Role of Beneficial Microbiota in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 8570

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel
Interests: microbiome; holobiont; hologenome; microbiota; corals; evolution
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology & Immunology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
Interests: pathogenic and beneficial host-microbe interactions within the realms of medicine and behavior

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One of the major current challenges in human and veterinary medicine is applying recent advances in microbiome research to prevent and treat disease. This Special Issue will provide a collection of articles that describe new findings on the use of bacteria, yeasts, and viruses to combat disease in animals, plants, and humans.  The scope of this issue will include but not be limited to probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fecal transplantation, and phage therapy. We invite you to submit research articles, review articles, and short communications on the role of beneficial microbiota in the prevention and treatment of disease.

Prof. Dr. Eugene Rosenberg
Dr. Kevin Theis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • beneficial microbiota
  • probiotics
  • prebiotics
  • synbiotics
  • fecal transplantation
  • phage therapy

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

40 pages, 2329 KiB  
Article
Effect of Periodontal Interventions on Characteristics of the Periodontal Microbial Profile: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Sonia Nath, Shaju Jacob Pulikkotil, Laura Weyrich, Peter Zilm, Kostas Kapellas and Lisa Jamieson
Microorganisms 2022, 10(8), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10081582 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3972
Abstract
Our systematic review aimed to evaluate the effect of periodontal interventions on the diversity and composition of periodontal microbiota assessed by high throughput sequencing (HTS) metagenomics analysis. An electronic search was conducted from database inception to November 2021. All clinical trials that evaluated [...] Read more.
Our systematic review aimed to evaluate the effect of periodontal interventions on the diversity and composition of periodontal microbiota assessed by high throughput sequencing (HTS) metagenomics analysis. An electronic search was conducted from database inception to November 2021. All clinical trials that evaluated the effect of periodontal interventions on the gingival microbiota through HTS were selected. The measures of alpha diversity, richness, Shannon diversity index, and the Chao1 index, were used as the primary outcome, whereas relative abundances of bacterial genera were considered as the secondary outcome. Overall, 24 studies were eligible for the systematic review, of which 13 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Periodontal intervention for the test group decreased Shannon diversity, richness, and Chao1 index (alpha diversity), as observed from baseline to post-treatment. The most common genera that increased after periodontal therapy were Rothia, Actinomyces, Streptococcus, Veillonella, and Hemophilus, whilst Porphyromonas, Tannerella, Fusobacterium, and Treponema decreased after periodontal therapy. Periodontal interventions may decrease the bacterial diversity and richness and alter the composition of oral microbiota in the short term. Periodontal microbiota signatures could potentially be used for the assessment of periodontal disease development, progression, and success of the intervention. Full article
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15 pages, 5166 KiB  
Article
The Common and Unique Pattern of Microbiome Profiles among Saliva, Tissue, and Stool Samples in Patients with Crohn’s Disease
by Seung Yong Shin, Sounkou Kim, Ji Won Choi, Sang-Bum Kang, Tae Oh Kim, Geom Seog Seo, Jae Myung Cha, Jaeyoung Chun, Yunho Jung, Jong Pil Im, Ki Bae Bang, Chang Hwan Choi, Soo-Kyung Park and Dong Il Park
Microorganisms 2022, 10(7), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10071467 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
This study aimed to elucidate common and unique microbiome patterns in saliva, intestinal tissue biopsy, and stool samples from patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Saliva, tissue, and stool samples from patients with CD were prospectively collected. Quantitative and phylogenetic analyses of 16s rRNA [...] Read more.
This study aimed to elucidate common and unique microbiome patterns in saliva, intestinal tissue biopsy, and stool samples from patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Saliva, tissue, and stool samples from patients with CD were prospectively collected. Quantitative and phylogenetic analyses of 16s rRNA sequencing data were performed with bioinformatical pipelines. A total of 30 patients were enrolled in this study. The composition of major microbial taxa was similar between tissue and stool samples. A total of 11 of the 20 most abundant microbiota were found in both samples. The microbial community in saliva was significantly distinct from that in tissue and stool. The major species of microbiota and their composition also differed significantly from those of tissue and stool samples. However, Streptococcus and Prevotella are common genera in saliva, tissue, and stool microbiome. The abundance of Streptococcus, Pantoea, and Actinomyces from the saliva sample group were significantly different, varying with the location of the inflammation. Saliva has a distinct microbial community compared with tissues and stools in patients with CD. Prevotella and Streptococcus, which are commonly observed in saliva, stool, and tissue, can be considered a potential biomarker related to the diagnosis or prognosis of CD. Full article
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14 pages, 2961 KiB  
Article
Host Species Adaptation of Obligate Gut Anaerobes Is Dependent on Their Environmental Survival
by Daniela Karasova, Marcela Faldynova, Jitka Matiasovicova, Alena Sebkova, Magdalena Crhanova, Tereza Kubasova, Zuzana Seidlerova, Hana Prikrylova, Jiri Volf, Michal Zeman, Vladimir Babak, Helena Juricova, Jana Rajova, Lenka Vlasatikova, Petr Rysavka and Ivan Rychlik
Microorganisms 2022, 10(6), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061085 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1786
Abstract
The gut microbiota of warm-blooded vertebrates consists of bacterial species belonging to two main phyla; Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. However, does it mean that the same bacterial species are found in humans and chickens? Here we show that the ability to survive in an [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota of warm-blooded vertebrates consists of bacterial species belonging to two main phyla; Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. However, does it mean that the same bacterial species are found in humans and chickens? Here we show that the ability to survive in an aerobic environment is central for host species adaptation. Known bacterial species commonly found in humans, pigs, chickens and Antarctic gentoo penguins are those capable of extended survival under aerobic conditions, i.e., either spore-forming, aerotolerant or facultatively anaerobic bacteria. Such bacteria are ubiquitously distributed in the environment, which acts as the source of infection with similar probability in humans, pigs, chickens, penguins and likely any other warm-blooded omnivorous hosts. On the other hand, gut anaerobes with no specific adaptation for survival in an aerobic environment exhibit host adaptation. This is associated with their vertical transmission from mothers to offspring and long-term colonisation after administration of a single dose. This knowledge influences the design of next-generation probiotics. The origin of aerotolerant or spore-forming probiotic strains may not be that important. On the other hand, if Bacteroidetes and other host-adapted species are used as future probiotics, host preference should be considered. Full article
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