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Functional Composite Biomaterials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 August 2023) | Viewed by 19186

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Engineering, Cracow University of Technology, Cracow, Poland
Interests: biomaterials; composites; polymers; ceramics; implants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the search for new solutions in material technologies, humans have long been trying to find the right patterns in nature. Using an appropriate, conscious combination of various components, e.g., fibers and polymers, metallic or ceramic materials, it is possible to design extremely complex spatial structures that fulfill increasingly complex functions. In modern solutions of material designers, the concept of so-called multifunctional materials—a kind of homogeneous material which, apart from its basic function, is performed by, for example, a construction material carrying a mechanical load—is also able to signal its wear and durability.

Development of functional and multifunctional composite materials is an important step towards creating a new generation of bioactive materials for applications in medicine and dentistry, which can become the basis for development of new hard and soft tissue implant dental materials as well as drug delivery systems.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Composites in bone surgery;
  • Composites in dentistry;
  • Biomaterials for soft tissue reconstruction;
  • Biomimetic composites;
  • Fiber reinforced composites;
  • Nanocomposites;
  • Composite drug delivery systems;
  • Biofuncional coatings;
  • Scaffolds for tissue engineering.

Prof. Dr. Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • biomaterials
  • composites
  • multifuncional
  • medical applications

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 4791 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Hollow Calcium Carbonate Microspheres by a Template Method for DOX Loading and Release with Carbon Dots Photosensitivity
by Fuwang Mo, Qiujuan Chen and Xiaohui Zhang
Materials 2022, 15(24), 8768; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15248768 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
Calcium carbonate, as the main inorganic component of human bones and teeth, has good biocompatibility and bioactivity and finds increasing applications in the field of bone drug carriers. In this study, hollow calcium carbonate microspheres were synthesized by a water hydrothermal method using [...] Read more.
Calcium carbonate, as the main inorganic component of human bones and teeth, has good biocompatibility and bioactivity and finds increasing applications in the field of bone drug carriers. In this study, hollow calcium carbonate microspheres were synthesized by a water hydrothermal method using folic acid as a template. Before drug loading, the prepared calcium carbonate microspheres were subjected to aminidation, carboxylation, and vinylenimine modification. The hollow calcium carbonate microspheres loaded with doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) were further incorporated with light-emitting carbon quantum dots(CQDs) and hyaluronic acid (HA). The result showed that the drug loading capacity in the as-prepared calcium carbonate was 179.064 mg/g. In the simulated solutions of cellular metabolism containing various concentrations of reduced glutathione(GSH), the sustained release of DOX was confirmed qualitatively by the luminescence of the CQDs. The DOX release rate was measured quantitively by UV absorption spectra. The highest release rate reached 85.99% in a simulated solution of 0.005 mol/L GSH solution, and the release rate could vary intelligently with the concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Composite Biomaterials)
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13 pages, 34624 KiB  
Article
Mechanobiology Platform Realized Using Photomechanical Mxene Nanocomposites: Bilayer Photoactuator Design and In Vitro Mechanical Forces Stimulation
by Dong Niu, Yanli Zhang, Jinlan Chen, Dachao Li, Chunmeng He and Hongzhong Liu
Materials 2022, 15(19), 6869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15196869 - 03 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1641
Abstract
Mechanotransduction is the process by which cells convert external forces and physical constraints into biochemical signals that control several aspects of cellular behavior. A number of approaches have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms of mechanotransduction; however, it remains a great challenge to [...] Read more.
Mechanotransduction is the process by which cells convert external forces and physical constraints into biochemical signals that control several aspects of cellular behavior. A number of approaches have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms of mechanotransduction; however, it remains a great challenge to develop a platform for dynamic multivariate mechanical stimulation of single cells and small colonies of cells. In this study, we combined polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and PDMS/Mxene nanoplatelets (MNPs) to construct a soft bilayer nanocomposite for extracellular mechanical stimulation. Fast backlash actuation of the bilayer as a result of near-infrared irradiation caused mechanical force stimulation of cells in a controllable manner. The excellent controllability of the light intensity and frequency allowed backlash bending acceleration and frequency to be manipulated. As gastric gland carcinoma cell line MKN-45 was the research subject, mechanical force loading conditions could trigger apoptosis of the cells in a stimulation duration time-dependent manner. Cell apoptotic rates were positively related to the duration time. In the case of 6 min mechanical force loading, apoptotic cell percentage rose to 34.46% from 5.5% of the control. This approach helps apply extracellular mechanical forces, even with predesigned loading cycles, and provides a solution to study cell mechanotransduction in complex force conditions. It is also a promising therapeutic technique for combining physical therapy and biomechanics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Composite Biomaterials)
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12 pages, 976 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Optimization of an Ultraflexible Liposomal Gel for Lidocaine Transdermal Delivery
by Mengwei Sun, Ositomiwa O. Osipitan, Ewa K. Sulicz and Anthony J. Di Pasqua
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4895; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144895 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
The pain caused by lidocaine injections into the face prior to facial plastic surgeries intended to remove growths or tumorous lesions has been reported by many patients to be the worst part of these procedures. However, the lidocaine gels and creams currently on [...] Read more.
The pain caused by lidocaine injections into the face prior to facial plastic surgeries intended to remove growths or tumorous lesions has been reported by many patients to be the worst part of these procedures. However, the lidocaine gels and creams currently on the market do not deliver an equal or better local anesthetic effect to replace these injections. To develop an alternative to the painful local anesthetic injection, we prepared ultraflexible liposomes using soy phosphatidylcholine, lidocaine, and different amounts of sodium cholate, a surfactant. The prepared ultraflexible liposomes (UFLs) were examined for particle size, zeta potential, cytotoxicity, and in vitro release. By using a carbomer as a gelling agent, the prepared UFL lidocaine gels were evaluated for their penetration ability in a Franz diffusion cell, using Strat-M membranes. The formulation achieving the highest amount of penetrated lidocaine was chosen for further pH, viscosity, and stability tests. The local anesthetic efficacy of the formulation was investigated by an in vivo tail-flick test in rats. Our findings suggested that this topical gel formulated with ultraflexible liposomal lidocaine has enhanced skin permeation ability, as well as an improved local analgesic effect from the lidocaine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Composite Biomaterials)
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19 pages, 11316 KiB  
Article
Design of New Concept of Knitted Hernia Implant
by Bogusława Żywicka, Marcin Henryk Struszczyk, Danuta Paluch, Krzysztof Kostanek, Izabella Krucińska, Krzysztof Kowalski, Kazimierz Kopias, Zbigniew Rybak, Maria Szymonowicz, Agnieszka Gutowska and Paweł Kubiak
Materials 2022, 15(7), 2671; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15072671 - 05 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1416
Abstract
A knitted implant, unilaterally modified with plasma-assisted chemical-vapor deposition (PACVD), and with a nano-layer of fluorine derivative supplementation, for reducing the risk of complications related to adhesions, and the formation of a thick postoperative scar was prepared. The biological evaluation of designed or [...] Read more.
A knitted implant, unilaterally modified with plasma-assisted chemical-vapor deposition (PACVD), and with a nano-layer of fluorine derivative supplementation, for reducing the risk of complications related to adhesions, and the formation of a thick postoperative scar was prepared. The biological evaluation of designed or modified medical devices is the main aspect of preclinical research. If such studies use a medical device with prolonged contact with connective tissue (more than 30 days), biocompatibility studies require a safety assessment in terms of toxicity in vitro and in vivo, allergenicity, irritation, and cancerogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity. The ultimate aspect of biological evaluation is biofunctionality, and evaluation of the local tissue response after implantation, resulting in the determination of all aspects of local biocompatibility with the implemented synthetic material. The implantation of PACVD-modified materials in muscle allows us to estimate the local irritation effect on the connective tissue, determining the risk of scar formation, whereas implantation of the above-mentioned knitted fabric into the abdominal wall, assists with evaluating the risk of fistula formation—the main post-surgical complications. The research aimed to evaluate the local reaction of the soft tissues after the implantation of the knitted implants modified with PACVD of the fluoropolymer in the nanostuctural form. The local effect that occurred during the implantation of the designed implants was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated when PACVD unmodified (reference), and modified medical devices were implanted in the abdominal cavity (intra-abdominal position) for 12 or into the muscles for 56 weeks. The comparative semi-quantitative histological assessment included the severity of inflammatory cells (multinucleated cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, giant cells) and the tissue response (necrosis, neovascularization, fibrosis, and fat infiltration) on a five-point scale. The knitted implants modified by PACVD did not indicate cumulative tissue response when they were implanted in the muscle and intra-abdominally with direct contact with the viscera. They reduced local tissue reaction (score −2.71 after 56 weeks of the implantation) and internal organ adhesion (irritation score −2.01 and adhesion susceptibility −0.3 after 12 weeks of the implantation) compared with the reference (unmodified by PACVD) knitted implant, which had an identical structure and was made of the same source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Composite Biomaterials)
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23 pages, 5119 KiB  
Article
Preparation, Characterization, and Biocompatibility Assessment of Polymer-Ceramic Composites Loaded with Salvia officinalis Extract
by Dagmara Słota, Wioletta Florkiewicz, Karina Piętak, Aleksandra Szwed, Marcin Włodarczyk, Małgorzata Siwińska, Karolina Rudnicka and Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6000; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206000 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2184
Abstract
In the present work, hydroxyapatite-polymer materials were developed. The preparation, as well as characterization of the ceramic-polymer composites based on polyvinylpyrrolidone, sodium alginate, and gelatin were described. The system was enriched with the addition of common sage extract (Salvia officinalis). The [...] Read more.
In the present work, hydroxyapatite-polymer materials were developed. The preparation, as well as characterization of the ceramic-polymer composites based on polyvinylpyrrolidone, sodium alginate, and gelatin were described. The system was enriched with the addition of common sage extract (Salvia officinalis). The antioxidant potential of sage aqueous extract and total polyphenol content was determined. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of extract were equal to 86.06 ± 0.49% and 16.21 ± 0.58 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight, respectively. Incubation studies in selected biological liquids were carried out to determine the biomineralization capacity on the surface of the composites and to examine the kinetics of release of the active substances from within the material. As a result of the incubation, a gradual release of the extract over time from the polymer matrix was observed; moreover, the appearance of new apatite layers on the composite surface was recorded as early as after 14 days, which was also confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis. The composites were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy, and the morphology was recorded by scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. The in vitro biological studies allowed their cytotoxic effect on the reference L929 fibroblasts to be excluded. Further analysis of the biomaterials showed that enrichment with polyphenols does not support the adhesion of L929 cells to the surface of the material. However, the addition of these natural components stimulates human monocytes that constitute the first step of tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Composite Biomaterials)
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10 pages, 2465 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Properties of Fractionated Soybean Protein Isolate Films
by Yunxiao Wei, Ze’en Huang, Zuolong Yu, Chao Han and Cairong Yang
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185436 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2253
Abstract
Soybean protein isolate (SPI) and its four fractionated products (7S globulin, 11S globulin, upper soybean residue, and lower soybean residue) were compared by fabricating films and film liquids. The separation and grading effects, rheological properties of the film liquids, and difficulty in uncovering [...] Read more.
Soybean protein isolate (SPI) and its four fractionated products (7S globulin, 11S globulin, upper soybean residue, and lower soybean residue) were compared by fabricating films and film liquids. The separation and grading effects, rheological properties of the film liquids, and difficulty in uncovering the films, in addition to the mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, oil permeability, and surface morphology of the films, were investigated. Results showed that the centrifugal precipitation method could be used to produce fractionated products. The 7S and 11S globulin films exhibited better hydrogels at lower shear rates than the other SPIs; however, they were more difficult to uncover. The tensile strength of the graded films decreased by varying degrees. However, the elongation at the break of the upper soybean residue film considerably increased, reaching 70.47%. Moreover, the permeability and surface morphology of the film were enhanced or weakened. The fractionated products, 7S and 11S globulin films, exhibited better performance. Overall, this study provides a basis for the improved development and use of fractioned SPI products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Composite Biomaterials)
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24 pages, 7496 KiB  
Article
Composites Based on Hydroxyapatite and Whey Protein Isolate for Applications in Bone Regeneration
by Dagmara Słota, Magdalena Głąb, Bożena Tyliszczak, Timothy E. L. Douglas, Karolina Rudnicka, Krzysztof Miernik, Mateusz M. Urbaniak, Paulina Rusek-Wala and Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2317; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092317 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2701
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive ceramic with great potential for the regeneration of the skeletal system. However, its mechanical properties, especially its brittleness, limit its application. Therefore, in order to increase its ability to transmit stresses, it can be combined with a polymer [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive ceramic with great potential for the regeneration of the skeletal system. However, its mechanical properties, especially its brittleness, limit its application. Therefore, in order to increase its ability to transmit stresses, it can be combined with a polymer phase, which increases its strength without eliminating the important aspect of bioactivity. The presented work focuses on obtaining organic–inorganic hydrogel materials based on whey protein isolate (WPI) reinforced with nano-HAp powder. The proportion of the ceramic phase was in the range of 0–15%. Firstly, a physicochemical analysis of the materials was performed using XRD, FT-IR and SEM. The hydrogel composites were subjected to swelling capacity measurements, potentiometric and conductivity analysis, and in vitro tests in four liquids: distilled water, Ringer’s fluid, artificial saliva, and simulated body fluid (SBF). The incubation results demonstrated the successful formation of new layers of apatite as a result of the interaction with the fluids. Additionally, the influence of the materials on the metabolic activity according to ISO 10993-5:2009 was evaluated by identifying direct contact cytotoxicity towards L-929 mouse fibroblasts, which served as a reference. Moreover, the stimulation of monocytes by hydrogels via the induction of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was investigated. The WPI/HAp composite hydrogels presented in this study therefore show great potential for use as novel bone substitutes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Composite Biomaterials)
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Review

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51 pages, 4473 KiB  
Review
Review of the Applications of Biomedical Compositions Containing Hydroxyapatite and Collagen Modified by Bioactive Components
by Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec, Anna Drabczyk, Wioletta Florkiewicz, Magdalena Głąb, Sonia Kudłacik-Kramarczyk, Dagmara Słota, Agnieszka Tomala and Bożena Tyliszczak
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2096; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092096 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4727
Abstract
Regenerative medicine is becoming a rapidly evolving technique in today’s biomedical progress scenario. Scientists around the world suggest the use of naturally synthesized biomaterials to repair and heal damaged cells. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has the potential to replace drugs in biomedical engineering and regenerative [...] Read more.
Regenerative medicine is becoming a rapidly evolving technique in today’s biomedical progress scenario. Scientists around the world suggest the use of naturally synthesized biomaterials to repair and heal damaged cells. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has the potential to replace drugs in biomedical engineering and regenerative drugs. HAp is easily biodegradable, biocompatible, and correlated with macromolecules, which facilitates their incorporation into inorganic materials. This review article provides extensive knowledge on HAp and collagen-containing compositions modified with drugs, bioactive components, metals, and selected nanoparticles. Such compositions consisting of HAp and collagen modified with various additives are used in a variety of biomedical applications such as bone tissue engineering, vascular transplantation, cartilage, and other implantable biomedical devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Composite Biomaterials)
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