Silicon Photonic Devices and Integration

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 18668

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
The State Key Laboratory on Fiber Optic Local Area Communication Networks and Advanced Optical Communication Systems, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
Interests: silicon photonic devices and integration; photonic signal processing and applications; transmission, switching and sensing photonics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Silicon photonic devices and integration have been investigated widely for the unique features, such as compatibility with CMOS fabrication and potential to be monolithically integrated with microelectronic circuits. Rapid progresses have been made in design and fabrication of new concept devices, larger scale photonic integration, hybrid integration with other material platforms such as lithium niobate, III-V, two-dimensional material, and phase change material. Multiple new applications are enabled by the development of silicon photonics in addition to the traditional ones, such as optical phase arrays for Radar and Lidar systems, photonic neural networks for fast computing. Silicon photonic chips are expected to meet the ever-increasing demand of bandwidth, high integration density and low power consumption in existing and emerging systems. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, communications, and review articles that focus on novel designs, fabrication of photonic devices and chips, and new developments of their applications in intra/inter-chip, short-reach and long-haul optical communications, high-frequency and broadband signal processing and optical computing.

Prof. Dr. Jianping Chen
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • silicon photonics
  • silicon-photonic chips
  • silicon-based hybrid integration
  • CMOS-compatible fabrication

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 5004 KiB  
Article
Sidewall Corrugation-Modulated Phase-Apodized Silicon Grating Filter
by Wei Jiang, Jijun Feng, Shuo Yuan, Haipeng Liu, Zhiheng Yu, Cunliang Yang, Wenbo Ren, Xincheng Xia, Zhengjie Wang and Fengli Huang
Micromachines 2024, 15(6), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15060666 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 131
Abstract
In this work, phase-apodized silicon grating filters with varying sidewall corrugation width and location were investigated, while the resonance wavelength, extinction ratio, and rejection bandwidth were tuned flexibly. The grating filters with a waveguide width of 500 nm and grating period of 400 [...] Read more.
In this work, phase-apodized silicon grating filters with varying sidewall corrugation width and location were investigated, while the resonance wavelength, extinction ratio, and rejection bandwidth were tuned flexibly. The grating filters with a waveguide width of 500 nm and grating period of 400 nm were fabricated and characterized as a proof of concept. The resonance wavelength of the device can be shifted by 4.54 nm by varying the sidewall corrugation width from 150 to 250 nm. The corresponding rejection bandwidth can be changed from 1.19 to 2.03 nm by applying a sidewall corrugation location offset from 50 to 200 nm. The experimental performances coincide well with the simulation results. The presented sidewall corrugation-modulated apodized grating can be expected to have great application prospects for optical communications and semiconductor lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonic Devices and Integration)
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11 pages, 3662 KiB  
Article
A 2 μm Wavelength Band Low-Loss Spot Size Converter Based on Trident Structure on the SOI Platform
by Zhutian Wang, Chenxi Xu, Zhiming Shi, Nan Ye, Hairun Guo, Fufei Pang and Yingxiong Song
Micromachines 2024, 15(4), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15040530 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 657
Abstract
A 2 μm wavelength band spot size converter (SSC) based on a trident structure is proposed, which is coupled to a lensed fiber with a mode field diameter of 5 μm. The cross-section of the first segment of the tapered waveguide structure in [...] Read more.
A 2 μm wavelength band spot size converter (SSC) based on a trident structure is proposed, which is coupled to a lensed fiber with a mode field diameter of 5 μm. The cross-section of the first segment of the tapered waveguide structure in the trident structure is designed as a right-angled trapezoidal shape, which can further improve the performance of the SSC. The coupling loss of the SSC is less than 0.9 dB in the wavelength range of 1.95~2.05 μm simulated by FDTD. According to the experimental results, the lowest coupling loss of the SSC is 1.425 dB/facet at 2 μm, which is close to the simulation result. The device is compatible with the CMOS process and can provide a good reference for the development of 2 μm wavelength band integrated photonics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonic Devices and Integration)
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11 pages, 8918 KiB  
Article
A Novel Position-Sensitive Linear Winding Silicon Drift Detector
by Tao Long, Jun Zhao, Bo Xiong, Xinqing Li, Minghua Tang and Zheng Li
Micromachines 2024, 15(4), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15040518 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 506
Abstract
A novel position-sensitive linear winding silicon drift detector (LWSDD) was designed and simulated. On the frontside (anode side), the collecting anodes were set on both sides of the detector, and an S-shaped linear winding cathode strip was arranged in the middle, which can [...] Read more.
A novel position-sensitive linear winding silicon drift detector (LWSDD) was designed and simulated. On the frontside (anode side), the collecting anodes were set on both sides of the detector, and an S-shaped linear winding cathode strip was arranged in the middle, which can realize independent voltage division and reduce the complexity of external bias resistor chain compared with the traditional linear silicon drift detector. The detectors were arranged in a butterfly shape, which increased the effective area of the detectors and improved the collection efficiency. The linear winding silicon drift detector can obtain one-dimensional position information by measuring the drift time of electrons. The 2D position information of the incident particle is obtained from the anodes coordinates of the readout signal. One-dimensional analytically exact solutions of electric potential and field were obtained for the first time for the linear winding silicon drift detector. The simulation results show that the electric potential distribution inside the detector is uniform, and the “drift channel” inside the detector points to the collecting anodes on both sides, which proves the reasonable and feasible design of the linear winding silicon drift detector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonic Devices and Integration)
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10 pages, 5908 KiB  
Article
A 3C-SiC-on-Insulator-Based Integrated Photonic Platform Using an Anodic Bonding Process with Glass Substrates
by Jiayang Li and Andrew W. Poon
Micromachines 2023, 14(2), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14020399 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
Various crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) polytypes are emerging as promising photonic materials due to their wide bandgap energies and nonlinear optical properties. However, their wafer forms cannot readily provide a refractive index contrast for optical confinement in the SiC layer, which makes it [...] Read more.
Various crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) polytypes are emerging as promising photonic materials due to their wide bandgap energies and nonlinear optical properties. However, their wafer forms cannot readily provide a refractive index contrast for optical confinement in the SiC layer, which makes it difficult to realize a SiC-based integrated photonic platform. In this paper, we demonstrate a 3C-SiC-on-insulator (3C-SiCoI)-based integrated photonic platform by transferring the epitaxial 3C-SiC layer from a silicon die to a borosilicate glass substrate using anodic bonding. By fine-tuning the fabrication process, we demonstrated nearly 100% area transferring die-to-wafer bonding. We fabricated waveguide-coupled microring resonators using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)-based dry etching and demonstrated a moderate loaded quality (Q) factor of 1.4 × 105. We experimentally excluded the existence of the photorefractive effect in this platform at sub-milliwatt on-chip input optical power levels. This 3C-SiCoI platform is promising for applications, including large-scale integration of linear, nonlinear and quantum photonics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonic Devices and Integration)
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13 pages, 3148 KiB  
Article
Thermal Characterisation of Hybrid, Flip-Chip InP-Si DFB Lasers
by David Coenen, Huseyin Sar, Herman Oprins, Aleksandrs Marinins, Yannick De Koninck, Stuart Smyth, Yoojin Ban, Joris Van Campenhout and Ingrid De Wolf
Micromachines 2023, 14(2), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14020381 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3029
Abstract
WA detailed thermal analysis of a hybrid, flip-chip InP-Si DFB laser is presented in this work. The lasers were experimentally tested at different operating temperatures, which allowed for deriving their thermal performance characteristics: the temperature dependence of threshold current, lasing slope, and output [...] Read more.
WA detailed thermal analysis of a hybrid, flip-chip InP-Si DFB laser is presented in this work. The lasers were experimentally tested at different operating temperatures, which allowed for deriving their thermal performance characteristics: the temperature dependence of threshold current, lasing slope, and output spectrum. Using these data, the laser thermal resistance was calculated (Rth = 75.9 K/W), which allows for predicting the laser temperature during operation. This metric is also used to validate the thermal finite element models of the laser. A sensitivity study of the laser temperature was performed using these models, and multiple routes for minimising both the laser thermal resistance and thermal coupling to the carrier die are presented. The most effective way of decreasing the laser temperature is the direct attachment of a heat sink on the laser top surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonic Devices and Integration)
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10 pages, 3009 KiB  
Article
Design and Optimization of High-Responsivity High-Speed Ge/Si Avalanche Photodiode in the C+L Band
by Chuan Li, Xinyu Li, Yan Cai, Wei Wang and Mingbin Yu
Micromachines 2023, 14(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14010108 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
We present the design of Ge/Si avalanche photodetectors with SiN stressor-induced Ge strain for the C+L band light detection. By optimizing the placement position and thickness of the SiN layer with compressive stress, a uniform strain distribution with a maximum magnitude of 0.59% [...] Read more.
We present the design of Ge/Si avalanche photodetectors with SiN stressor-induced Ge strain for the C+L band light detection. By optimizing the placement position and thickness of the SiN layer with compressive stress, a uniform strain distribution with a maximum magnitude of 0.59% was achieved in Ge. The surface-illuminated APDs have been studied in respect of the photo-dark current, responsivity, gain, and 3-dB bandwidth. After introducing SiN stressor, the APD exhibits high primary responsivity of 0.80 A/W at 1.55 μm, 0.72 A/W at 1.625 μm, and 3-dB bandwidth of 17.5 GHz. The increased tensile strain in Ge can significantly improve the responsivity and broaden the response band of the device. This work provides a constructive approach to realizing high-responsivity high-speed Ge/Si APD working in the C+L band. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonic Devices and Integration)
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10 pages, 7195 KiB  
Article
CMOS-Compatible Ultralow-Loss Three-Step Silicon Edge Coupler with Substrate Substitution in the Whole Communication Band
by Zhen Wang, Jin Zhang, Lei Zhang, Xiaoke Ruan, Weijie Tang and Tao Chu
Micromachines 2023, 14(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14010066 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
Edge coupler is a key component of silicon-based optoelectronic chips, which dramatically reduces the coupling loss between fibers and transmission waveguides. Here, we propose an ultralow-loss three-step silicon edge coupler based on a 130 nm CMOS process. By replacing the silicon substrate with [...] Read more.
Edge coupler is a key component of silicon-based optoelectronic chips, which dramatically reduces the coupling loss between fibers and transmission waveguides. Here, we propose an ultralow-loss three-step silicon edge coupler based on a 130 nm CMOS process. By replacing the silicon substrate with a material with a lower refractive index than silicon oxide, the silicon leakage loss and polarization-dependent loss can be significantly improved. This structure avoids the existence of a cantilever, which enhances the mechanical strength of the edge coupler. Coupling with standard single-mode fiber, the simulation results demonstrate that the TE/TM mode has an ultralow loss of 0.63/1.08 dB at 1310 nm and 0.57/1.34 dB at 1550 nm, and the 0.5 dB bandwidth covering the entire communication band is about 400 nm. In the entire communication band, the polarization-dependent loss is less than 0.8 dB. Furthermore, we propose a taper shape design method based on mode analysis, which can be adapted for any taper to improve its compactness. Compared with the parabolic shape, the coupling loss of the edge coupler with a length of 460 μm for the TE mode is improved by 0.3 dB on average, this edge coupler provides a feasible solution for fiber-to-chip coupling and is perfectly suitable for wavelength division multiplexing applications in optical communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonic Devices and Integration)
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10 pages, 3837 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Polymer Variable Optical Attenuator Based on Vertical Multimode Interference with Graphene Heater
by Xinru Xu, Yuexin Yin, Mengke Yao, Xiaojie Yin, Feifei Gao, Yuanda Wu, Changming Chen, Fei Wang and Daming Zhang
Micromachines 2022, 13(12), 2116; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13122116 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Low-power-consumption optical devices are crucial for large-scale photonic integrated circuits (PICs). In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) polymer variable optical attenuator (VOA) is proposed. For monolithic integration of silica and polymer-based planar lightwave circuits (PLCs), the vertical VOA is inserted between silica-based waveguides. [...] Read more.
Low-power-consumption optical devices are crucial for large-scale photonic integrated circuits (PICs). In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) polymer variable optical attenuator (VOA) is proposed. For monolithic integration of silica and polymer-based planar lightwave circuits (PLCs), the vertical VOA is inserted between silica-based waveguides. Optical and thermal analyses are performed through the beam propagation method (BPM) and finite-element method (FEM), respectively. A compact size of 3092 μm × 4 μm × 7 μm is achieved with a vertical multimode interference (MMI) structure. The proposed VOA shows an insertion loss (IL) of 0.58 dB and an extinction ratio (ER) of 21.18 dB. Replacing the graphene heater with an aluminum (Al) electrode, the power consumption is decreased from 29.90 mW to 21.25 mW. The rise and fall time are improved to 353.85 μs and 192.87 μs, respectively. The compact and high-performance VOA shows great potential for a variety of applications, including optical communications, integrated optics, and optical interconnections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonic Devices and Integration)
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6 pages, 2008 KiB  
Article
Thermo-Optic Phase Shifter with Interleaved Suspended Design for Power Efficiency and Speed Adjustment
by Feng Gao, Wu Xie, James You Sian Tan, Chew Ping Leong, Chao Li, Xianshu Luo and Guo-Qiang Lo
Micromachines 2022, 13(11), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13111925 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
Conventional thermo-optic devices—which can be broadly categorized to that with and without a thermal isolation trench—typically come with a tradeoff between thermal tuning efficiency and tuning speed. Here, we propose a method that allows us to directly define the tradeoff using a specially [...] Read more.
Conventional thermo-optic devices—which can be broadly categorized to that with and without a thermal isolation trench—typically come with a tradeoff between thermal tuning efficiency and tuning speed. Here, we propose a method that allows us to directly define the tradeoff using a specially designed thermo-optic phase shifter with an interleaved isolation trench. With the design, the tuning efficiency and speed can be precisely tailored simply by controlling the duty ratio (suspended length over total heater length) of the suspended design. Phase shifters are one of the main components in photonic-integrated circuits, and having phase shifters with a flexible design approach may enable the wide adoption of photonic applications such as an optical neural network and LiDAR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonic Devices and Integration)
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Review

Jump to: Research

15 pages, 4207 KiB  
Review
Beam Steering Technology of Optical Phased Array Based on Silicon Photonic Integrated Chip
by Jinyu Wang, Ruogu Song, Xinyu Li, Wencheng Yue, Yan Cai, Shuxiao Wang and Mingbin Yu
Micromachines 2024, 15(3), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15030322 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1545
Abstract
Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is widely used in scenarios such as autonomous driving, imaging, remote sensing surveying, and space communication due to its advantages of high ranging accuracy and large scanning angle. Optical phased array (OPA) has been studied as an important [...] Read more.
Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is widely used in scenarios such as autonomous driving, imaging, remote sensing surveying, and space communication due to its advantages of high ranging accuracy and large scanning angle. Optical phased array (OPA) has been studied as an important solution for achieving all-solid-state scanning. In this work, the recent research progress in improving the beam steering performance of the OPA based on silicon photonic integrated chips was reviewed. An optimization scheme for aperiodic OPA is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonic Devices and Integration)
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32 pages, 7986 KiB  
Review
Breakthrough in Silicon Photonics Technology in Telecommunications, Biosensing, and Gas Sensing
by Muhammad Shahbaz, Muhammad A. Butt and Ryszard Piramidowicz
Micromachines 2023, 14(8), 1637; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14081637 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3206
Abstract
Silicon photonics has been an area of active research and development. Researchers have been working on enhancing the integration density and intricacy of silicon photonic circuits. This involves the development of advanced fabrication techniques and novel designs to enable more functionalities on a [...] Read more.
Silicon photonics has been an area of active research and development. Researchers have been working on enhancing the integration density and intricacy of silicon photonic circuits. This involves the development of advanced fabrication techniques and novel designs to enable more functionalities on a single chip, leading to higher performance and more efficient systems. In this review, we aim to provide a brief overview of the recent advancements in silicon photonic devices employed for telecommunication and sensing (biosensing and gas sensing) applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Photonic Devices and Integration)
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