Recent Advances in Deep Ore Prospecting

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Exploration Methods and Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 4900

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
China Deep Exploration Center-SinoProbe Center, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China
Interests: deep earth exploration; mineral resources prospecting

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Geophysics and Measurement-Control Technology, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, China
Interests: deep resource exploration; electromagnetic inversion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Modern ore deposit exploration dates back to a century ago. In recent years, the cost of exploration has increased, the rate of return has decreased, and the complexity of brownfield prospecting has continuously grown. As a result, the global mining industry has gradually turned to its deep target to the “greenfield”, and measures have been taken to deal with the challenges of deep prospecting. Therefore, the Special Issue of the "Recent Advances in Deep Ore Prospecting" has been organized to promote the efficiency of deep prospecting, improve the application of scientific and technological exploration, and provide typical demonstration case.

This Special Issue focuses on the key achievements, technical methods, and research progress of deep mineral prospecting around the world. The topics for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

(1) Important progress and cases of deep ore prospecting;

(2) Techniques and methods of deep ore prospecting;

(3) Three-dimensional geological or geophysical modeling for ore deposits features and deep metallogenic regularity;

(4) Exploration of mineral systems and their structures.

Dr. Jiayong Yan
Prof. Dr. Juzhi Deng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • deep ore prospecting
  • advances in geophysics exploration
  • 3D geological modelling
  • mineral system exploration

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 12915 KiB  
Article
Discussion of the W-Sn-REE Metallogenic Background in the Nanling Region of South China: Evidence from Satellite Gravity and Magnetic Data
by Fan Luo, Jiayong Yan, Sheng Zhang, Jian Liang, Guangming Fu, Dehai Wu and Guogang Reng
Minerals 2024, 14(3), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14030215 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 672
Abstract
The Nanling region is located at the intersection of the Yangtze Block and Cathaysia Block and is characterized by complex geological and tectonic processes, as well as distinct W-Sn-REE mineralization. Despite extensive research on the mineralization of W-Sn and REE deposits in the [...] Read more.
The Nanling region is located at the intersection of the Yangtze Block and Cathaysia Block and is characterized by complex geological and tectonic processes, as well as distinct W-Sn-REE mineralization. Despite extensive research on the mineralization of W-Sn and REE deposits in the Nanling region, the factors impacting the distribution pattern of eastern tungsten and western tin deposits, as well as the mechanism of REE enrichment in the parent rocks, remain uncertain. Deep structural and tectonic variability plays a crucial role in the formation of mineral deposits in the upper crust. Information on deep structural and tectonic variability is contained in the Moho depth, Curie depth, effective elastic thickness, lithospheric density, and thermal structure derived from the processing and inversion of satellite gravity and magnetic data. In this paper, we comprehensively analyse satellite gravity and magnetic data from the Nanling region, integrating the processing and inversion results with the tectonic evolution of this region and relevant geological information. It is hypothesized that the Chenzhou–Linwu fault serves as a channel for mineral and thermal transfer in the Sn ore aggregation zone, facilitating the material transport from the deep mantle to the surface and ultimately leading to the formation of Sn-enriched granite. The collection area of tungsten ore is more weakly associated with the Chenzhou–Linwu fault, and through deep heat transfer, tungsten components are primarily concentrated in the Earth’s crust to produce W-enriched granite. The primary source of REE enrichment in the parent rocks associated with REE mineralization is predominantly derived from the felsic crust, and the rapid intrusion of deep magma resulting from the subduction and retraction of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate is a contributing factor to the contrasting enrichment of light and heavy rare-earth elements. Mineral crystalline differentiation is relatively high, leading to the formation of ore-forming parent rocks with high heavy rare-earth element contents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Deep Ore Prospecting)
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33 pages, 22699 KiB  
Article
Deep Structure of Nanling-Xuancheng Ore District, Eastern China: Insights from Integrated Geophysical Exploration
by Dong Guo, Xueyi Lan, Sanming Lu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Wenxiang Ding, Miao You, Kun Zhang, Lili Zhao, Yunyun Wang, Shasha Zhang, Huijie Zhang and Long Tao
Minerals 2023, 13(12), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13121498 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
As the depth of mineral exploration increases, integrated geophysical methods are increasingly playing a crucial role in prospecting deep structures at the district scale. The Nanling-Xuancheng ore district is the eighth ore district in the middle-lower Yangtze metallogenic belt in China. To reveal [...] Read more.
As the depth of mineral exploration increases, integrated geophysical methods are increasingly playing a crucial role in prospecting deep structures at the district scale. The Nanling-Xuancheng ore district is the eighth ore district in the middle-lower Yangtze metallogenic belt in China. To reveal the deep structure of the mining district, this study mainly focuses on regional high-precision gravity and magnetic data and integrates the interpretation of magnetotelluric and reflection seismic data from a key area. By using a 2.5D joint inversion method with prior information constraints, new insights into the deep structures, tectonic deformation, and magmatic activity are obtained. Structurally, the Nanling-Xuancheng ore district presents a structural pattern of “two uplifts and two depressions” composed of multi-level thrust-overturned and folds formed by Mesozoic depressions, which has a three-layer structure in the vertical direction (shallower than 10 km). Tectonically, the main faults in the study area trend NW, which intersect with NE-trending and EW-trending faults to form a branching structure from deep to shallow. The fault intersections provide pathways for magma intrusion. The distribution of deep-seated concealed magmatic rocks shows the characteristic pattern of “a primary magma source spawning multiple subsidiary intrusion”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Deep Ore Prospecting)
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16 pages, 34435 KiB  
Article
Application of High-Resolution Aeromagnetic and Gamma-ray Spectrometry Surveys for Litho-Structural Mapping in Southwest China
by Guixiang Liao, Yongbo Li, Yongzai Xi, Ning Lu and Shan Wu
Minerals 2023, 13(11), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13111424 - 9 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Airborne geophysical surveys serve as an effective tool for litho-structural mapping, providing extensive and high-resolution underground information. They offer vital data support for the interpretation and analysis of lithologies and structures, complementing surface geological mapping. In the study area of the Nanpanjiang-Youjiang metallogenic [...] Read more.
Airborne geophysical surveys serve as an effective tool for litho-structural mapping, providing extensive and high-resolution underground information. They offer vital data support for the interpretation and analysis of lithologies and structures, complementing surface geological mapping. In the study area of the Nanpanjiang-Youjiang metallogenic belt in southeast China, we obtained high-resolution aeromagnetic and gamma-ray spectrometry data covering an area of approximately 27,000 km2, which facilitated the conduct of litho-structural mapping. The total magnetic intensity, reduction to the pole, and directional derivative maps generated from the aeromagnetic data, efficiently identified concealed rocks and faults. Additionally, the total count, potassium, thorium to potassium ratio, and ternary maps generated from the airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data demonstrated advantages in distinguishing carbonate rocks from clastic rocks. They also provided more comprehensive geological information, refining the structural strike and location interpreted by the aeromagnetic data. The litho-structural map produced in this study significantly contributes to our understanding of the structures in the Nanpanjiang area and offers valuable guidance for successful mineral exploration endeavors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Deep Ore Prospecting)
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21 pages, 5585 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Geological–Geophysical Modeling and Prospecting Indications of the Ashele Ore Concentration Area in Xinjiang Based on Irregular Sections
by Guang Qi, Guixiang Meng, Jiayong Yan, Hejun Tang and Ronghui Xue
Minerals 2023, 13(7), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13070984 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
The Ashele ore concentration area is an important area for polymetallic ore concentration in Xinjiang, China. Scholars have made progress in understanding the ore-controlling structures, ore-bearing horizons, and metallogenic age of this area. However, there are still uncertainties about the 3D distributions of [...] Read more.
The Ashele ore concentration area is an important area for polymetallic ore concentration in Xinjiang, China. Scholars have made progress in understanding the ore-controlling structures, ore-bearing horizons, and metallogenic age of this area. However, there are still uncertainties about the 3D distributions of plutons, fault structures, and ore-bearing strata, which restrict the development of deep and peripheral ore prospecting and the discovery of new ore bodies in the area. This study proposes a geological–geophysical modeling method based on irregular sections and uses this method to establish a 3D geological–geophysical model based on physical property data, boreholes, surface geological maps, and geophysical data. The model shows that the study area has many hidden rock masses with various depths and shapes and fracture structures with complex shapes. The fault structure in the area is complex, and the ore bodies are controlled by the faults. The ore-bearing geological units (Ashele Formation) exhibit an obvious east–west-trending W-shaped fold structure. The deep part of the northern Ashele Formation extends northward slightly, and the southern Ashele Formation has thick strata, with depths generally greater than 2 km. Based on the information on deep structures provided by the model, three metallogenic prospective areas are predicted, which points out the direction for further prospecting work in the ore concentration area and shows that the adopted modeling method and process have good applicability for constructing 3D models of ore concentration areas with sparse data, large area, and complex geological structures. The proposed modeling method provides technical support for ore prospecting, particularly in the overburden area or ore concentration area with sparse data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Deep Ore Prospecting)
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