Recent Advances in Sensors and Sensing System Design

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 6466

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Research Institute of Engineering and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588, Republic of Korea
Interests: electrical and optical fiber-based physical, chemical, and biosensors; signal processing system design; printed electronics; bioelectronics circuit design

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sensors are used throughout society, including industry, public life, environment, disaster prevention, medical care, etc., and their range is gradually expanding. Much research is ongoing to design and develop different types of sensors. However, most sensors have the following disadvantages: short dynamic range, long response time, a complex sensing mechanism, bulky form, poor reproducibility, poor reliability, poor selectivity, and cost. The performance of sensors is also widely conditioned by reading electronic circuit technologies. Because of this, special consideration must be given to interface circuits and systems and the difficulties associated with technology scalability and various technological integrations. To obtain the highest sensor performance, interface design has become crucial, particularly concerning the analog front-end and innovative and smart architecture that must be investigated and validated at the simulation and prototype levels. This Special Issue aims to examine possible solutions for a reliable sensor with interface circuits and systems design. It also aims to discuss and emphasize recent developments, innovative findings, and emerging discoveries on this subject and demonstrate best practices, implementations, and applications.

Dr. Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sensors
  • sensing system design
  • detection techniques
  • MEMS-based sensors
  • multi-sensor array

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 9013 KiB  
Article
Co3O4 Nanostructured Sensor for Electrochemical Detection of H2O2 as a Stress Biomarker in Barley: Fe3O4 Nanoparticles-Mediated Enhancement of Salt Stress Tolerance
by Vjaceslavs Gerbreders, Marina Krasovska, Eriks Sledevskis, Irena Mihailova and Valdis Mizers
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030311 - 24 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
This research investigates the enhancement of barley’s resistance to salt stress by integrating nanoparticles and employing a nanostructured Co3O4 sensor for the electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a crucial indicator of oxidative stress. The novel [...] Read more.
This research investigates the enhancement of barley’s resistance to salt stress by integrating nanoparticles and employing a nanostructured Co3O4 sensor for the electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a crucial indicator of oxidative stress. The novel sensor, featuring petal-shaped Co3O4 nanostructures, exhibits remarkable precision and sensitivity to H2O2 in buffer solution, showcasing notable efficacy in complex analytes like plant juice. The research establishes that the introduction of Fe3O4 nanoparticles significantly improves barley’s ability to withstand salt stress, leading to a reduction in detected H2O2 concentrations, alongside positive impacts on morphological parameters and photosynthesis rates. The developed sensor promises to provide real-time monitoring of barley stress responses, providing valuable information on increasing tolerance to crop stressors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sensors and Sensing System Design)
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10 pages, 2360 KiB  
Article
Development of a Battery-Free, Chipless, and Highly Sensitive Radio Frequency Glucose Biosensor
by Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan
Micromachines 2024, 15(2), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15020272 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 748
Abstract
In our study, we designed and developed a glucose biosensor that operates without a battery or chip. This biosensor utilizes the principles of radio frequency (RF) to operate. For the construction of a glucose-sensitive interdigitated capacitor (IDC), a famous glucose-sensitive substance called phenylboronic [...] Read more.
In our study, we designed and developed a glucose biosensor that operates without a battery or chip. This biosensor utilizes the principles of radio frequency (RF) to operate. For the construction of a glucose-sensitive interdigitated capacitor (IDC), a famous glucose-sensitive substance called phenylboronic acid (PBA) is combined with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and n,n-dimethylacetamide (DMAC) solution. According to the theory of radio frequency sensing, the resonance frequency shifts whenever there is a change in the capacitance of the glucose-sensitive IDC. This change is caused by the fluctuations in glucose concentrations. As far as we are aware, this is the first glucose sensor that employs the RF principle to detect changes in glucose solution concentrations using PBA as the principal glucose-sensitive material. The sensor can detect glucose levels with remarkable sensitivity, around 40.89 kHz/decade, and a broad dynamic range covering 10 μM to 1 M. Additionally, the designed biosensor has excellent linearity performance, with a value of around 0.988. The proposed glucose biosensor has several benefits: lightweight, inexpensive, easy to build, and an acceptable selectivity response. Our study concludes by comparing the proposed RF sensor’s effectiveness to that of existing glucose sensors, which it outperforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sensors and Sensing System Design)
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13 pages, 36547 KiB  
Article
An Ankle Joint Flexion and Extension Movement-Monitoring Device Based on Pressure Sensors
by Chunying Xu, Yu Zhou, Jian Ji and Chuliang Wei
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2141; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122141 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 992
Abstract
Ankle joint flexion and extension movements play an important role in the rehabilitation training of patients who have been injured or bedridden for a long time before and after surgery. Accurately guiding patients to perform ankle flexion and extension movements can significantly reduce [...] Read more.
Ankle joint flexion and extension movements play an important role in the rehabilitation training of patients who have been injured or bedridden for a long time before and after surgery. Accurately guiding patients to perform ankle flexion and extension movements can significantly reduce deep vein thromboembolism. Currently, most ankle rehabilitation devices focus on assisting patients with ankle flexion and extension movements, and there is a lack of devices for effectively monitoring these movements. In this study, we designed an ankle joint flexion and extension movement-monitoring device based on a pressure sensor. It was composed of an STM32 microcontroller, a pressure sensor, an HX711A/D conversion chip, and an ESP8266 WiFi communication module. The value of the force and the effective number of ankle joint flexion and extension movements were obtained. An experimental device was designed to verify the accuracy of the system. The maximum average error was 0.068 N; the maximum average relative error was 1.7%; the maximum mean-squared error was 0.00464 N. The results indicated that the monitoring device had a high accuracy and could effectively monitor the force of ankle flexion and extension movements, ultimately ensuring that the patient could effectively monitor and grasp the active ankle pump movement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sensors and Sensing System Design)
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12 pages, 3317 KiB  
Article
Selective Sensing in Microbial Fuel Cell Biosensors: Insights from Toxicity-Adapted and Non-Adapted Biofilms for Pb(II) and Neomycin Sulfate Detection
by Abdelghani Ghanam, Sebastien Cecillon, Hasna Mohammadi, Aziz Amine, François Buret and Naoufel Haddour
Micromachines 2023, 14(11), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14112027 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1405
Abstract
This study introduces the utilization of self-powered microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensors for the detection of biotoxicity in wastewater. Current MFC-based biosensors lack specificity in distinguishing between different pollutants. To address this limitation, a novel approach is introduced, capitalizing on the adaptive capabilities [...] Read more.
This study introduces the utilization of self-powered microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensors for the detection of biotoxicity in wastewater. Current MFC-based biosensors lack specificity in distinguishing between different pollutants. To address this limitation, a novel approach is introduced, capitalizing on the adaptive capabilities of anodic biofilms. By acclimating these biofilms to specific pollutants, an enhancement in the selectivity of MFC biosensors is achieved. Notably, electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were cultivated on 3D porous carbon felt with and without a model toxicant (target analyte), resulting in the development of toxicant-resistant anodic biofilms. The model toxicants, Pb2+ ions and the antibiotic neomycin sulfate (NS), were deployed at a concentration of 1 mg L−1 during MFC operation. The influence of toxicity on biofilm growth and power production was investigated through polarization and power density curves. Concurrently, the electrochemical activity of both non-adapted and toxicity-adapted biofilms was investigated using cyclic voltammetry. Upon maturation and attainment of peak powers, the MFC reactors were evaluated individually as self-powered biosensors for pollutant detection in fresh wastewater, employing the external resistor (ER) mode. The selected ER, corresponding to the maximum power output, was positioned between the cathode and anode of each MFC, enabling output signal tracking through a data logging system. Subsequent exposure of mature biofilm-based MFC biosensors to various concentrations of the targeted toxicants revealed that non-adapted mature biofilms generated similar current–time profiles for both toxicity models, whereas toxicity-adapted biofilms produced distinctive current–time profiles. Accordingly, these results suggested that merely by adapting the anodic biofilm to the targeted toxicity, distinct and identifiable current–time profiles can be created. Furthermore, these toxicity-adapted and non-adapted biofilms can be employed to selectively detect the pollutant via the differential measurement of electrical signals. This differentiation offers a promising avenue for selective pollutant detection. To the best of our current knowledge, this approach, which harnesses the natural adaptability of biofilms for enhanced sensor selectivity, represents a pioneering effort in the realm of MFC-based biosensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sensors and Sensing System Design)
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12 pages, 3712 KiB  
Article
Choice of the Miniature Inertial Optomechanical Sensor Geometric Parameters with the Help of Their Mechanical Characteristics Modelling
by Lee Kumanchik, Marina Rezinkina and Claus Braxmaier
Micromachines 2023, 14(10), 1865; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14101865 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 695
Abstract
In this paper, the mechanical characteristics of a miniature optomechanical accelerometer, similar to those proposed for a wide range of applications, have been investigated. With the help of numerical modelling, characteristics such as eigenfrequencies, quality factor, displacement magnitude, normalized translations, normalized rotations versus [...] Read more.
In this paper, the mechanical characteristics of a miniature optomechanical accelerometer, similar to those proposed for a wide range of applications, have been investigated. With the help of numerical modelling, characteristics such as eigenfrequencies, quality factor, displacement magnitude, normalized translations, normalized rotations versus eigenfrequencies, as well as spatial distributions of the azimuthal and axial displacements and stored energy density in a wide frequency range starting from the stationary case have been obtained. Dependencies of the main mechanical characteristics versus the minimal and maximal system dimensions have been plotted. Geometries of the optomechanical accelerometers with micron size parts providing the low and the high first eigenfrequencies are presented. It is shown that via the choice of the geometrical parameters, the minimal measured acceleration level can be raised substantially. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sensors and Sensing System Design)
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17 pages, 6721 KiB  
Article
Computational Analysis on the Performance of Elongated Liquid Crystal Biosensors
by Reza Shadkami and Philip K. Chan
Micromachines 2023, 14(10), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14101831 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 982
Abstract
Elongated ellipsoidal liquid crystal microdroplet reorientation dynamics are discussed in this paper for biosensor applications. To investigate the effect of elongated droplets on nematic liquid crystal droplet biosensors, we simulated a model of a liquid crystal droplet using ellipse geometry. Director reorientation is [...] Read more.
Elongated ellipsoidal liquid crystal microdroplet reorientation dynamics are discussed in this paper for biosensor applications. To investigate the effect of elongated droplets on nematic liquid crystal droplet biosensors, we simulated a model of a liquid crystal droplet using ellipse geometry. Director reorientation is examined in relation to the elongated droplet shape. In addition, we examined aspect ratio as a factor affecting biosensor response time in relation to surface viscosity and anchoring energy. Finally, the findings suggest that the aspect ratio should be taken into account when designing biosensors. These results can be used to develop more effective biosensors for a variety of applications. This model then predicts the director reorientation angle, which is dependent on the anchoring energy and surface viscosity. This model further suggests that both surface viscosity and homeotropic anchoring energy play an important role when it comes to the director reorientation angle. We developed and applied a nonlinear unsteady-state mathematical model utilizing torque balance and Frank free energy according to the Leslie–Ericksen continuum theory for simulating elongated nematic liquid crystal biosensor droplets with aqueous interfaces. Using the Euler–Lagrange equation, a transient liquid crystal–aqueous interface realignment is modeled by changing the easy axis when surfactant molecules are added to the interface. The realignment at the surface of the droplet is assumed to be driven by the effect of the surfactant, which causes an anchoring transition. According to the results, the response time of the biosensor depends on the aspect ratio. Therefore, the elongation has the potential to control biosensing response time. The result of our study provides a better understanding of director reorientation in elongated liquid crystal droplets in biosensing applications through the numerical results which are presented in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sensors and Sensing System Design)
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