Russian Academу of Sciences, Kosygin str. 19, 119334 Moscow, Russia
Interests: peralkaline magmatism; origin of rare metal deposits; geochemistry of strategic metals; isotopic signature of alkaline and carbonatites
Dr. Victor Zaitsev
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of Russian Academу of Sciences, Kosygin str. 19, 119334 Moscow, Russia
Interests: alkaline rocks; carbonatites; petrology; genetical mineralogy; technological mineralogy; critical metals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Magmatic deposits are the source of strategic metals supplied to the global market. Ultrabasic–basic complexes comprise PGE, Cu-Ni, Cr, Ti, and V deposits; many deposits of rare metals (Zr, Ta, Nb, Be, Y, Sc, Li, Ge) are related to alkaline intrusions. These metals play an important role in high-tech, green-tech methodology. Both types of intrusions are often located within the same tectonic structures (intraplate, rift). The factors affecting magmatic deposits include their structural positions, compositions of parental magmas, sources of magmas, conditions of magma generation and crystallization (P, T, fO2), and the fluid regime of magmas. One of the vital problems faced in terms of magmatic deposits is due to the mechanisms of metal concentrations, which lead to the appearance of super large deposits such as Norilsk, Khibiny, etc. These mechanisms may be different for single deposits; our task is to recognize them. Thus, analyses of geological settings, the geochemical and mineralogical compositions of host rocks (major, trace elements; Sr, Nd, Pb isotope data) and related ores (including S, Re-Os isotopes) should be conducted to reconstruct deposit formations.

Dr. Nadezhda Krivolutskaya
Prof. Dr. Lia Nikolaevna Kogarko
Dr. Victor Zaitsev
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Basic–ultrabasic intrusions
  • Alkaline magmatism
  • PGE-Cu-Ni deposits 
  • Fe-Ti-V mineralization 
  • Cr ores 
  • Nb deposits 
  • Zr (eudialyte) deposits 
  • Rare-earth deposits 
  • Apatite deposits

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 5089 KiB  
Article
Apatite as an Indicator for the Formation of PGE Mineralization as Exemplified by Anorthosites of the Kievey Deposit, Fedorova-Pana Layered Complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia
Minerals 2023, 13(12), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13121473 - 23 Nov 2023
Viewed by 660
Abstract
This paper presents petrography, X-ray electron probe energy-dispersive (EDS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and Raman spectroscopy data to characterize the mineral associations and composition of apatite group minerals from anorthosites of the Kievey deposit, North platinum group-element (PGE) Reef, [...] Read more.
This paper presents petrography, X-ray electron probe energy-dispersive (EDS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and Raman spectroscopy data to characterize the mineral associations and composition of apatite group minerals from anorthosites of the Kievey deposit, North platinum group-element (PGE) Reef, Fedorova-Pana Complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The mineralized coarse-grained anorthosite belongs to the most common rock type of the main ore body, and hosts irregular interstitial sulfide disseminations of 5–7 vol.%. Apatite in the anorthosite occurs as (a) euhedral grains included in the marginal parts of cumulus plagioclase laths, and (b) xenomorphic grains associated with intercumulus minerals. The composition of apatite evolves along a narrow trend from fluorapatite to hydroxylapatite. The F content of apatite reaches 2.21 wt.%; the maximum Sr and rare earth element (REE) concentrations are 257 and 5623 ppm, respectively, while the average ratio of La/YbN = 11.78, Sr/Sr* = 0.01, and Eu/Eu* = 0.06. Compared to classic PGE reefs in layered intrusions, such as Bushveld in South Africa and Stillwater in the United States, the mineralized anorthosite is distinguished by apatite with an unusually low chlorine concentration of only 0.46 wt.%. A suggested reason for this difference is the percolating nature of sulfide liquid, which has not been enriched in PGE in situ. Full article
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17 pages, 5152 KiB  
Article
Geochemical Distribution of Platinum Metals, Gold and Silver in Intrusive Rocks of the Norilsk Region
Minerals 2023, 13(6), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13060719 - 24 May 2023
Viewed by 945
Abstract
The Norilsk ore district is one of the world leaders in the production of platinum metals. Long-term research focused on the detection of sulfide platinum-copper-nickel ores contributed to the accumulation of a large volume of scientific material on the geology and mineralization of [...] Read more.
The Norilsk ore district is one of the world leaders in the production of platinum metals. Long-term research focused on the detection of sulfide platinum-copper-nickel ores contributed to the accumulation of a large volume of scientific material on the geology and mineralization of the Norilsk area. Despite this, the issue of the composition of the initial melt for ore-bearing intrusive complexes and its degree of enrichment with noble metals remains open. Intrusive rocks of the Norilsk region are rarely analyzed for their ratio of noble metals. However, the analysis and comparison of geochemical parameters of different types of intrusions allows us to draw important conclusions not only about the composition of the initial magmas of ore-bearing complexes, but also about the formation conditions of the intrusions. This study demonstrates the distribution of platinum metals, gold and silver in the main petrographic differentiates of the Kharaelakh, Talnakh, Vologochan intrusions and Kruglogorsk-type intrusion. The regularities and variations of the distribution of metals depend on the host rocks. There are two series of rocks in the inner structure of the ore-bearing intrusions: 1. Picritic and taxitic gabbro-dolerites enriched in PGE-Au-Ag mineralization which forms disseminated ores at intrusion bottoms (ore-bearing rocks). 2. Olivine-, olivine-bearing, olivine-free gabbro-dolerites and leucogabbro with poor sulfide mineralization at the upper part of the intrusions (ore-free rocks). There is a distinct correlation between PGE, Cu, S and to a lesser extent correlation with Ni in the first rock group, which is a characteristic of sulfide PGE-Cu-Ni deposits. In the second group, correlations are also revealed, but the correlation coefficients are lower. The main element controlling the distribution of platinum metals is copper. The taxitic gabbro-dolerites of the Talnakh intrusion are the most enriched by noble metals. According to noble metal patterns the rocks of the Kharaelakh intrusion show the highest degree of melting of the initial mantle material during the formation of parental magmas chambers. Despite some differences, the geochemical features of the studied rocks indicate the similar characteristics of the accumulation of gold, silver and platinum metals in the intrusions of the Talnakh, Kruglogorsk and Zubovsk types, which allow suggesting the close conditions for the formation of ore mineralization of these intrusions. Full article
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31 pages, 12136 KiB  
Article
Layered Intrusions of Paleoproterozoic Age in the Kola and Karelian Regions
Minerals 2023, 13(5), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13050597 - 25 Apr 2023
Viewed by 810
Abstract
Large-scale layered intrusions of a peridotite–pyroxenite–gabbronorite complex, to which Cr, Ni, Cu, and PGE deposits and ore occurrences are confined, were emplaced into the Baltic paleocontinent 2.50–2.45 Ga. Layered intrusions in the Monchegorsk Ore District, including the Monchepluton and Imandra–Umbarechka Complex, as well [...] Read more.
Large-scale layered intrusions of a peridotite–pyroxenite–gabbronorite complex, to which Cr, Ni, Cu, and PGE deposits and ore occurrences are confined, were emplaced into the Baltic paleocontinent 2.50–2.45 Ga. Layered intrusions in the Monchegorsk Ore District, including the Monchepluton and Imandra–Umbarechka Complex, as well as the gabbro-anorthosite complex of the Main Ridge, were analyzed earlier geochemically and isotopically. In the present paper, the authors analyze layered intrusions in the Kola region (Mount Generalskaya) and Karelia (Kivakka, Kovdozero, and the Burakovsky Pluton). The primary composition of mantle magmas for the layered intrusions is assumed to be identical to that of the komatiitic basalts making up the volcanogenic units of the Vetreny Belt and the Imandra–Varzuga zone. A general model for the formation of layered intrusions includes superplume uplift in the early Paleoproterozoic, the generation of mantle magmas and their injection into the lower portion of the earth crust, the formation of deep-seated and intermediate magma chambers, and the intense contamination of the granulite–metamorphic complex followed by the generation of magma chambers provoked by single or multiple injections. Full article
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34 pages, 30194 KiB  
Article
Natural Experiment on the Extraction and Quenching of Rapakivi-like Magmas: Traces of Interaction with the Mafic Melts and Their Derivatives, Salmi Batholith (Karelia, Russia)
Minerals 2023, 13(4), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13040527 - 08 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1189
Abstract
The origin of the anorthosite-rapakivi granite-bearing rock complexes was a topic of research for geologists for more than a century. Magmatic systems that produce these complexes were widely developed in the Precambrian and have no direct analogues in modern times. The main goal [...] Read more.
The origin of the anorthosite-rapakivi granite-bearing rock complexes was a topic of research for geologists for more than a century. Magmatic systems that produce these complexes were widely developed in the Precambrian and have no direct analogues in modern times. The main goal of this study was to characterize the conditions under which primitive granitoids formed and to shed light on the history of ore matter transport during these stages. The object of the research was granite porphyry dikes—a subeffusive analogue of rapakivi granite from the Salmi batholith in the Fennoscandian Shield. Characteristic solid-phase inclusions of a mineral paragenesis of mafic rocks, as well as inclusions of sulfide melts, were found in zircon from this type of rock. These sulfide inclusions were homogenized by heating, and subsequently, the trace element composition was determined by the LA-ICP-MS method. The geochemistry of zircons was studied by the SIMS method, and the temperature of their formation was determined using a Ti-geothermometer. The temperature of the studied zircon grain formation varied from 925 to 765 °C. The values of ƒO2 for the early stages of the rock formation were in the region below the boundary of the FMQ buffer. The presence of two sulfide melts at the time at which the sulfide inclusions were captured by the zircon, pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite, and sphalerite-chalcopyrite compositions was established. The capture of sulfide inclusions from the pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite composition occurred above 841 °C, while in sphalerite-chalcopyrite, they occurred at a lower temperature of 765 °C. The connection between the formation of granite porphyry with mafic melts that form rocks of the gabbro and anorthosite types was established. Full article
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20 pages, 11078 KiB  
Article
Geochemical Features of Potentially Ore-Bearing Mafic Intrusions at the Eastern Norilsk Region and Their Relationships with Lavas (NW Siberian Traps Province)
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020213 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
The problem of the world-class PGE-Cu-Ni Norilsk deposits’ origin has attracted geologists for several decades. The main goal of this study is to determine the specific features of ore-bearing intrusions in comparison with thousands of similar barren intrusions widespread within the Siberian igneous [...] Read more.
The problem of the world-class PGE-Cu-Ni Norilsk deposits’ origin has attracted geologists for several decades. The main goal of this study is to determine the specific features of ore-bearing intrusions in comparison with thousands of similar barren intrusions widespread within the Siberian igneous province, and to establish their genesis. As a result of statistical processing of previously published isotope-geochemical data and obtained by the authors, systematic differences were found in the distribution of the isotopic ratio of Nd in ore-bearing and barren intrusions, as well as in volcanic rocks at the Norilsk region. Thus, ore-bearing rocks in ten deposits (Talnakh, Kharayelakh, Norilsk 1, South-Maslovsky, North-Maslovsky, Norilsk 2, Chernogorsky, Zub-Mrksheydersky, Pyasino-Vologochansky, Imangdinsky), different in Ni and PGE reserves, show a very narrow range of Nd isotopic ratio, ԐNd(T) = 1.0 ± 1.0 (2σ, N = 139), whereas barren and volcanic rocks are characterized by a rather wide ԐNd(T) range, from −10 to +7 units (N = 256). Furthermore, ore-bearing intrusions are characterized by reduced and compact variations of the La/Lu ratio due to lower concentrations of light lanthanides. For the first time the authors studied two new intrusions penetrated by MD-48 and MD-60 boreholes drilled by Norislkgeologia LLT at the eastern part of the Mikchangda area. Their economic values are still unclear and should be estimated using geochemical methods. Both intrusions lie in the Devonian rocks, have similar thickness and mineral composition, but differ in textural and structural features, which indicate a rapid crystallization of the MD-48 intrusion. According to the contents of the major oxides, the rocks in MD-48 and MD-60 are identical, but they differ in U/Nb, La/Sm, and Gd/Yb ratios. It is important that the rocks in the MD-60 borehole are characterized by ԐNd(T) = 1.0 ± 0.6 (2σ) and fall into the range of ore-bearing intrusions, whereas the rocks in MD-48 have ԐNd(T) 2.4 ± 0.9, and, thus, are outside of ore-bearing intrusions. Therefore, ԐNd(T) values can be used as a local criterion for the estimation of economic potential of mafic intrusions, which is demonstrated for the Mikachangda area. Full article
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33 pages, 10619 KiB  
Article
The Permian-Triassic Riftogen Rocks in the Norilsk Area (NW Siberian Province): Geochemistry and Their Possible Link with PGE-Cu-Ni Mineralization
Minerals 2022, 12(10), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12101203 - 24 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
The volcanic rocks in the Vologochan syncline, the Khikey River valley, and Mount Sunduk, within the Norilsk area in the NW Siberian large igneous province, have been studied. They belong to the Ivakinsky, Syverminsky, Gudchikhinsky, Khakanchansky, Nadezhdinsky, Tuklonsky, and Morongovsky Formations. These Formations [...] Read more.
The volcanic rocks in the Vologochan syncline, the Khikey River valley, and Mount Sunduk, within the Norilsk area in the NW Siberian large igneous province, have been studied. They belong to the Ivakinsky, Syverminsky, Gudchikhinsky, Khakanchansky, Nadezhdinsky, Tuklonsky, and Morongovsky Formations. These Formations consist of trachybasalts, picritic basalts and tholeiitic basalts with aphyric and porphyritic textures, and intersertal and poikiloofitic structures. For the first time, we demonstrate the variations in the structure and composition of these Formations along the strike, based on 151 analyses of the major and trace elements in the rocks. The thickness of all the Formations, excepting the Morongovsky, reduce dramatically from the Yenisey–Khatanga trough to the Tunguska syneclise, and they pinch out in the east of the Norilsk area and are attributed to riftogen (rift) basalts. The rock compositions also change in this direction, especially in the Gudchikhinsky and Nadezhdinsky Formations. The two subformations of the Gudchikhinsky formation, the lower and upper, disappear in the east, so the Gudchikhinsky consists only of high-Mg rocks, picritic basalts, and picrites. The composition of the Nadezhdinsky formation varies intensely in its (Gd/Yb)n and (Th/Nb) ratios from the Vologochan syncline to the Khikey River valley. These structural and compositional variabilities differ between the rift formations and the platform ones. Two gabbro–dolerite sills from these areas that are close to the Norilsk and Ergalakh intrusive complexes have been studied. The metal contents in volcanic and intrusive rocks are similar and do not differ from the barren rocks of the South Pyasinsky massif comprising the PGE-Cu-Ni deposits. Only the Gudchikhinsky Formation contains elevated Cu and Ni concentrations. These features and the coinciding spatial distribution of the ore-bearing intrusions and picrites of the Gudchikhinsky rocks in the Norilsk–Igarka paleorift suggest their genetic link. It is proposed that the initial sulfides could have been formed in the mantle, as the Gudchikhinsky picrites, transported to the lower crust, and then involved by the trap magmas in the origin of the ore-bodies in the Norilsk deposits. Full article
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