Recent Advances in SAW Resonators

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 3733

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Semiconductors Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Interests: RF MEMS devices; SAW resonators; SAW sensors

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Guest Editor
Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems (IMM), Italian National Research Council (CNR), via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome, Italy
Interests: piezoelectric-based micro resonators and MEMS; piezoelectric thin film deposition; film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR); surface acoustic wave (SAW); piezoelectric-based and resistive microsensors and biosensors; laser-based deposition techniques for MEMS and sensors applications (PLD, MAPLE, LIFT); microfabrication of MEMS; multiphysics modeling of acoustic waves
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We cordially invite you to contribute to the Special Issue of Micromachines entitled “Recent Advances in SAW Resonators”.

SAW resonators are the key components of SAW communication devices such as filters, duplexers, multiplexers, and oscillators. They are also the key sensing components for various SAW sensors. The performance of SAW communication devices and sensors is strongly dependent on the performance of SAW resonators. The improvement of the quality factor (Q) of SAW resonators can effectively reduce the insertion losses of filters and increase the communication distance of passive wireless SAW sensors. An increase in the effective electromechanical constant (Kt2) of SAW resonators can increase the bandwidth of SAW filters. The center frequency of most commercial SAW filters is below 3 GHz, due to the difficulty in developing SAW resonators with both large Kt2 and high Q at very high frequency. The recent advances in SAW resonators will bring enormous new opportunities for the development of next-generation SAW communication devices and sensors. This Special Issue aims to showcase a collection of manuscripts from scholars worldwide working on various aspects of SAW device development, from fundamental research to practical applications. In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include but are not limited to the following:

  • SAW resonators with high frequencies;
  • SAW resonators with high Q;
  • SAW resonators with high Kt2;
  • SAW resonators with low TCF;
  • SAW filters, duplexers, multiplexers, oscillators, delay lines, etc.;
  • SAW physical sensors (temperature, mass, mechanical, etc.);
  • SAW chemical and gas sensors;
  • SAW biosensors;
  • Passive wireless SAW sensors;
  • SAW sensors in harsh environment;
  • SAW devices on heterointegrated piezoelectric materials;
  • Flexible SAW devices;
  • Advanced package for SAW devices.

We look forward to receiving your contributions to this exciting Special Issue, which will offer invaluable insights into the development of SAW devices.

Best regards,

Dr. Yujie Ai
Dr. Fabio Di Pietrantonio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • SAW resonators with high frequencies
  • SAW resonators with high Q
  • SAW resonators with high Kt2
  • SAW resonators with low TCF
  • SAW filters, duplexers, multiplexers, oscillators, delay lines, etc.
  • SAW physical sensors (temperature, mass, mechanical, etc.)
  • SAW chemical and gas sensors
  • SAW based e-noses
  • SAW biosensors
  • passive wireless SAW sensors
  • SAW sensors in harsh environment
  • SAW devices on heterointegrated piezoelectric materials
  • flexible SAW devices
  • advanced package for SAW devices.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 21037 KiB  
Article
Grooving and Absorption on Substrates to Reduce the Bulk Acoustic Wave for Surface Acoustic Wave Micro-Force Sensors
by Yang Feng, Haoda Yu, Wenbo Liu, Keyong Hu, Shuifa Sun, Zhen Yang and Ben Wang
Micromachines 2024, 15(5), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15050637 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Improving measurement accuracy is the core issue with surface acoustic wave (SAW) micro-force sensors. An electrode transducer can stimulate not only the SAW but also the bulk acoustic wave (BAW). A portion of the BAW can be picked up by the receiving transducer, [...] Read more.
Improving measurement accuracy is the core issue with surface acoustic wave (SAW) micro-force sensors. An electrode transducer can stimulate not only the SAW but also the bulk acoustic wave (BAW). A portion of the BAW can be picked up by the receiving transducer, leading to an unwanted or spurious signal. This can harm the device’s frequency response characteristics, thereby potentially reducing the precision of the micro-force sensor’s measurements. This paper examines the influence of anisotropy on wave propagation, and it also performs a phase-matching analysis between interdigital transducers (IDTs) and bulk waves. Two solutions are shown to reduce the influence of BAW for SAW micro sensors, which are arranged with acoustic absorbers at the ends of the substrate and in grooving in the piezoelectric substrate. Three different types of sensors were manufactured, and the test results showed that the sidelobes of the SAW micro-force sensor could be effectively inhibited (3.32 dB), thereby enhancing the sensitivity and performance of sensor detection. The SAW micro-force sensor manufactured using the new process was tested and the following results were obtained: the center frequency was 59.83 MHz, the fractional bandwidth was 1.33%, the range was 0–1000 mN, the linearity was 1.02%, the hysteresis was 0.59%, the repeatability was 1.11%, and the accuracy was 1.34%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in SAW Resonators)
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14 pages, 4049 KiB  
Article
Surface Acoustic Wave Resonator Chip Setup for the Elimination of Interfering Conductivity Responses
by Bastian E. Rapp, Achim Voigt, Marian Dirschka, Michael Rapp and Kerstin Länge
Micromachines 2024, 15(4), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15040501 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 641
Abstract
A surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator chip setup is presented that eliminates interfering signal responses caused by changes in the electrical environment of the surrounding media. When using a two-port resonator, applying electrically shielding layers between the interdigital transducers (IDTs) can be challenging [...] Read more.
A surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator chip setup is presented that eliminates interfering signal responses caused by changes in the electrical environment of the surrounding media. When using a two-port resonator, applying electrically shielding layers between the interdigital transducers (IDTs) can be challenging due to the limited dimensions. Therefore, a layered setup consisting of an insulating polymer layer and a conductive gold layer was preferred. The SAW resonators were provided with polycarbonate housings, resulting in SAW resonator chips. This setup enables easy application of a wide range of coatings to the active part of the resonator surface, while ensuring subsequent electrical and fluidic integration of the resonator chips into a microfluidic array for measurements. The signal responses of uncoated SAW resonators and those with polymer coatings with and without a gold layer were tested with aqueous potassium chloride (KCl) solutions up to 3 mol/L, corresponding to conductivities up to 308 mS/cm. The use of a polymer coating at the thickness of the first Love mode resonance and a conductive gold layer completely reduced the electrical impact on the SAW resonator signal response, making small signals resulting from changes in viscosity and density of the KCl solutions visible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in SAW Resonators)
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15 pages, 3462 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Detection of Exosomal microRNAs Isolated from Cancer Cells Using Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor Array with High Sensitivity and Reproducibility
by Su Bin Han and Soo Suk Lee
Micromachines 2024, 15(2), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15020249 - 7 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
We present a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array for microRNA (miRNA) detection that utilizes photocatalytic silver staining on titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as a signal enhancement technique for high sensitivity with an internal reference sensor for high reproducibility. A sandwich [...] Read more.
We present a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array for microRNA (miRNA) detection that utilizes photocatalytic silver staining on titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as a signal enhancement technique for high sensitivity with an internal reference sensor for high reproducibility. A sandwich hybridization was performed on working sensors of the SAW sensor array that could simultaneously capture and detect three miRNAs (miRNA-21, miRNA-106b, and miRNA-155) known to be upregulated in cancer. Sensor responses due to signal amplification varied depending on the concentration of synthetic miRNAs. It was confirmed that normalization (a ratio of working sensor response to reference sensor response) screened out background interferences by manipulating data and minimized non-uniformity in the photocatalytic silver staining step by suppressing disturbances to both working sensor signal and reference sensor signal. Finally, we were able to successfully detect target miRNAs in cancer cell-derived exosomal miRNAs with performance comparable to the detection of synthetic miRNAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in SAW Resonators)
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36 pages, 10264 KiB  
Article
Reflection and Transmission Analysis of Surface Acoustic Wave Devices
by Tai-Ho Yu
Micromachines 2023, 14(10), 1898; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14101898 - 1 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
This paper presents a study of the propagation of surface acoustic waves in a single and periodic array of metal strip overlays on the surface of layered substrates. Responses of reflected and transmitted surface acoustic waves due to various geometric design parameters of [...] Read more.
This paper presents a study of the propagation of surface acoustic waves in a single and periodic array of metal strip overlays on the surface of layered substrates. Responses of reflected and transmitted surface acoustic waves due to various geometric design parameters of the grating arrays are investigated. An eight-dimensional matrix formulation based on Stroh formalism is adopted to analyze wave propagation in piezoelectric layered media. The dispersion curves for aluminum–zinc oxide films on glass substrates are determined using the surface impedance tensor method. A transfer matrix in terms of the state vectors in cooperation with continuity conditions on the edges of the grating array is used to determine the reflectivity and transmittance of the horizontally propagating surface acoustic waves. The analysis and simulation results show that when the surface acoustic wave is obliquely incident on an array of gratings and the strip width is equal to the gap between strips, the constructive interference of the reflected wave occurs at odd multiples of the strip width to a wavelength ratio of 0.25. When the strip width is unequal to the gap, the constructive interference of the reflected wave is an odd multiple of the strip width to a wavelength ratio of 0.5. An increase in the number of strips concentrates the reflectivity’s extreme frequencies, and an increase in the strip height increases the bandwidth of the extreme frequencies. Both of these increases strengthen the reflected wave’s constructive interferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in SAW Resonators)
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