Development of Advanced High-Strength Steels

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 2701

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, China
Interests: ausforming and transformation kinetics in advanced high-strength bainite steels; microstructure and property control of ultra-high strength steels
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, China
Interests: steel; microalloyed
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The automobile and mechanical engineering industries are continuously challenged to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency due to economic and environmental requirements. For this purpose, advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) are popular, such as quenching and partitioning (Q&P), medium Mn transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP), TRIP-aided bainitic ferrite (ABF) steels, etc. AHSSs are commonly designed with the addition of various alloying elements to achieve a favorable combination of strength and toughness. Via hot rolling, heat treatment, ausfroming, etc., the phase transformation and microstructure can be optimized, including how to refine hard matrix and how to tailored the retained austenite, which can contribute to an excellent combination of strength, ductility and toughness. The metastable phase (retained austenite) plays a significant role in improving the strength and elongation. Thus, many efforts have been made to modify the amount, morphology, distribution and mechanical stabilization of the retained austenite. In addition, low-temperature transformation is normally adopted to fabricate advanced high-strength steels, thus leading to slow transformation kinetics, especially for high-carbon and high-alloy cases, which represents a barrier for industrial application.

Technological research is still needed for the implementation of advanced high-strength steels, especially considering the performance and production cycle. Fundamental studies on phase transformation, microstructure, ausforming and mechanical properties will guide the development of advanced high-strength steels. The topics addressed in this Special Issue may include, but are not limited to, advanced high strength steels, novel heat treatment processes, new methods to tailor retained austenite, mechanical performance and fatigue behavior.

Dr. Haijiang Hu
Dr. Junyu Tian
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • transformation
  • microstructure
  • property
  • hot rolling
  • ausforming
  • heat treatment
  • high strength
  • microstructural characterization
  • mechanical performance
  • martensite
  • bainite

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 9588 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Shear-Punched Surface Layer Damage in Three Types of High-Strength TRIP-Aided Steel
by Koh-ichi Sugimoto, Shoya Shioiri and Junya Kobayashi
Metals 2024, 14(5), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14050531 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 467
Abstract
The damage properties in the shear-punched surface layer, such as the strain-hardening increment, strain-induced martensite fraction, and initiated micro-crack/void characteristics at the shear and break sections, were experimentally evaluated to relate to the stretch-flangeability in three types of low-carbon high-strength TRIP-aided steel with [...] Read more.
The damage properties in the shear-punched surface layer, such as the strain-hardening increment, strain-induced martensite fraction, and initiated micro-crack/void characteristics at the shear and break sections, were experimentally evaluated to relate to the stretch-flangeability in three types of low-carbon high-strength TRIP-aided steel with different matrix structures. In addition, the surface layer damage properties were related to the mean normal stress developed on shear-punching and microstructural properties. The shear-punched surface damage of these steels was experimentally confirmed to be produced under the mean normal stress of negative to 0 MPa. TRIP-aided bainitic ferrite (TBF) steel had the smallest surface layer damage, featuring a significantly suppressed micro-crack/void initiation. This was due to the fine bainitic ferrite lath matrix structure, a low strength ratio of the second phase to the matrix structure, and the high mechanical stability of the retained austenite. On the other hand, the surface layer damage of TRIP-aided annealed martensite (TAM) steel was suppressed next to TBF steel and was smaller than that of TRIP-aided polygonal ferrite (TPF) steel. The surface layer damage was also characterized by a large plastic strain, a large amount of strain-induced martensite transformation, and a relatively suppressed micro-crack/void formation, which resulted from an annealed martensite matrix and a large quantity of retained austenite. The excellent stretch-flangeability of TBF steel might be caused by the suppressed micro-crack/void formation and high crack propagation/void connection resistance. The next high stretch-flangeability of TAM steel was associated with a small-sized micro-crack/void initiation and high crack growth/void connection resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Advanced High-Strength Steels)
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15 pages, 9990 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Microstructure, Properties, and Fracture Behavior with Annealing Temperature in Complex Phase Steel with High Formability
by Xiaohong Chu, Feng Zhou, Lei Liu, Xiaolong Xu, Xiaoyue Ma, Weinan Li and Zhengzhi Zhao
Metals 2024, 14(4), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14040380 - 25 Mar 2024
Viewed by 782
Abstract
In recent years, with the continuous improvement in the requirements for automobile steel formability, complex phase steel with high formability (CH steel) has been widely used. In the present study, the microstructure of CH steel was regulated using the actual production process as [...] Read more.
In recent years, with the continuous improvement in the requirements for automobile steel formability, complex phase steel with high formability (CH steel) has been widely used. In the present study, the microstructure of CH steel was regulated using the actual production process as a basis and annealing temperature as a variable, and the effects of annealing temperature on the microstructure, properties, and fracture behavior of CH steel were analyzed. As the annealing temperature increases, the ferrite content decreases from 36.3% to 0, the martensite content decreases from 49.3% to 8.8%, the bainite content increases from 11.9% to 87.1%, and the retained austenite content first increases and then decreases within the range of 2.5~5.1%. Consequently, the tensile strength shows a decreasing trend, the yield strength first decreases and then increases, and the total elongation and the hole expansion ratio first increase and then decrease. The deformation coordination of each phase gradually becomes better, and the voids and cracks in the tensile and hole expansion samples expand along the ferrite and martensite or martensite/austenite (M/A) island interface, transforming into the bainitic ferrite and martensite or M/A islands. The test steel’s best tensile and hole expansion properties occur at annealing temperatures of 940 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Advanced High-Strength Steels)
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Review

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53 pages, 8256 KiB  
Review
A Review of Sheet Metal Forming Evaluation of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS)
by Rui Pereira, Nuno Peixinho and Sérgio L. Costa
Metals 2024, 14(4), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/met14040394 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1226
Abstract
This paper presents a review on the formability evaluation of AHSS, enhancing necking-based failure criteria limitations. Complementary fracture/damage constitutive modeling approaches specifically tailored to formability evaluation, validated through numerical and experimental methods, are also subjects of research. AHSS are widely processed through sheet [...] Read more.
This paper presents a review on the formability evaluation of AHSS, enhancing necking-based failure criteria limitations. Complementary fracture/damage constitutive modeling approaches specifically tailored to formability evaluation, validated through numerical and experimental methods, are also subjects of research. AHSS are widely processed through sheet metal forming processes. Although an excellent choice when lightweight, high-strength, and ductility are critical factors, their multi-phase microstructure accentuates forming challenges. To accurately model forming behavior, necking-based failure criteria as well as direct fracture models require improvements. As a necking-based failure model, the conventional forming limit diagram/curve (FLD/FLC) presents limitations in estimating direct fracture (surface cracks, edge cracks, shear cracks), as well as deformation histories under non-linear strain paths. Thus, significant research efforts are being made towards the development of advanced fracture constitutive models capable of predicting fracture scenarios without necking, which are more frequently observed in the realm of AHSS. Scientific community research is divided into several directions aiming at improving the forming and fracture behavior accuracy of parts subjected to sheet metal forming operations. In this review paper, a comprehensive overview of ductile fracture modeling is presented. Firstly, the limitations of FLD/FLC in modeling fracture behavior in sheet metal forming operations are studied, followed by recent trends in constitutive material modeling. Afterwards, advancements in material characterization methods to cover a broad range of stress states are discussed. Finally, damage and fracture models predicting failure in AHSS are investigated. This review paper supplies relevant information on the current issues the sheet metal forming community is challenged with due to the trend towards AHSS employment in the automotive industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Advanced High-Strength Steels)
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