Epidemiology, Transmission, Cell Biology and Pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Parasitology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020) | Viewed by 43455

Special Issue Editors

Institut Pasteur of Lille, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, UMR CNRS 8204, INSERM U1019, University of Lille, University Hospital of Lille, 1 rue du Professeur Calmette, 59019, Lille, France
Interests: intestinal protozoa; parasitic diseases; Cryptosporidium; Blastocystis; epidemiology; transmission; zoonosis; molecular biology; omics; host-parasites interactions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institut Pasteur of Lille, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, UMR CNRS 8204, INSERM U1019, University of Lille, University Hospital of Lille, 1 rue du Professeur Calmette, 59019, Lille, France
Interests: intestinal protozoa; parasitic diseases; Cryptosporidium; Blastocystis; epidemiology; transmission; zoonosis; molecular biology; omics; host-parasites interactions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cryptosporidium parasites represent a major public health problem in humans and animals, causing self-limited diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts and life-threatening disease in immunocompromised hosts. Results from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) showed that Cryptosporidium is among the leading causes of moderate to severe diarrhea in children under 2 years. These parasites are ubiquitous and have been isolated from a wide range of hosts. The oocyst can survive in the environment for months, being resistant to most chemical disinfectants, including chlorination. In addition, the low infective dose allows an easy acquisition of infection. In addition to outbreaks caused by contaminated water and infected animals, foodborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have also been reported. Furthermore, there is a lack of treatment or vaccination. In addition, several pieces of evidence support an association between Cryptosporidium and the development of digestive neoplasia. However, dynamics of infection are yet to be investigated. Recent advances in parasite biology should help to clarify its zoonotic potential, diversity, and which factors and mechanisms favor disease. While substantial improvements have been made in understanding Cryptosporidium and its biology, much progress is needed. For this Special Issue, we invite you to send contributions on any aspects relating to epidemiology, transmission, cell biology, and pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium.

Dr. Eric Viscogliosi
Dr. Gabriela Certad
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Epidemiology
  • Transmission
  • Pathogenesis
  • Virulence factors
  • Cell biology
  • Immunology
  • Cryptosporidium

Published Papers (15 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

4 pages, 197 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue: Epidemiology, Transmission, Cell Biology and Pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium
Microorganisms 2021, 9(3), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030511 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1305
Abstract
The apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium represents a major public health problem in humans and animals by causing self-limited diarrhea in immunocompetent individuals and life-threatening disease in immunocompromised hosts [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

9 pages, 752 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characterization of Novel Cryptosporidium Fish Genotypes in Edible Marine Fish
Microorganisms 2020, 8(12), 2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122014 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
Current knowledge of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in marine fish is limited. Following phylogenetic analysis at the 18S rDNA locus, a recent study identified six new genotypes of Cryptosporidium colonizing edible fish found in European seas. Of these, five grouped in a clade together (#Cryptofish [...] Read more.
Current knowledge of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in marine fish is limited. Following phylogenetic analysis at the 18S rDNA locus, a recent study identified six new genotypes of Cryptosporidium colonizing edible fish found in European seas. Of these, five grouped in a clade together (#Cryptofish 1–5) and one grouped separately (#Cryptofish 7). In the present study, after phylogenetic analyses of #Cryptofish1, #Cryptofish2, #Cryptofish4, #Cryptofish5 and #Cryptofish7 at the actin locus, the presence of two major clades was confirmed. In addition, when possible, longer 18S amplicons were generated. In conclusion, the small genetic distances between these genotypes designated as a novel marine genotype I (#Cryptofish 1-5) suggest that they may be genetic variants of the same species, while the designated novel marine genotype 2 (#Cryptofish 7) is clearly representative of a separate species. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1481 KiB  
Article
Cryptosporidium parvum Subverts Antimicrobial Activity of CRAMP by Reducing Its Expression in Neonatal Mice
Microorganisms 2020, 8(11), 1635; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8111635 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Cryptosporidium parvum causes diarrhea in infants under 5 years, in immunosuppressed individuals or in young ruminants. This parasite infects the apical side of ileal epithelial cells where it develops itself and induces inflammation. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are part of the innate immune response, [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium parvum causes diarrhea in infants under 5 years, in immunosuppressed individuals or in young ruminants. This parasite infects the apical side of ileal epithelial cells where it develops itself and induces inflammation. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are part of the innate immune response, playing a major role in the control of the acute phase of C. parvum infection in neonates. Intestinal AMP production in neonates is characterized by high expressions of Cathelicidin Related Antimicrobial Peptide (CRAMP), the unique cathelicidin in mice known to fight bacterial infections. In this study, we investigated the role of CRAMP during cryptosporidiosis in neonates. We demonstrated that sporozoites are sensitive to CRAMP antimicrobial activity. However, during C. parvum infection the intestinal expression of CRAMP was significantly and selectively reduced, while other AMPs were upregulated. Moreover, despite high CRAMP expression in the intestine of neonates at homeostasis, the depletion of CRAMP did not worsen C. parvum infection. This result might be explained by the rapid downregulation of CRAMP induced by infection. However, the exogenous administration of CRAMP dampened the parasite burden in neonates. Taken together these results suggest that C. parvum impairs the production of CRAMP to subvert the host response, and highlight exogenous cathelicidin supplements as a potential treatment strategy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2745 KiB  
Article
Epidemiology of Cryptosporidiosis in France from 2017 to 2019
Microorganisms 2020, 8(9), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091358 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3307
Abstract
Cryptosporidiosis is currently recognized worldwide as a leading cause of moderate to severe diarrhea. In Europe, large water- and foodborne outbreaks have been reported, highlighting the widespread distribution of the parasite and its important health impact. Surveillance networks have been progressively set up [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidiosis is currently recognized worldwide as a leading cause of moderate to severe diarrhea. In Europe, large water- and foodborne outbreaks have been reported, highlighting the widespread distribution of the parasite and its important health impact. Surveillance networks have been progressively set up and the aim of this study was to present recent epidemiological data obtained in France from 2017 to 2019 by the National Reference Center—Expert Laboratory of cryptosporidiosis (Centre National de Référence–Laboratoire Expert cryptosporidioses CNR-LE). Data were obtained from online reports of volunteer network participants and stools were sent to the CNR-LE for species identification and GP60 genotyping. During this period, data from 750 online reports were available. Cryptosporidiosis occurred predominantly in young children (<5 years old) and in young adults, especially during late summer. Most patients were immunocompetent (60%), and deaths were reported only in immunocompromised patients. Cryptosporidium parvum was largely predominant (72% of cases) over C. hominis (24%) and some other uncommon species. C. parvum GP60 subtypes IIa and IId were the most represented, which suggests frequent zoonotic transmission. For C. hominis, subtypes IbA10G2 and IaA22R2 were predominant. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1328 KiB  
Article
Subtyping Cryptosporidium ryanae: A Common Pathogen in Bovine Animals
Microorganisms 2020, 8(8), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081107 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
Cryptosporidium ryanae is one of the most common species for cryptosporidiosis in cattle. However, little is known of the genetic characteristics of C. ryanae due to the lack of subtyping tools. In the present study, the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene of [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium ryanae is one of the most common species for cryptosporidiosis in cattle. However, little is known of the genetic characteristics of C. ryanae due to the lack of subtyping tools. In the present study, the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene of C. ryanae was identified in whole genome sequence data and analyzed for sequence characteristics using bioinformatics tools. The protein it encodes had some of the typical characteristics of GP60 proteins, with a signal peptide, a furin cleavage site, and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor at the C terminus of the protein, and numerous O-glycosylation sites. The gene sequence was used in the development of a subtyping tool, which was used in characterizing C. ryanae from 110 specimens from dairy cattle, 2 from beef cattle, 6 from yaks, and 4 from water buffaloes in China. Altogether, 17 subtypes from 8 subtype families were recognized, namely XXIa to XXIh. Possible host adaption was identified within this species, reflected by the unique occurrence of XXIa, XXIc, and XXIh in dairy cattle, yaks, and water buffaloes, respectively. Some geographical differences were detected in the distribution of subtype families in dairy cattle; specimens from southern China showed higher genetic diversity than from northern China, and the XXIa subtype family was only seen in dairy cattle in southern and eastern China. The gp60-based subtyping tool should be useful in molecular epidemiological studies of the transmission of C. ryanae. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 819 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Genotypes of Cryptosporidium in Wildlife Populations Co-Located in a Protected Watershed in the Pacific Northwest, 2013 to 2016
Microorganisms 2020, 8(6), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060914 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1802
Abstract
Between October 2013 and May 2016, 506 scat samples were collected from 22 species of wildlife located in a protected watershed of a major municipal water supply in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium in the wildlife scat was 13.8% (70/506), [...] Read more.
Between October 2013 and May 2016, 506 scat samples were collected from 22 species of wildlife located in a protected watershed of a major municipal water supply in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium in the wildlife scat was 13.8% (70/506), with 15 species of wildlife found positive for Cryptosporidium. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium varied among species of wildlife, with higher prevalences observed in cougars (50.0%), mountain beavers (40.0%), and bobcats (33.3%), but none of these species are riparian-dependent. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium by sequencing PCR amplicons from the 18S rRNA gene were successful for seven species of wildlife, including bobcat, unknown predator, black-tailed deer, deer mouse, snowshoe hare, mountain beaver, and western spotted skunk. BLAST and phylogenetic analyses indicated that multiple species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium were present, with some isolates possibly co-circulating within and between wildlife populations in this protected watershed. Evidence of oocyst exchange between infected prey and their predators was also found. During the study period, several zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and genotypes that are uncommon in humans were detected in bobcat (99.58% identical to Cryptosporidium felis), unknown predator (100% identical to Cryptosporidium canis), snowshoe hare (100% identical to Cryptosporidium sp. skunk genotype), and mountain beaver (100% identical to Cryptosporidium ubiquitum). Novel sequences were also found in mountain beaver. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of a unique genotype or species of Cryptosporidium in mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2117 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Microbiome of Cryptosporidium-Infected Mice Correlate to Differences in Susceptibility and Infection Levels
Microorganisms 2020, 8(6), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060879 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3521
Abstract
Cryptosporidium spp. are opportunistic protozoan parasites that infect epithelial cells of the small intestine, causing diarrheal illness in humans. Differences in severity may be due to the immunological status of the host, malnutrition or prior exposure but may also be due to differences [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium spp. are opportunistic protozoan parasites that infect epithelial cells of the small intestine, causing diarrheal illness in humans. Differences in severity may be due to the immunological status of the host, malnutrition or prior exposure but may also be due to differences in the host gut flora. We examined changes in bacterial flora following antibiotic treatment to determine how cryptosporidial infections and gut integrity were affected by alterations in the microbiome. DNA was extracted from fecal and intestinal samples during peak infection. V4 region amplicons were generated and sequenced using 16sRNA on an Illumina MiSeq. Species evenness and richness were estimated using the Shannon diversity index. There was a significant decrease in anaerobes and overgrowth of Enterobacteriaceae in mice treated with cloxacillin. We also examined levels of short-chain fatty acids in fecal samples. There was a significant decrease in acetate, propionate, and butyrate in these same mice. Concurrent with the shift in bacterial infection was a significant increase in severity of cryptosporidial infection and increase in gut permeability. Treatment with other antibiotics significantly altered the microbiome but did not change the infection, suggesting that specific alterations in the host microbiome allow for more favorable growth of the parasite. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 1168 KiB  
Article
Molecular Diversity of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis sp. in Asymptomatic School Children in Leganés, Madrid (Spain)
Microorganisms 2020, 8(4), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8040466 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2721
Abstract
Enteric parasites including Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and to a lesser extent, Blastocystis sp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, are major worldwide contributors to diarrhoeal disease. Assessing their molecular frequency and diversity is important to ascertain the sources of infection, transmission dynamics, and [...] Read more.
Enteric parasites including Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and to a lesser extent, Blastocystis sp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, are major worldwide contributors to diarrhoeal disease. Assessing their molecular frequency and diversity is important to ascertain the sources of infection, transmission dynamics, and zoonotic potential. Little molecular information is available on the genotypes of these pathogens circulating in apparently healthy children. Here, we show that asymptomatic carriage of G. duodenalis (17.4%, 95% CI: 15.5–19.4%), Blastocystis sp. (13.0%, 95% CI: 11.4–14.8%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%, 95% CI: 0.5–1.5%) is common in children (1–16 years; n = 1512) from Madrid, Spain. Our genotyping data indicate that; (i) the observed frequency and diversity of parasite genetic variants are very similar to those previously identified in Spanish clinical samples, so that the genotype alone does not predict the clinical outcome of the infection, (ii) anthroponotic transmission accounts for a large proportion of the detected cases, highlighting that good personal hygiene practices are important to minimizing the risk of infection, (iii) Blastocystis ST4 may represent a subtype of the parasite with higher pathogenic potential, and (iv) Enterocytozoon bieneusi does not represent a public health concern in healthy children. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 2222 KiB  
Article
Cryptosporidium parvum gp40/15 Is Associated with the Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane and Is a Potential Vaccine Target
Microorganisms 2020, 8(3), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030363 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2763
Abstract
Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan responsible for the diarrheal illness cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. Although a number of zoite surface proteins are known to be expressed during, and believed to be involved in, attachment and invasion of host cells, the [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan responsible for the diarrheal illness cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. Although a number of zoite surface proteins are known to be expressed during, and believed to be involved in, attachment and invasion of host cells, the molecular mechanisms by which C. parvum invades the host epithelial cells are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the gene expression patterns, protein localization in developmental stages in culture, and in vitro neutralization characteristics of Cpgp40/15 and Cpgp40. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that Cpgp40/15 is associated with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) during intracellular development. Both anti-gp40/15 and anti-gp40 antibodies demonstrated the ability to neutralize C. parvum infection in vitro. Further studies are needed to fully understand the specific role and functional mechanism of Cpgp40/15 (or gp40/15 complex) in the invasion of the host or in the PVM and to determine the feasibility of gp40/15 as a vaccine candidate for cryptosporidiosis in vivo. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1066 KiB  
Article
First Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in Migratory Whooper Swans (Cygnus cygnus) in China
Microorganisms 2020, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8010006 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2166
Abstract
Cryptosporidium is an important protozoan parasite that can cause gastrointestinal diseases in humans and that also causes respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in birds. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in migratory whooper swans in China. Fecal samples (n [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium is an important protozoan parasite that can cause gastrointestinal diseases in humans and that also causes respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in birds. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in migratory whooper swans in China. Fecal samples (n = 467) from whooper swans were collected from Sanmenxia Swan Lake National Urban Wetland Park, China. The samples were analyzed for Cryptosporidium species and genotypes with PCR along a sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA. Cryptosporidium was detected in eight of the 467 (1.7%) samples. The analysis of the small subunit rRNA sequence data revealed two zoonotic species (Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium andersoni) and one genotype (Cryptosporidium goose genotype II). These are the first data on the positive rate of Cryptosporidium spp. in whooper swans in China, and they suggest that whooper swans can harbor the zoonotic species C. parvum and C. andersoni in China. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 1917 KiB  
Article
Characterization of INS-15, A Metalloprotease Potentially Involved in the Invasion of Cryptosporidium parvum
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100452 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2678
Abstract
Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite that can cause moderate-to-severe diarrhea. Insulinase-like proteases (INS) are one of the largest protein families within the small proteome of the pathogen. However, their roles in C. parvum biology remain un-elucidated. In this study, a member of [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite that can cause moderate-to-severe diarrhea. Insulinase-like proteases (INS) are one of the largest protein families within the small proteome of the pathogen. However, their roles in C. parvum biology remain un-elucidated. In this study, a member of the protein family, INS-15 of C. parvum encoded by cgd3_4260, was cloned, expressed and characterized to understand its function. INS-15 and its domain I were expressed in Escherichia coli and polyclonal antibodies against the domain I and one specific polypeptide were prepared in rabbits. The role of INS-15 protein in the C. parvum invasion was preliminarily studied. Recombinant INS-15 protein and its domain I were successfully expressed in E. coli, together with various degraded products. The cgd3_4260 gene had a peak expression at 2 h of in vitro C. parvum culture, while the INS-15 protein was expressed in the mid-anterior region of sporozoites and the area of merozoites opposite to the nucleus. Anti-INS-15 domain I antibodies reduced the invasion of C. parvum sporozoites by over 40%. The anterior location of INS-15 in invasion stages and partial reduction of in vitro growth indicate that INS-15 plays some roles in the invasion or early development of C. parvum. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4085 KiB  
Article
Divergent Copies of a Cryptosporidium parvum-Specific Subtelomeric Gene
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090366 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2257
Abstract
Subtype families of Cryptosporidium parvum differ in host range, with IIa and IId being found in a broad range of animals, IIc in humans, and IIo and IIp in some rodents. Previous studies indicated that the subtelomeric cgd6_5520-5510 gene in C. parvum is [...] Read more.
Subtype families of Cryptosporidium parvum differ in host range, with IIa and IId being found in a broad range of animals, IIc in humans, and IIo and IIp in some rodents. Previous studies indicated that the subtelomeric cgd6_5520-5510 gene in C. parvum is lost in many Cryptosporidium species, and could potentially contribute to the broad host range of the former. In this study, we identified the presence of a second copy of the gene in some C. parvum subtype families with a broad host range, and showed sequence differences among them. The sequence differences in the cgd6_5520-5510 gene were not segregated by the sequence type of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene. Genetic recombination appeared to have played a role in generating divergent nucleotide sequences between copies and among subtype families. These data support the previous conclusion on the potential involvement of the insulinase-like protease encoded by the subtelomeric cgd6_5520-5510 gene in the broad host range of C. parvum IIa and IId subtypes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

13 pages, 10335 KiB  
Review
Cryptosporidium and Colon Cancer: Cause or Consequence?
Microorganisms 2020, 8(11), 1665; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8111665 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 4798
Abstract
The number of cancers attributable to infectious agents represents over 20% of the global cancer burden. The apicomplexan intracellular parasite Cryptosporidium is currently considered one of the major causes of mild and severe diarrhea worldwide. However, less attention has been paid to its [...] Read more.
The number of cancers attributable to infectious agents represents over 20% of the global cancer burden. The apicomplexan intracellular parasite Cryptosporidium is currently considered one of the major causes of mild and severe diarrhea worldwide. However, less attention has been paid to its tumorigenic potential despite the high exposure of humans and animals to this ubiquitous parasite. Herein, we discuss the potential causal link between Cryptosporidium infection and digestive cancer, with particular emphasis on colon cancer, based on increasing clinical, epidemiological and experimental pieces of evidence supporting this association. In addition, we highlight the current knowledge about the potential mechanisms by which this parasite may contribute to cell transformation and parasite-induced cancer. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1628 KiB  
Review
Organoids and Bioengineered Intestinal Models: Potential Solutions to the Cryptosporidium Culturing Dilemma
Microorganisms 2020, 8(5), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050715 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4461
Abstract
Cryptosporidium is a major cause of severe diarrhea-related disease in children in developing countries, but currently no vaccine or effective treatment exists for those who are most at risk of serious illness. This is partly due to the lack of in vitro culturing [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium is a major cause of severe diarrhea-related disease in children in developing countries, but currently no vaccine or effective treatment exists for those who are most at risk of serious illness. This is partly due to the lack of in vitro culturing methods that are able to support the entire Cryptosporidium life cycle, which has led to research in Cryptosporidium biology lagging behind other protozoan parasites. In vivo models such as gnotobiotic piglets are complex, and standard in vitro culturing methods in transformed cell lines, such as HCT-8 cells, have not been able to fully support fertilization occurring in vitro. Additionally, the Cryptosporidium life cycle has also been reported to occur in the absence of host cells. Recently developed bioengineered intestinal models, however, have shown more promising results and are able to reproduce a whole cycle of infectivity in one model system. This review evaluates the recent advances in Cryptosporidium culturing techniques and proposes future directions for research that may build upon these successes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

11 pages, 1181 KiB  
Project Report
Cryptosporidium Prevalence in Calves and Geese Co-Grazing on Four Livestock Farms Surrounding Two Reservoirs Supplying Public Water to Mainland Orkney, Scotland
Microorganisms 2019, 7(11), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7110513 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4417
Abstract
The parasite Cryptosporidium parvum represents a threat to livestock health and production, water quality and public health. Cattle are known to be significant reservoirs of C. parvum, but transmission routes are complex and recent studies have implicated the potential role of wildlife [...] Read more.
The parasite Cryptosporidium parvum represents a threat to livestock health and production, water quality and public health. Cattle are known to be significant reservoirs of C. parvum, but transmission routes are complex and recent studies have implicated the potential role of wildlife in parasite transmission to cattle and water sources. On the Orkney Isles, high densities of Greylag geese (Anser anser) cause widespread faecal contamination of cattle pastures, where cryptosporidiosis is known to be the main cause of neonatal calf diarrhoea and Cryptosporidium contamination frequently occurs in two reservoirs supplying Mainland Orkney’s public water. This study aimed to determine the Cryptosporidium species and subtypes present in geese and calves co-grazing on four farms surrounding two reservoirs on Mainland Orkney. Results indicated a high level of C. parvum prevalence in calves, geese and water samples. gp60 analysis illustrated that higher genotypic diversity was present in the goose population compared with calves, but did not yield sequence results for any of the water samples. It can be concluded that the high levels of C. parvum evident in calves, geese and water samples tested represents a significant risk to water quality and public health. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop