Probiotics: The Current State of Scientific Knowledge

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Gut Microbiota".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 8462

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Health Sciences, Calisia University, 62-800 Kalisz, Poland
Interests: probiotics; gut microbiota; antimicrobial activity; pathogen overgrowth; Clostridium infections
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The topic of the use of probiotic strains in medical practice is relatively new but at the same time is of great interest. Recognition of the role of the microbiota in the etiopathogenesis of many diseases, not only of the gastrointestinal tract, makes microbiota modifications of interest to physicians. Currently, the number of publications on the use of particular strains of probiotic bacteria in alleviating the symptoms of many diseases and their prevention is growing rapidly. Scientific studies have shown a link between intestinal dysbiosis and conditions such as functional gastrointestinal disorders (IBS), atopic dermatitis (AD), mental and neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum disorders). In addition, a link between abnormal gut microbiota structure and diseases of civilization has been suggested.

New publications on microbiota are appearing every day, due to the rapid development of microbiological techniques for identifying microorganisms. In addition to traditional methods (microbial culture), these are mainly new, more sensitive and specific methods, such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing. They allow for a better understanding of the microbiota, often referred to as an additional organ.

Considering the above facts, we would like to encourage as many scientists as possible to participate in research on probiotic issues. From our side, we offer the possibility of publishing your research results in a Special Issue of one of the best journals on these issues, Microorganisms.

Prof. Dr. Jacek Piatek
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • microbiota modification
  • microbiological techniques for identifying microorganisms
  • probiotics in therapy
  • probiotics and antibiotic resistance

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2030 KiB  
Article
The Probiotic Properties and Safety of Limosilactobacillus mucosae NK41 and Bifidobacterium longum NK46
by Jaekoo Lee, Jaehyun Jo, Hanseul Seo, Seung-Won Han and Dong-Hyun Kim
Microorganisms 2024, 12(4), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12040776 - 11 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Probiotics should possess specific properties to exert beneficial effects, and their safety must be ensured for human consumption. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probiotic properties and safety of Limosilactobacillus mucosae NK41 and Bifidobacterium longum NK46 isolated from human feces in vitro. [...] Read more.
Probiotics should possess specific properties to exert beneficial effects, and their safety must be ensured for human consumption. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probiotic properties and safety of Limosilactobacillus mucosae NK41 and Bifidobacterium longum NK46 isolated from human feces in vitro. Both strains exhibited high resistance to simulated gastrointestinal fluid. Furthermore, probiotic-related cell surface characteristics including auto-aggregation and cell surface hydrophobicity were assessed by measuring the absorbance at a wavelength of 600 nm, which demonstrated good auto-aggregation ability and affinity for xylene, indicating their effective adhesion to Caco-2 cells. In addition, hemolytic, gelatinase, and β-glucuronidase activities were found to be negative in both strains. The susceptibility to nine commonly used antibiotics was assessed using the broth macrodilution method, which demonstrated that both strains were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. Furthermore, L. mucosae NK41 and B. longum NK46 produced significantly higher levels of L-lactate (71.8 ± 0.7% and 97.8 ± 0.4%) than D-lactate (28.2 ± 0.7% and 2.2 ± 0.4%, respectively). Using PCR amplification to investigate genes associated with virulence factors, we found that neither strain harbored any virulence genes. These findings suggest that L. mucosae NK41 and B. longum NK46 have the potential to be used as probiotics and are considered safe for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics: The Current State of Scientific Knowledge)
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15 pages, 7917 KiB  
Article
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Induces Apoptosis in Melanoma and Breast Cancer Cells
by Oana Budu, Alexandra Mioc, Codruta Soica, Florina Caruntu, Andreea Milan, Camelia Oprean, Daniel Lighezan, Slavita Rotunjanu, Viviana Ivan and Christian Banciu
Microorganisms 2024, 12(1), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12010182 - 17 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Despite the notable advancements witnessed in the past decade in medical and health research domain, cancer remains a prominent global cause of mortality. Moreover, the conventional treatments employed to combat this disease have been found to considerably compromise the quality of life experienced [...] Read more.
Despite the notable advancements witnessed in the past decade in medical and health research domain, cancer remains a prominent global cause of mortality. Moreover, the conventional treatments employed to combat this disease have been found to considerably compromise the quality of life experienced by patients due to its severe side effects. Recent in vitro studies revealed encouraging findings on the potential beneficial effects of probiotics as adjuvants of anticancer therapy, and even as possible agents for the prevention and treatment of various types of malignancies. From this standpoint, the primary objective of this work was to investigate the anticancer properties of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (LP) and elucidate its underlying mechanism of action. In order to investigate this matter, several doses of LP (ranging from 105 to 1010 CFU/mL) were examined in relation to melanoma cancer cell lines (A375) and breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). The cell viability findings, which were substantiated by morphological investigations and annexin V/PI assay, indicated that LP exerted inhibitory effects on cellular activity and triggered apoptosis. Additionally, upon further investigation into its mechanism, it was observed through the apoptosis assay and Western blot analysis that the administration of LP resulted in an elevation of pro-apoptotic BAX protein levels and an upregulation of cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) protein expression. Conversely, the levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein were found to decrease in the A375 and MCF-7 cell lines. These findings provide insight into the pro-apoptotic mechanism of action of LP in these specific cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics: The Current State of Scientific Knowledge)
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Review

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32 pages, 1235 KiB  
Review
Importance of Probiotics in Fish Aquaculture: Towards the Identification and Design of Novel Probiotics
by Edgar Torres-Maravilla, Mick Parra, Kevin Maisey, Rodrigo A. Vargas, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Alex Gonzalez, Mario Tello and Luis G. Bermúdez-Humarán
Microorganisms 2024, 12(3), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12030626 - 21 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Aquaculture is a growing industry worldwide, but it faces challenges related to animal health. These challenges include infections by parasites, bacteria, and viral pathogens. These harmful pathogens have devastating effects on the industry, despite efforts to control them through vaccination and antimicrobial treatments. [...] Read more.
Aquaculture is a growing industry worldwide, but it faces challenges related to animal health. These challenges include infections by parasites, bacteria, and viral pathogens. These harmful pathogens have devastating effects on the industry, despite efforts to control them through vaccination and antimicrobial treatments. Unfortunately, these measures have proven insufficient to address the sanitary problems, resulting in greater environmental impact due to the excessive use of antimicrobials. In recent years, probiotics have emerged as a promising solution to enhance the performance of the immune system against parasitic, bacterial, and viral pathogens in various species, including mammals, birds, and fish. Some probiotics have been genetically engineered to express and deliver immunomodulatory molecules. These promote selective therapeutic effects and specific immunization against specific pathogens. This review aims to summarize recent research on the use of probiotics in fish aquaculture, with a particular emphasis on genetically modified probiotics. In particular, we focus on the advantages of using these microorganisms and highlight the main barriers hindering their widespread application in the aquaculture industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics: The Current State of Scientific Knowledge)
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23 pages, 586 KiB  
Review
Probiotics’ Effects in the Treatment of Anxiety and Depression: A Comprehensive Review of 2014–2023 Clinical Trials
by Ermis Merkouris, Theodora Mavroudi, Daniil Miliotas, Dimitrios Tsiptsios, Aspasia Serdari, Foteini Christidi, Triantafyllos K. Doskas, Christoph Mueller and Konstantinos Tsamakis
Microorganisms 2024, 12(2), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12020411 - 19 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Changes in the gut microbiome can affect cognitive and psychological functions via the microbiota–gut–brain (MGB) axis. Probiotic supplements are thought to have largely positive effects on mental health when taken in sufficient amounts; however, despite extensive research having been conducted, there is a [...] Read more.
Changes in the gut microbiome can affect cognitive and psychological functions via the microbiota–gut–brain (MGB) axis. Probiotic supplements are thought to have largely positive effects on mental health when taken in sufficient amounts; however, despite extensive research having been conducted, there is a lack of consistent findings on the effects of probiotics on anxiety and depression and the associated microbiome alterations. The aim of our study is to systematically review the most recent literature of the last 10 years in order to clarify whether probiotics could actually improve depression and anxiety symptoms. Our results indicate that the majority of the most recent literature suggests a beneficial role of probiotics in the treatment of depression and anxiety, despite the existence of a substantial number of less positive findings. Given probiotics’ potential to offer novel, personalized treatment options for mood disorders, further, better targeted research in psychiatric populations is needed to address concerns about the exact mechanisms of probiotics, dosing, timing of treatment, and possible differences in outcomes depending on the severity of anxiety and depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics: The Current State of Scientific Knowledge)
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