Plasma-Based Surface Engineering

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D:Materials and Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018) | Viewed by 36782

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of the Aegean, Metropolite Ioakeim 2, 81400 Myrina, Lemnos, Greece
Interests: functional and “smart” materials; applications of nanotechnology in food science; wetting control and superhydrophobicity and applications in food science; novel diagnostic tools for food safety and quality monitoring
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Guest Editor
Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR “Demokritos”, Aghia Paraskevi, 15341 Attica, Greece
Interests: plasma etching; surface modification; superhydrophobicity; wetting; lab-on-a-chip

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Guest Editor
Division of Process Analysis and Plant Design, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece
Interests: mutliscale modeling and simulation; plasma processing; microfluidic devices; lab on a chip systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Surface engineering is important for many applications, such as superhydrophobicity/superamphiphobicity, self-cleaning, anti-fogging, anti-icing, and antibacterial action. Engineering of such surfaces requires structuring at the micro and nano-scale or coatings with micro and/or nano-features and surface energy control. Plasma processing is already used for various surface treatments, yet new functionalities, which impose new requirements for surface engineering, are sought. In this Special Issue, we aim to collect all the recent achievements in plasma fabricated surfaces and their applications. We also aim to address durability and other performance issues, as well as modeling and design issues, towards a new generation of plasma-based functional surfaces. Additionally, we want to present the perspectives and challenges in the field. Contributions are expected to expand the field of application for the plasma-based surfaces.

Dr. Kosmas Ellinas
Prof. Evangelos Gogolides
Dr. George Kokkoris
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Plasma deposition
  • Plasma modification
  • Plasma etching
  • Wetting control
  • Biomolecule adhesion control
  • Superhydrophobicity

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 1689 KiB  
Article
Roughness Evolution and Charging in Plasma-Based Surface Engineering of Polymeric Substrates: The Effects of Ion Reflection and Secondary Electron Emission
by George Memos, Elefterios Lidorikis and George Kokkoris
Micromachines 2018, 9(8), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9080415 - 19 Aug 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4162
Abstract
The interaction of plasma with polymeric substrates generates both roughness and charging on the surface of the substrates. This work, toward the comprehension and, finally, the control of plasma-induced surface roughness, delves into the intertwined effects of surface charging, ion reflection, and secondary [...] Read more.
The interaction of plasma with polymeric substrates generates both roughness and charging on the surface of the substrates. This work, toward the comprehension and, finally, the control of plasma-induced surface roughness, delves into the intertwined effects of surface charging, ion reflection, and secondary electron-electron emission (SEEE) on roughness evolution during plasma etching of polymeric substrates. For this purpose, a modeling framework consisting of a surface charging module, a surface etching model, and a profile evolution module is utilized. The case study is etching of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate by argon plasma. Starting from an initial surface profile with microscale roughness, the results show that the surface charging contributes to a faster elimination of the roughness compared to the case without charging, especially when ion reflection is taken into account. Ion reflection sustains roughness; without ion reflection, roughness is eliminated. Either with or without ion reflection, the effect of SEEE on the evolution of the rms roughness over etching time is marginal. The mutual interaction of the roughness and the charging potential is revealed through the correlation of the charging potential with a parameter combining rms roughness and skewness of the surface profile. A practical implication of the current study is that the elimination or the reduction of surface charging will result in greater surface roughness of polymeric, and generally dielectric, substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Based Surface Engineering)
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14 pages, 3524 KiB  
Article
Glancing Angle Deposition Effect on Structure and Light-Induced Wettability of RF-Sputtered TiO2 Thin Films
by Vasiliki E. Vrakatseli, Alexandros N. Kalarakis, Angelos G. Kalampounias, Eleftherios K. Amanatides and Dimitrios S. Mataras
Micromachines 2018, 9(8), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9080389 - 4 Aug 2018
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4472
Abstract
Crystalline TiO2 films were prepared on unheated glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) reactive magnetron sputtering at normal angle of incidence (a = 0°) and at glancing angle (a = 87°). The effect of the glancing angle on the structure, [...] Read more.
Crystalline TiO2 films were prepared on unheated glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) reactive magnetron sputtering at normal angle of incidence (a = 0°) and at glancing angle (a = 87°). The effect of the glancing angle on the structure, microstructure, and wetting properties of the films was investigated. The inclination of the substrate led to phase transformation of the deposited films from rutile to either rutile/anatase or anatase, depending on the working pressure. Extreme shadowing at 87° results in a remarkable increase of the films’ porosity and surface roughness. The mechanism of the glancing-angle-induced crystalline phase formation is thoroughly discussed based on the thermodynamic, kinetic, and geometrical aspects of the nucleation and is related with the microstructural changes. Both crystalline phase and microstructure significantly affect the wetting properties of the TiO2 films. Glancing-angle-deposited anatase TiO2 exhibits a high degree of porosity and roughness, a high rate of UV-induced wettability conversion, and a long-term highly hydrophilic nature in dark. Therefore, anatase TiO2 is potentially a good candidate for applications as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC)/perovskite solar cells, microfluidic devices, and self-cleaning surfaces prepared on thermosensitive substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Based Surface Engineering)
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19 pages, 14418 KiB  
Article
Development of Porous Coatings Enriched with Magnesium and Zinc Obtained by DC Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation
by Krzysztof Rokosz, Tadeusz Hryniewicz, Sofia Gaiaschi, Patrick Chapon, Steinar Raaen, Winfried Malorny, Dalibor Matýsek and Kornel Pietrzak
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070332 - 2 Jul 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3573
Abstract
Coatings with developed surface stereometry, being based on a porous system, may be obtained by plasma electrolytic oxidation, PEO (micro arc oxidation, MAO). In this paper, we present novel porous coatings, which may be used, e.g., in micromachine’s biocompatible sensors’ housing, obtained in [...] Read more.
Coatings with developed surface stereometry, being based on a porous system, may be obtained by plasma electrolytic oxidation, PEO (micro arc oxidation, MAO). In this paper, we present novel porous coatings, which may be used, e.g., in micromachine’s biocompatible sensors’ housing, obtained in electrolytes containing magnesium nitrate hexahydrate Mg(NO3)2·6H2O and/or zinc nitrate hexahydrate Zn(NO3)2·6H2O in concentrated phosphoric acid H3PO4 (85% w/w). Complementary techniques are used for coatings’ surface characterization, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), for surface imaging as well as for chemical semi-quantitative analysis via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results have shown that increasing contents of salts (here, 250 g/L Mg(NO3)2·6H2O and 250 g/L Zn(NO3)2·6H2O) in electrolyte result in increasing of Mg/P and Zn/P ratios, as well as coating thickness. It was also found that by increasing the PEO voltage, the Zn/P and Mg/P ratios increase as well. In addition, the analysis of XPS spectra revealed the existence in 10 nm top of coating magnesium (Mg2+), zinc (Zn2+), titanium (Ti4+), and phosphorus compounds (PO43−, or HPO42−, or H2PO4, or P2O74−). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Based Surface Engineering)
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12 pages, 1677 KiB  
Article
Manipulation of the Superhydrophobicity of Plasma-Etched Polymer Nanostructures
by Ke Du, Youhua Jiang, Yuyang Liu, Ishan Wathuthanthri and Chang-Hwan Choi
Micromachines 2018, 9(6), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9060304 - 18 Jun 2018
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5475
Abstract
The manipulation of droplet mobility on a nanotextured surface by oxygen plasma is demonstrated by modulating the modes of hydrophobic coatings and controlling the hierarchy of nanostructures. The spin-coating of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) allows for heterogeneous hydrophobization of the high-aspect-ratio nanostructures and provides the [...] Read more.
The manipulation of droplet mobility on a nanotextured surface by oxygen plasma is demonstrated by modulating the modes of hydrophobic coatings and controlling the hierarchy of nanostructures. The spin-coating of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) allows for heterogeneous hydrophobization of the high-aspect-ratio nanostructures and provides the nanostructured surface with “sticky hydrophobicity”, whereas the self-assembled monolayer coating of perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) results in homogeneous hydrophobization and “slippery superhydrophobicity”. While the high droplet adhesion (stickiness) on a nanostructured surface with the spin-coating of PTFE is maintained, the droplet contact angle is enhanced by creating hierarchical nanostructures via the combination of oxygen plasma etching with laser interference lithography to achieve “sticky superhydrophobicity”. Similarly, the droplet mobility on a slippery nanostructured surface with the self-assembled monolayer coating of FDTS is also enhanced by employing the hierarchical nanostructures to achieve “slippery superhydrophobicity” with modulated slipperiness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Based Surface Engineering)
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13 pages, 8738 KiB  
Article
Maskless Surface Modification of Polyurethane Films by an Atmospheric Pressure He/O2 Plasma Microjet for Gelatin Immobilization
by Man Zhang, Yichuan Dai, Li Wen, Hai Wang and Jiaru Chu
Micromachines 2018, 9(4), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9040195 - 20 Apr 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4962
Abstract
A localized maskless modification method of polyurethane (PU) films through an atmospheric pressure He/O2 plasma microjet (APPμJ) was proposed. The APPμJ system combines an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with a microfabricated silicon micronozzle with dimension of 30 μm, which has advantages [...] Read more.
A localized maskless modification method of polyurethane (PU) films through an atmospheric pressure He/O2 plasma microjet (APPμJ) was proposed. The APPμJ system combines an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with a microfabricated silicon micronozzle with dimension of 30 μm, which has advantages of simple structure and low cost. The possibility of APPμJ in functionalizing PU films with hydroxyl (–OH) groups and covalent grafting of gelatin for improving its biocompatibility was demonstrated. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the modified surface were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The fluorescent images show the modified surface can be divided into four areas with different fluorescence intensity from the center to the outside domain. The distribution of the rings could be controlled by plasma process parameters, such as the treatment time and the flow rate of O2. When the treatment time is 4 to 5 min with the oxygen percentage of 0.6%, the PU film can be effectively local functionalized with the diameter of 170 μm. In addition, the modification mechanism of PU films by the APPμJ is investigated. The localized polymer modified by APPμJ has potential applications in the field of tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Based Surface Engineering)
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10819 KiB  
Article
Laser-Induced-Plasma-Assisted Ablation and Metallization on C-Plane Single Crystal Sapphire (c-Al2O3)
by Xizhao Lu, Feng Jiang, Tingping Lei, Rui Zhou, Chentao Zhang, Gaofeng Zheng, Qiuling Wen and Zhong Chen
Micromachines 2017, 8(10), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8100300 - 7 Oct 2017
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5805
Abstract
Laser-induced-plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA) is a promising micro-machining method that can fabricate microstructure on hard and transparent double-polished single crystal sapphire (SCS). While ablating, a nanosecond pulse 1064 nm wavelength laser beam travels through the SCS substrate and bombards the copper target lined up [...] Read more.
Laser-induced-plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA) is a promising micro-machining method that can fabricate microstructure on hard and transparent double-polished single crystal sapphire (SCS). While ablating, a nanosecond pulse 1064 nm wavelength laser beam travels through the SCS substrate and bombards the copper target lined up behind the substrate, which excites the ablating plasma. When laser fluence rises and is above the machining threshold of copper but below that of SCS, the kinetic energy of the copper plasma generated from the bombardment is mainly determined by the laser fluence, the repetition rate, and the substrate-to-target distance. With a lower repetition rate, SCS becomes metallized and gains conductivity. When micro-machining SCS with a pulsed laser are controlled by properly controlling laser machining parameters, such as laser fluence, repetition rate, and substrate-to-target distance, LIPAA can ablate certain line widths and depths of the microstructure as well as the resistance of SCS. On the contrary, conductivity resistance of metalized sapphire depends on laser parameters and distance in addition to lower repetition rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Based Surface Engineering)
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Review

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32 pages, 5398 KiB  
Review
Oriented Carbon Nanostructures by Plasma Processing: Recent Advances and Future Challenges
by Neelakandan M. Santhosh, Gregor Filipič, Elena Tatarova, Oleg Baranov, Hiroki Kondo, Makoto Sekine, Masaru Hori, Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov and Uroš Cvelbar
Micromachines 2018, 9(11), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9110565 - 1 Nov 2018
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 6936
Abstract
Carbon, one of the most abundant materials, is very attractive for many applications because it exists in a variety of forms based on dimensions, such as zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and-three dimensional (3D). Carbon nanowall (CNW) is a vertically-oriented 2D form [...] Read more.
Carbon, one of the most abundant materials, is very attractive for many applications because it exists in a variety of forms based on dimensions, such as zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and-three dimensional (3D). Carbon nanowall (CNW) is a vertically-oriented 2D form of a graphene-like structure with open boundaries, sharp edges, nonstacking morphology, large interlayer spacing, and a huge surface area. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is widely used for the large-scale synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanowalls (CNWs) with different types of plasma activation. Plasma-enhanced techniques open up possibilities to improve the structure and morphology of CNWs by controlling the plasma discharge parameters. Plasma-assisted surface treatment on CNWs improves their stability against structural degradation and surface chemistry with enhanced electrical and chemical properties. These advantages broaden the applications of CNWs in electrochemical energy storage devices, catalysis, and electronic devices and sensing devices to extremely thin black body coatings. However, the controlled growth of CNWs for specific applications remains a challenge. In these aspects, this review discusses the growth of CNWs using different plasma activation, the influence of various plasma-discharge parameters, and plasma-assisted surface treatment techniques for tailoring the properties of CNWs. The challenges and possibilities of CNW-related research are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Based Surface Engineering)
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