Mechanical Modeling and Experimental Investigation of Metallic Materials

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 8363

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
Interests: control systems; cyber-physical systems; machining; optimization; modeling; applied artificial intelligence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Because of continuous efforts to reduce the costs of metal materials production, increasing energy efficiency has become a priority task in this industry. In successful metal production plants, careful energy managing for more and more sustainable metal materials making friendly to the environment is intensively promoted. According to European standards, governments are obliged to increase energy efficiency and minimize CO2 emissions and environmental printouts. It was estimated that in the next 10 years it would be necessary to invest several billion Euros for at least a 20% reduction of CO2 emissions. The only way to realize those targets is to modernize metal production processes, equipment, and infrastructure. The most innovative approach to the modernization of plants is the introduction of cloud technologies into metal production processes. According to paradigm 4.0, digital technologies combined with artificial intelligence have the potential to transform metal production processes to a new more efficient level. Another approach to realizing these targets is to introduce advanced process optimizations regarding productivity, product quality, and cost reductions. To reduce the expensive experimental trials used to evaluate the impact of different optimization strategies, advanced process modeling is needed. Modeling and simulations serve us as an invaluable source of information for conducting process analysis and as an alternative to expensive, dangerous, and time-consuming experimental trials.

This Special Issue of Metals will cover recent advances in the modeling and optimization of different sub-processes in metal materials production from casting, rolling, heat treating, product delivery, quality assurance, and machinability assurance, while considering the most recent experimentally obtained process data.

Prof. Dr. Uroš Župerl
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metal materials production
  • modeling
  • simulation
  • process analysis
  • optimization
  • artificial intelligence

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 3795 KiB  
Article
Modeling of Tensile Test Results for Low Alloy Steels by Linear Regression and Genetic Programming Taking into Account the Non-Metallic Inclusions
by Miha Kovačič and Uroš Župerl
Metals 2022, 12(8), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12081343 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
Štore Steel Ltd. is one of the biggest flat spring steel producers in Europe. The main motive for this study was to study the influences of non-metallic inclusions on mechanical properties obtained by tensile testing. From January 2016 to December 2021, all available [...] Read more.
Štore Steel Ltd. is one of the biggest flat spring steel producers in Europe. The main motive for this study was to study the influences of non-metallic inclusions on mechanical properties obtained by tensile testing. From January 2016 to December 2021, all available tensile strength data (472 cases–472 test pieces) of 17 low alloy steel grades, which were ordered and used by the final user in rolled condition, were gathered. Based on the geometry of rolled bars, selected chemical composition, and average size of worst fields non-metallic inclusions (sulfur, silicate, aluminium and globular oxides), determined based on ASTM E45, several models for tensile strength, yield strength, percentage elongation, and percentage reduction area were obtained using linear regression and genetic programming. Based on modeling results in the period from January 2022 to April 2022, five successively cast batches of 30MnVS6 were produced with a statistically significant reduction of content of silicon (t-test, p < 0.05). The content of silicate type of inclusions, yield, and tensile strength also changed statistically significantly (t-test, p < 0.05). The average yield and tensile strength increased from 458.5 MPa to 525.4 MPa and from 672.7 MPa to 754.0 MPa, respectively. It is necessary to emphasize that there were no statistically significant changes in other monitored parameters. Full article
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10 pages, 4291 KiB  
Article
In Silico Contact Pressure of Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Implant with Different Materials Subjected to Gait Loading
by J. Jamari, Muhammad Imam Ammarullah, Gatot Santoso, S. Sugiharto, Toto Supriyono and Emile van der Heide
Metals 2022, 12(8), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12081241 - 23 Jul 2022
Cited by 67 | Viewed by 3874
Abstract
The use of material for implant bearing has a vital role in minimizing failures that endanger implant recipients. Evaluation of contact pressure of bearing material can be the basis for material selection and have correlations with wear that contribute to the need of [...] Read more.
The use of material for implant bearing has a vital role in minimizing failures that endanger implant recipients. Evaluation of contact pressure of bearing material can be the basis for material selection and have correlations with wear that contribute to the need of revision operations. The current paper aims to investigate three different metallic materials, namely cobalt chromium molybdenum (CoCrMo), stainless steel 316L (SS 316L), and titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) for application in metal-on-metal bearing of total hip implant in terms of contact pressure. In silico model based on finite element simulation has been considered to predict contact pressure of metal-on-metal bearings under normal walking conditions. It is found that the use of Ti6Al-4V-on-Ti6Al4V is superior in its ability to reduce contact pressure by more than 35% compared to the other studied metal-on-metal couple bearings. Full article
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12 pages, 3280 KiB  
Article
RANS versus Scale Resolved Approach for Modeling Turbulent Flow in Continuous Casting of Steel
by Jurij Gregorc, Ajda Kunavar and Božidar Šarler
Metals 2021, 11(7), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11071140 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2455
Abstract
Numerical modeling is the approach used most often for studying and optimizing the molten steel flow in a continuous casting mold. The selection of the physical model might very much influence such studies. Hence, it is paramount to choose a proper model. In [...] Read more.
Numerical modeling is the approach used most often for studying and optimizing the molten steel flow in a continuous casting mold. The selection of the physical model might very much influence such studies. Hence, it is paramount to choose a proper model. In this work, the numerical results of four turbulence models are compared to the experimental results of the water model of continuous casting of steel billets using a single SEN port in a downward vertical orientation. Experimental results were obtained with a 2D PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system with measurements taken at various cut planes. Only hydrodynamic effects without solidification are considered. The turbulence is modeled using the RANS (Realizable k-ε, SST k-ω), hybrid RANS/Scale Resolved (SAS), and Scale Resolved approach (LES). The models are numerically solved by the finite volume method, with volume of fluid treatment at the free interface. The geometry, boundary conditions, and material properties were entirely consistent with those of the water model experimental study. Thus, the study allowed a detailed comparison and validation of the turbulence models used. The numerical predictions are compared to experimental data using contours of velocity and velocity plots. The agreement is assessed by comparing the lateral dispersion of the liquid jet in a streamwise direction for the core flow and the secondary flow behavior where recirculation zones form. The comparison of the simulations shows that while all four models capture general flow features (e.g., mean velocities in the temporal and spatial domain), only the LES model predicts finer turbulent structures and captures temporal flow fluctuations to the extent observed in the experiment, while SAS bridges the gap between RANS and LES. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Fatigue analysis of thermally cut martensitic steel S960Q
Authors: Branko Nečemer; Srečko Glodež; Janez Kramberger
Affiliation: University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
Abstract: In this study, the computational model for fatigue analysis of structural components made of S960Q martensitic steel is presented. The flat tensile specimens with a central circular hole were thermally cut by plasma and laser technology. The total fatigue life of the studied specimens, N, is divided into the time of crack initiation (Ni) and crack propagation (Np). The number of stress cycles for crack initiation in a critical cross-section (Ni) is determined using the strain-life approach and considering the low cycle fatigue parameters previously used for the same material as in this study. The number of stress cycles for crack propagation from initial to critical crack length, Np, is determined using the simple Paris law and considering fatigue crack growth material parameters obtained from previous work by the authors. The comprehensive computational analyses in Ansys software are carried out to obtain the strain-stress field and determine the stress intensity factor in the crack tip. The computational results obtained are reasonably related to the available experimental results.

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