Special Issue "Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Basalts"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Deposits".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021) | Viewed by 3498

Special Issue Editors

Discipline of Geological Sciences, SAEES, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa
Interests: igneous petrology; geochemistry; impact cratering process; Archaean geochemistry and tectonics; geochronology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Planetary Science Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009, India
Interests: planetary geology; impact craters; meteorites; oceanic basalts; continental flood basalts
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Earth and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China
Interests: igneous petrology; large igneous province; plume-subducted slab interaction; ore deposit
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The basalt is the most abundant eruptive rocks on the surfaces of inner solar system planetary bodies. The basaltic rocks occurring on the surface of our planet Earth are perhaps one of the most voluminous and best-studied rocks in our inner solar system. The upcoming knowledge of modern research on these basaltic rocks could be extended to evaluate the evolution of planetary basaltic crusts. Although terrestrial basaltic rocks, occurring both on the modern ocean floor and continents, have been studied extensively using petrographic, mineral- and whole-rock geochemical and isotopic techniques and approaches of experimental petrology, many of the fundamental questions remain unresolved—for example, the origin of continental flood basalts (CFBs), the debatable mantle plume hypothesis and its possible role in the basalt petrogenesis, contamination of upper mantle with components of continental crust during the Gondwana break-up and its impact on geochemistry of oceanic basalts. If the modern plate tectonic-like setting was absent in the Archaean, what would be the model for explaining the origin of terrestrial Archaean basalts? Etc.

The petrochemical information on extraterrestrial basalts comes from studies on returned and achondrite samples mainly from the moon, Mars, and parent body of HED meteorites Vesta. The major enigma remains on the origin of high Ti basalts on the moon, the role of the KREEP component in lunar basalt petrogenesis, serial magmatism to explain the petrologic diversity in the lunar crust, the nature of young volcanism on the moon, ancient basaltic crust and geological evolution of Mars, understanding enrichment and depletion of Martian mantle through crust, etc. It is also an important issue to explore why the terrestrial subduction-zone-related basalts (i.e., high-Al2O3 basalts) are not abundant in the achondritic meteorite population. To get the most updated answers to some of these questions, the journal Minerals has planned to publish a Special Issue on “Terrestrial and Planetary Basaltic Rocks”, which includes the following topics: a) terrestrial MORB and its planetary significance, b) terrestrial subduction zone basalts, c) origin of extraterrestrial basalts using suitable terrestrial analogy, and d) mantle plume and its impact on basalt petrogenesis.

Dr. Saumitra Misra
Dr. Dwijesh Ray
Prof. Zhaochong Zhang
Guest Editors

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  • MORB
  • subduction zone basalts
  • continental flood basalt
  • lunar and Martian basalts
  • basaltic achondrite
  • mantle plume and basalt petrogenesis

Published Papers (1 paper)

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33 pages, 17246 KiB  
Geochemical Variation of Miocene Basalts within Shikoku Basin: Magma Source Compositions and Geodynamic Implications
Minerals 2021, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11010025 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2821
Shikoku Basin is unique as being located within a trench-ridge-trench triple junction. Here, we report mineral compositions, major, trace-element, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of bulk-rocks from Sites C0012 (>18.9 Ma) and 1173 (13–15 Ma) of the Shikoku Basin. Samples from Sites C0012 and [...] Read more.
Shikoku Basin is unique as being located within a trench-ridge-trench triple junction. Here, we report mineral compositions, major, trace-element, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of bulk-rocks from Sites C0012 (>18.9 Ma) and 1173 (13–15 Ma) of the Shikoku Basin. Samples from Sites C0012 and 1173 are tholeiitic in composition and display relative depletion in light rare earth elements (REEs) and enrichment in heavy REEs, generally similar to normal mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORB). Specifically, Site C0012 samples display more pronounced positive anomalies in Rb, Ba, K, Pb and Sr, and negative anomalies in Th, U, Nb, and Ta, as well as negative Nb relative to La and Th. Site 1173 basalts have relatively uniform Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions, close to the end member of depleted mantle, while Site C0012 samples show slightly enriched Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic signature, indicating a possible involvement of enriched mantle 1 (EM1) and EM2 sources, which could be attributed to the metasomatism of the fluids released from the dehydrated subduction slab, but with the little involvement of subducted slab-derived sedimentary component. Additionally, the Shikoku Basin record the formation of the back-arc basin was a mantle conversion process from an island arc to a typical MORB. The formation of the Shikoku Basin is different from that of the adjacent Japan Sea and Parece Vela Basin, mainly in terms of the metasomatized subduction-related components, the nature of mantle source, and partial melting processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Basalts)
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