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Sustainable Materials and Structures Used in Pavement Engineering

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Construction and Building Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 6317

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, China
Interests: performance characterization of rubber asphalt using molecular dynamics simulation; tire-pavement contact and its friction mechanism; adhesion and debonding behaviors between asphalt binder and aggregate; sustainable materials used in asphalt pavement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
Interests: alternative paving materials; microstructure and numerical modeling in pavement; mechanical property analysis and measurements; advanced materials and structures; failure analysis; fracture mechanics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Road & Railway Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
Interests: energy efficiency improvement and structural optimization of solar pavement; efficient purification technology for on-road vehicle exhaust; emission characteristics and inhibition technologies of asphalt VOCs

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Transportation, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
Interests: green energy conversion pavement technology; solid recycling materials used in asphalt pavement; sustainability of road infrastructures; technical testing to address performance properties; composition of asphalt mixtures considering various additives and re-using reclaimed asphalt
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable materials and structures have been extensively employed in asphalt pavements in order to mitigate the resources crisis and achieve carbon neutrality. These include, but are not limited to, warm/cold mix asphalt (WMA/CMA), reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), waste materials utilized in asphalt mixtures, polyurethane pavements, and self-cleaning, self-healing, and self-powered materials. Such materials and structures can partially save nonrenewable resources and improve the road environment. However, there remain several knowledge gaps to overcome. These include, for example, the compatibility between new and old materials and structures, the long-term performance of new materials and structures, and the cost performance of new materials and structures. These limitations hinder the mega-scale application of sustainable materials and structures in asphalt pavement constructions.

This Special Issue aims to address various subjects related to the sustainable materials and structures utilized in pavement engineering. Research that investigates and applies sustainable materials, structures, and corresponding technologies is welcome. Green and smart technologies and assessment methods for sustainable development are all also topics of interest. Literature reviews and state-of-art articles are highly appreciated.

Dr. Fucheng Guo
Dr. Augusto Cannone Falchetto
Dr. Bochao Zhou
Dr. Wentong Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • recycled pavement materials and structures
  • low-carbon or low-emission materials and structures
  • sustainable structures based on recycled materials
  • functional pavement materials and structures
  • high-performance pavement materials and structures for long-term service
  • green construction, maintenance, and management technologies
  • smart monitoring technologies and evaluation methods
  • life-cycle assessment after using sustainable materials and structures

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 7546 KiB  
Article
Effect of SARA Fractions on Fatigue Properties of Hard Asphalt
by Jinyi Jiang, Fei Lu, Xiaogang Guo, Peiwen Hao, Wei Wang and Jincheng Yu
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2713; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112713 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 135
Abstract
The fatigue performance of hard asphalt is an important factor that affects the service life of asphalt pavement. In order to comprehensively explore the influence of chemical components on the fatigue performance of hard asphalt, and to eliminate the chemical instability between the [...] Read more.
The fatigue performance of hard asphalt is an important factor that affects the service life of asphalt pavement. In order to comprehensively explore the influence of chemical components on the fatigue performance of hard asphalt, and to eliminate the chemical instability between the microstructure of asphalt from different oil sources, seven kinds of hard asphalt were designed and prepared with saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (SARA) extracted from the same hard asphalt. Rheological, time sweep and linear amplitude sweep (LAS) tests were carried out to evaluate the fatigue properties. The results show that the complex modulus of asphalt binds increased rapidly with an increase of asphaltene and resins and that the colloidal structure was strengthened, which would increase the fatigue factor. In the time sweep test, the strength of the colloidal structure significantly affected the fatigue life, and the fatigue life was different under different test stresses. In the viscoelastic continuum damage (VECD) model, the cumulative damage was related to the modulus, while with the increase of asphaltene and resins, the fatigue life showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing. The linear regression analysis showed that the fatigue life of hard asphalt had a good correlation with strain sensitivity. This study investigated the applicability of different fatigue evaluation methods and revealed the influence of four components on the fatigue properties of hard asphalt. The results provide significant insights in the improvement of the fatigue performance of both hard asphalt and corresponding mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials and Structures Used in Pavement Engineering)
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17 pages, 5971 KiB  
Article
Regeneration Effect of a New Bio-Based Warm-Mix Rejuvenator on Performance and Micro-Morphology of Aged Asphalt
by Zhaoyi He, Le Yu, Shiyuan You, Maorong Li, Lin Kong and Dingbang Wei
Materials 2024, 17(9), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17092077 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 569
Abstract
The use of warm-mix recycling technology can reduce the mixing temperature and the secondary aging of binders in reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), which is one of the effective ways to recycle high-content RAP. In this study, the penetration, softening point, ductility, and viscosity [...] Read more.
The use of warm-mix recycling technology can reduce the mixing temperature and the secondary aging of binders in reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), which is one of the effective ways to recycle high-content RAP. In this study, the penetration, softening point, ductility, and viscosity were used to characterize the conventional physical properties of aged asphalt after regenerating, while a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), force ductility tester (FDT), and atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to evaluate the rheological performance and micro-morphology of aged asphalt incorporating a new bio-based warm-mix rejuvenator (BWR) and a commercial warm-mix rejuvenator (ZJ-WR). The regeneration mechanism of warm-mix rejuvenators on aged asphalt was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that the new bio-based warm-mix rejuvenator can restore the conventional physical properties, low-temperature performance, and micro-morphology of aged asphalt with an appropriate dosage, but it has a negative effect on high-temperature performance. In comparison with 2D area parameters, 3D roughness parameters were more accurate in evaluating the variation in micro-morphology of aged asphalt after regeneration. The FTIR analysis results indicate that both the new bio-based warm-mix rejuvenator and the commercial warm-mix rejuvenator regenerate aged asphalt by physical action, and AS=O and AC-H values are more reasonable than the AC=O value for the restoration evaluation of aged asphalt. And the new bio-based warm-mix rejuvenator has a better regeneration effect on the performance and micro-morphology of aged asphalt than the commercial warm-mix rejuvenator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials and Structures Used in Pavement Engineering)
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13 pages, 3364 KiB  
Article
Research on Performance Improvement of Emulsified Asphalt Mixture Based on Innovative Forming Process
by Ke Xiao, Xin Qu, Yong Jiang, Wenyang Yun, Pengfei Zheng and Weicheng Li
Materials 2024, 17(6), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17061430 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 658
Abstract
Bulk density and porosity have great influence on the technical performance of an emulsified asphalt mixture, so in order to enhance the strength of the asphalt mixture, bulk density should be improved and porosity should be reduced. Considering the forming process of the [...] Read more.
Bulk density and porosity have great influence on the technical performance of an emulsified asphalt mixture, so in order to enhance the strength of the asphalt mixture, bulk density should be improved and porosity should be reduced. Considering the forming process of the emulsified asphalt mixture, the decrease in porosity can ensure the state of the mixture. In order to reduce the porosity of the emulsified asphalt mixture, an innovative forming process is proposed to improve the performance of the emulsified asphalt mixture, and its strength formation mechanism is explored in this paper. Three groups of emulsified asphalt mixtures (ARC-8 + SBR, SMA-5 + EVA, SMA-5 + SBR) were prepared by a conventional mixing process and novel mixing process. Marshall test of the emulsified asphalt mixture, CT scanning test of the emulsified asphalt mixture, workability test and analysis were manufactured and tested. The results show that, compared with conventional methods, the innovative forming method can increase the bulk density of the mixture and reduce the porosity, and thus improve its technical performance. The reason is that most of the water in the mixture of the innovative forming method sticks to the outer surface of the fine aggregate, and the water is more easily discharged. Secondly, the fine aggregate of the innovative forming method is directly mixed with the emulsion, and the volume is smaller. The emulsion wraps the fine aggregate in it due to the surface tension, which enhances the adhesion effect, thus improving the strength of the mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials and Structures Used in Pavement Engineering)
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20 pages, 6440 KiB  
Article
A Molecular Dynamics Analysis of the Thickness and Adhesion Characteristics of the Quasi-Liquid Layer at the Asphalt–Ice Interface
by Yunhao Jiao, Yujin Yao, Heping Qiu, Huaxin Chen and Yongchang Wu
Materials 2024, 17(6), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17061375 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 756
Abstract
The quasi-liquid layer (QLL), a microstructure located between ice and an adhering substrate, is critical in generating capillary pressure, which in turn influences ice adhesion behavior. This study employed molecular dynamics (MD) methods to obtain QLL thickness and utilized these measurements to estimate [...] Read more.
The quasi-liquid layer (QLL), a microstructure located between ice and an adhering substrate, is critical in generating capillary pressure, which in turn influences ice adhesion behavior. This study employed molecular dynamics (MD) methods to obtain QLL thickness and utilized these measurements to estimate the adhesive strength between ice and asphalt. The research involved constructing an ice–QLL–asphalt MD model, encompassing four asphalt types and five temperature ranges from 250 K to 270 K. The QLL thickness was determined for various asphalts and temperatures using the tetrahedral order parameter gradient. Additionally, capillary pressure was calculated based on the QLL thickness and other geometric parameters obtained from the MD analysis. These findings were then compared with ice adhesion strength data acquired from pull-off tests. The results indicate that QLL thickness varies with different asphalt types and increases with temperature. At a constant temperature, the QLL thickness decreases in the order of the basal plane, primary prism plane, and secondary prism plane. Furthermore, the adhesion strength of the QLL diminishes as the temperature rises, attributed to the disruption of hydrogen bonds at lower temperatures. The greater the polarity of the asphalt’s interface molecules, the stronger the adhesion strength and binding free energy. The MD simulations of the asphalt–ice interface offer insights into the atomic-scale adhesive properties of this interface, contributing to the enhancement in QLL property prediction and calibration at larger scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials and Structures Used in Pavement Engineering)
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19 pages, 6092 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Preparation and Shrinkage Characteristics of Multi-Source Solid Waste-Based Cementitious Materials
by Xu Wu, Bo Li, Dingbang Wei, Fucheng Guo and Haidong Ji
Materials 2023, 16(24), 7522; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16247522 - 6 Dec 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
Cement-stabilized macadam (CEM-SM) base layers on highways are prone to early shrinkage cracking in extremely cold and arid regions, mainly caused by the large drying shrinkage of traditional cement-stabilized base materials. A multi-component solid waste cementitious material (SWCM) was designed based on the [...] Read more.
Cement-stabilized macadam (CEM-SM) base layers on highways are prone to early shrinkage cracking in extremely cold and arid regions, mainly caused by the large drying shrinkage of traditional cement-stabilized base materials. A multi-component solid waste cementitious material (SWCM) was designed based on the response surface method. The synergistic reaction mechanism of SWCM was analyzed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). A shrinkage testing system was developed to evaluate the anti-cracking characteristics of stable macadam using multiple solid waste cementitious materials (SWCM-SM), and the strength growth law and frost resistance were analyzed. The results show that the Box–Behnken response surface model was used to obtain the optimal parameter combination for SWCM, including 60% slag, 30% steel slag, and 10% desulfurization gypsum. The compressive strength and flexural strength of SWCM-SM were 24.1% and 26.7% higher than those of CEM-SM after curing 180 days. The frost resistance of SWCM-SM was basically equivalent to that of CEM-SM, and the dry shrinkage strain of SWCM-SM was reduced by 30.7% compared to CEM-SM. It can be concluded that steel slag and desulfurization gypsum stimulate the hydration reaction of slag, thereby improving the bonding strength. Compared to CEM-SM, SWCM-SM exhibits slower hydration reaction and longer hydration duration, exhibiting characteristics of low early strength and high later strength. The early microstrain of the semi-rigid base layer is mainly caused by the occurrence of early water loss shrinkage, and the water loss rate of SWCM-SM is lower than that of CEM-SM. This study concludes that SWCM has good early crack resistance performance for stabilized crushed stones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials and Structures Used in Pavement Engineering)
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14 pages, 2122 KiB  
Article
Effect of Sasobit/Waste Cooking Oil Composite on the Physical, Rheological, and Aging Properties of Styrene–Butadiene Rubber (SBR)-Modified Bitumen Binders
by Xiongfei Zhao, Zhen Lu, Hengyu Su, Qiaoli Le, Bo Zhang and Wentong Wang
Materials 2023, 16(23), 7368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16237368 - 27 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
The modifying effects of polymer on bitumen low-temperature performance are substantially compromised by the thermal breakdown of styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) polymer during bitumen mixture production operations. The efficacy of the utilization of Sasobit/waste cooking oil (Sasobit/WCO) as a warm-mix additive has been demonstrated [...] Read more.
The modifying effects of polymer on bitumen low-temperature performance are substantially compromised by the thermal breakdown of styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) polymer during bitumen mixture production operations. The efficacy of the utilization of Sasobit/waste cooking oil (Sasobit/WCO) as a warm-mix additive has been demonstrated in mitigating the adverse consequences of thermal aging on SBR-modified bitumen binder (SB) while preserving the binder’s original performance characteristics. However, few studies have been conducted to further investigate the rheological properties and aging resistance of SB modified with Sasobit/WCO compounds. In this work, three additives—Sasobit, WCO, and Sasobit/WCO composite—were selected, and their effects on the physical and rheological characteristics of SB as well as the temperatures at which the mixtures were prepared were assessed. In addition, by using dynamic shear rheometers (DSR) and bending beam rheometers (BBR), the effects of this innovative warm-mix addition on the performance grade (PG) and aging resistances of SB were evaluated. According to the results, Sasobit/WCO composites outperform Sasobit and WCO in lowering the mixture preparation temperature. Sasobit/WCO also improves both the high- and low-temperature performance of SB simultaneously. Compared to hot-mix asphalt mixtures, the addition of Sasobit/WCO reduces the preparation temperature of the bitumen mixtures by 19 °C, which in turn helps to minimize the negative effects of temperature aging on the functioning of the SB. Additionally, the Sasobit/WCO composite addition can improve the SB mixture’s resistance to thermal cracking. After the introduction of Sasobit/WCO, the high-temperature PG of SB was raised by two levels, regardless of whether the warm-mix impact was taken into account. With the addition of Sasobit/WCO, SB’s resilience to short-term aging was enhanced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials and Structures Used in Pavement Engineering)
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20 pages, 8849 KiB  
Article
Novel Calculation Method for the Shear Capacity of a UHPC Beam with and without Web Reinforcement
by Chuansong Gao, Hui Jiang, Gaozhan Zhang, Liang Chen and Yuqing Hu
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6915; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216915 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 775
Abstract
To accurately predict the shear-bearing capacity of UHPC beams, it is crucial to quantify the shear contribution of the fiber bridging effect and UHPC compression zone. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the shear contribution of UHPC in the compression zone is not [...] Read more.
To accurately predict the shear-bearing capacity of UHPC beams, it is crucial to quantify the shear contribution of the fiber bridging effect and UHPC compression zone. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the shear contribution of UHPC in the compression zone is not fully considered in most existing calculation methods, and the probability distribution of fibers within the matrix is also not taken into full account, which reduces the calculation accuracy of the shear bearing capacity of UHPC beams. In this paper, a UHPC beam shear test database containing 247 samples was created, and the influencing factors on the shear capacity of UHPC beams, such as the shear span ratio, the web reinforcement ratio, and the volume fraction of steel fiber, were analyzed. It was found that the ratio of cracking load to ultimate load ranges from 0.2 to 0.6, and the failure in the compression zone of UHPC beams can be divided into diagonal tension failure and shear compression failure. Based on the failure mechanism of the compression zone, considering the contribution of fiber micro tensile strength, a formula for calculating the shear-bearing capacity of UHPC beams with and without web reinforcement was proposed. Verified by experimental data, the proposed formula accurately predicts the shear-bearing capacity of UHPC beams. In comparison with other shear capacity formulas in current design codes, the proposed formula in this paper provides a higher prediction accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials and Structures Used in Pavement Engineering)
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18 pages, 6597 KiB  
Article
Research on Fracture Behavior of Fiber–Asphalt Mixtures Using Digital Image Correlation Technology
by Bo Li, Yangyang Zhou, Aihong Kang, Keke Lou and Qianli Gu
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6825; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216825 - 24 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 854
Abstract
Many researchers use fiber to improve the cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures, but research concerning the effects of fiber on fracture behavior is limited. The fracture behavior of asphalt mixtures with various fiber types (basalt fiber, glass fiber, and polyester fiber) and contents [...] Read more.
Many researchers use fiber to improve the cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures, but research concerning the effects of fiber on fracture behavior is limited. The fracture behavior of asphalt mixtures with various fiber types (basalt fiber, glass fiber, and polyester fiber) and contents (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5%) has been studied using the indirect tensile asphalt cracking test (IDEAL-CT) in conjunction with digital image correlation (DIC) technology. The evaluation indexes used in the test included crack initiation energy (Gif), crack energy (Gf), splitting tensile strength (RT), cracking tolerance index (CTindex), and the real-time tensile strain (Exx) obtained using digital image correlation technology. The results showed that despite the fiber type, the increase of fiber content resulted in first, an increase, and then, a decrease of the cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures, indicating the presence of optimum fiber content—specifically, 0.4%, 0.3%, and 0.3% for basalt fiber, glass fiber, and polyester fiber, respectively. The development of real-time tensile strain, obtained based on digital image correlation technology, could be divided into two stages: slow-growth stage and rapid-expansion stage. In addition, asphalt mixture with basalt fiber presented the best cracking resistance at both the slow-growth and rapid-expansion stages. This research is helpful in understanding the effects of fiber type and content on the fracture behavior of asphalt mixtures and has certain reference significance for the application of fiber in asphalt mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials and Structures Used in Pavement Engineering)
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