Thin-Film Transistors: Materials, Fabrications and Applications

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D1: Semiconductor Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 July 2024 | Viewed by 5102

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Microelectronics and Integrated Circuit, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
Interests: metal oxide; thin-film transistor; atomic layer deposition; monolithic 3D integration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thin-film transistors (TFTs) have enabled a number of emerging applications, including flexible displays, biosensors, and back-end-of-line (BEOL)-compatible transistors towards monolithic 3D integration, in addition to more traditional applications such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays. These new applications have put great demands on TFT performance and fabrication. For instance, BEOL-compatible transistors require high-current drivability under a low-thermal-budget process. To fulfill the requirement of these emerging applications, innovations in channel and dielectric materials, device structures, and device fabrication processes are highly required. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers and review articles that focus on recent progress in materials, fabrications, and applications of thin-film transistors. 

We look forward to receiving your submissions.

Dr. Jie Zhang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • thin-film transistor
  • display
  • monolithic 3D integration
  • biosensor
  • metal-oxide
  • a-Si
  • poly-Si
  • fabrication and characterization

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 2648 KiB  
Communication
Understanding Quasi-Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Organic Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistors
by Hanjing Ke, Xiaoci Liang, Xiaozhe Yin, Baiquan Liu, Songjia Han, Shijie Jiang, Chuan Liu and Xiaojian She
Micromachines 2024, 15(4), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15040467 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 630
Abstract
Leveraging poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [(PVDF-TrFE)] as the dielectric, we fabricated organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors (OFe-FETs). These devices demonstrate quasi-static transfer characteristics that include a hysteresis window alongside transient phenomena that bear resemblance to synaptic plasticity-encapsulating excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) as well as both short-term [...] Read more.
Leveraging poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [(PVDF-TrFE)] as the dielectric, we fabricated organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors (OFe-FETs). These devices demonstrate quasi-static transfer characteristics that include a hysteresis window alongside transient phenomena that bear resemblance to synaptic plasticity-encapsulating excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) as well as both short-term and long-term potentiation (STP/LTP). We also explore and elucidate other aspects such as the subthreshold swing and the hysteresis window under dynamic state by varying the pace of voltage sweeps. In addition, we developed an analytical model that describes the electrical properties of OFe-FETs, which melds an empirical formula for ferroelectric polarization with a compact model. This model agrees well with the experimental data concerning quasi-static transfer characteristics, potentially serving as a quantitative tool to improve the understanding and design of OFe-FETs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thin-Film Transistors: Materials, Fabrications and Applications)
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9 pages, 3188 KiB  
Communication
An Artificial Neural Network Based on Oxide Synaptic Transistor for Accurate and Robust Image Recognition
by Dongyue Su, Xiaoci Liang, Di Geng, Qian Wu, Baiquan Liu and Chuan Liu
Micromachines 2024, 15(4), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15040433 - 24 Mar 2024
Viewed by 722
Abstract
Synaptic transistors with low-temperature, solution-processed dielectric films have demonstrated programmable conductance, and therefore potential applications in hardware artificial neural networks for recognizing noisy images. Here, we engineered AlOx/InOx synaptic transistors via a solution process to instantiate neural networks. The transistors [...] Read more.
Synaptic transistors with low-temperature, solution-processed dielectric films have demonstrated programmable conductance, and therefore potential applications in hardware artificial neural networks for recognizing noisy images. Here, we engineered AlOx/InOx synaptic transistors via a solution process to instantiate neural networks. The transistors show long-term potentiation under appropriate gate voltage pulses. The artificial neural network, consisting of one input layer and one output layer, was constructed using 9 × 3 synaptic transistors. By programming the calculated weight, the hardware network can recognize 3 × 3 pixel images of characters z, v and n with a high accuracy of 85%, even with 40% noise. This work demonstrates that metal-oxide transistors, which exhibit significant long-term potentiation of conductance, can be used for the accurate recognition of noisy images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thin-Film Transistors: Materials, Fabrications and Applications)
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15 pages, 2296 KiB  
Article
Transparent Structures for ZnO Thin Film Paper Transistors Fabricated by Pulsed Electron Beam Deposition
by Florin Gherendi, Daniela Dobrin and Magdalena Nistor
Micromachines 2024, 15(2), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15020265 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Thin film transistors on paper are increasingly in demand for emerging applications, such as flexible displays and sensors for wearable and disposable devices, making paper a promising substrate for green electronics and the circular economy. ZnO self-assembled thin film transistors on a paper [...] Read more.
Thin film transistors on paper are increasingly in demand for emerging applications, such as flexible displays and sensors for wearable and disposable devices, making paper a promising substrate for green electronics and the circular economy. ZnO self-assembled thin film transistors on a paper substrate, also using paper as a gate dielectric, were fabricated by pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) at room temperature. These self-assembled ZnO thin film transistor source–channel–drain structures were obtained in a single deposition process using 200 and 300 µm metal wires as obstacles in the path of the ablation plasma. These transistors exhibited a memory effect, with two distinct states, “on” and “off”, and with a field-effect mobility of about 25 cm2/Vs in both states. For the “on” state, a threshold voltage (Vth on = −1.75 V) and subthreshold swing (S = 1.1 V/decade) were determined, while, in the “off” state, Vth off = +1.8 V and S = 1.34 V/decade were obtained. A 1.6 μA maximum drain current was obtained in the “off” state, and 11.5 μA was obtained in the “on” state of the transistor. Due to ZnO’s non-toxicity, such self-assembled transistors are promising as components for flexible, disposable smart labels and other various green paper-based electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thin-Film Transistors: Materials, Fabrications and Applications)
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11 pages, 3857 KiB  
Article
A Thermoelectric Polymer Field-Effect Transistor via Iodine-Doped P3HT
by Joseph Wayne Norman and Sam-Shajing Sun
Micromachines 2024, 15(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15020172 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 739
Abstract
Doping can alter certain electronics, including the thermoelectric properties of an organic semiconductor. These alterations may enable viable tunable devices that could be useful in temperature sensing for autonomous controls. Here, we demonstrate a dual-modulation organic field-effect transistor (OFET) where temperature can modulate [...] Read more.
Doping can alter certain electronics, including the thermoelectric properties of an organic semiconductor. These alterations may enable viable tunable devices that could be useful in temperature sensing for autonomous controls. Here, we demonstrate a dual-modulation organic field-effect transistor (OFET) where temperature can modulate the current-voltage characteristics of the OFET and gate voltage can modulate the thermoelectric properties of the active layer in the same device. Specifically, Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) was utilized as the host p-type semiconducting polymer, and iodine was utilized as the thermoelectric minority dopant. The finished devices were characterized with a semiconductor analyzer system with temperature controlled using two thermoelectric cooling plates. The FETs with iodine doping levels in the range of 0.25% to 0.5% mole ratio with respect to the P3HT exhibit the greatest on/off ratios. This study also observed that P3HT thin film samples with an intermediate iodine doping concentration of 0.25% mole ratio exhibit an optimal thermoelectric power factor (PF). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thin-Film Transistors: Materials, Fabrications and Applications)
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10 pages, 1721 KiB  
Article
High-Performance Vertical Light-Emitting Transistors Based on ZnO Transistor/Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diode Integration and Electron Injection Layer Modification
by Jui-Fen Chang and Jia-Min Yu
Micromachines 2023, 14(10), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14101933 - 15 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Vertical light-emitting transistors (VLETs) consisting of vertically stacked unipolar transistors and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been proposed as a prospective building block for display technologies. In addition to OLEDs, quantum-dot (QD) LEDs (QLEDs) with high brightness and high color purity have also [...] Read more.
Vertical light-emitting transistors (VLETs) consisting of vertically stacked unipolar transistors and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been proposed as a prospective building block for display technologies. In addition to OLEDs, quantum-dot (QD) LEDs (QLEDs) with high brightness and high color purity have also become attractive light-emitting devices for display applications. However, few studies have attempted to integrate QLEDs into VLETs, as this not only involves technical issues such as compatible solution process of QDs and fine patterning of electrodes in multilayer stacked geometries but also requires a high driving current that is demanding on transistor design. Here we show that these integration issues of QLEDs can be addressed by using inorganic transistors with robust processability and high mobility, such as the studied ZnO transistor, which facilitates simple fabrication of QD VLETs (QVLETs) with efficient emission in the patterned channel area, suitable for high-resolution display applications. We perform a detailed optimization of QVLET by modifying ZnO:polyethylenimine nanocomposite as the electron injection layer (EIL) between the integrated ZnO transistor/QLED, and achieve the highest external quantum efficiency of ~3% and uniform emission in the patterned transistor channel. Furthermore, combined with a systematic study of corresponding QLEDs, electron-only diodes, and electroluminescence images, we provide a deeper understanding of the effect of EIL modification on current balance and distribution, and thus on QVLET performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thin-Film Transistors: Materials, Fabrications and Applications)
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