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Selected Papers from SSTT2016

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2017) | Viewed by 28553

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
Interests: miniaturised characterisation; thermo-mechanical fatigue; nickel superalloys (single crystals, polycrystalline materials); titanium alloys; failure analysis; non-destructive evaluation; fatigue; fatigue lifing; advanced manufacturing methods
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Co-Guest Editor
Material & Metallurgical Research, Ltd., Ostrava, Czech Republic
Interests: fatigue; corrosion fatigue; fracture mechanics; special test methods

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Co-Guest Editor
China Special Equipment Inspection and Research Institute, Beijing, China
Interests: inspection; research & development; miniature test techniques; steel

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Small scale testing is now receiving world-wide attention for the considerable cost saving benefits that it can offer whilst providing useful mechanical property information for highly localized regions, such as weldments and heat affected zones. As such, miniaturized testing is now being adopted for a wide range of applications, where subtle to significant microstructural changes are found across components. Given the success of such approaches, efforts have been made in correlating uniaxial test data with results generated from small-scale test techniques, which, in turn, have heralded the development of a European Code of Practise for small punch testing.

The 4th International Conference on Small Scale Test Techniques is due to take place in Shanghai, China, from 12–14 October, 2016, and will bring together leading researchers and scientists from academia and industry to discuss recent developments in this growing field of research. This inaugural Special Issue will collate a series of papers from the ever expanding small scale testing community to showcase the diversity and innovative nature of the research that is currently developing across the world on a broad scope of materials and applications

http://www.ssttchina.org/

Dr. Robert Lancaster
Professor Karel Matocha
Professor Shou Binan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • miniaturized testing
  • small punch test
  • rupture
  • fracture toughness
  • finite element analysis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

6306 KiB  
Article
Study on Temper Embrittlement and Hydrogen Embrittlement of a Hydrogenation Reactor by Small Punch Test
by Kaishu Guan, Jerzy A. Szpunar, Karel Matocha and Duwei Wang
Materials 2017, 10(6), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10060671 - 19 Jun 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5773
Abstract
The study on temper embrittlement and hydrogen embrittlement of a test block from a 3Cr1Mo1/4V hydrogenation reactor after ten years of service was carried out by small punch test (SPT) at different temperatures. The SPT fracture energy Esp (derived from integrating [...] Read more.
The study on temper embrittlement and hydrogen embrittlement of a test block from a 3Cr1Mo1/4V hydrogenation reactor after ten years of service was carried out by small punch test (SPT) at different temperatures. The SPT fracture energy Esp (derived from integrating the load-displacement curve) divided by the maximum load (Fm) of SPT was used to fit the Esp/Fm versus-temperature curve to determine the energy transition temperature (Tsp) which corresponded to the ductile-brittle transition temperature of the Charpy impact test. The results indicated that the ratio of Esp/Fm could better represent the energy of transition in SPT compared with Esp. The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of the four different types of materials was measured using the hydrogen charging test by SPT. These four types of materials included the base metal and the weld metal in the as-received state, and the base metal and the weld metal in the de-embrittled state. The results showed that there was a degree of temper embrittlement in the base metal and the weld metal after ten years of service at 390 °C. The specimens became slightly more brittle but this was not obvious after hydrogen charging. Because the toughness of the material of the hydrogenation reactor was very good, the flat samples of SPT could not characterize the energy transition temperature within the liquid nitrogen temperature. Additionally, there was no synergetic effect of temper embrittlement and hydrogen embrittlement found in 3Cr1Mo1/4V steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from SSTT2016)
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1610 KiB  
Article
The Present SP Tests for Determining the Transition Temperature TSP on “U” Notch Disc Specimens
by Karel Matocha, Ondrej Dorazil and Roger Hurst
Materials 2017, 10(5), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10050490 - 03 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3398
Abstract
The principal difference between the small punch (SP) testing technique and standardized impact testing lies in the fact that the SP tests carried out in accordance with CWA 15627 Small Punch Test Method for Metallic Materials use disc-shaped test specimens without a notch. [...] Read more.
The principal difference between the small punch (SP) testing technique and standardized impact testing lies in the fact that the SP tests carried out in accordance with CWA 15627 Small Punch Test Method for Metallic Materials use disc-shaped test specimens without a notch. Especially in tough materials, the temperature dependence of SP fracture energy ESP in the transition area is very steep and lies close to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. In this case, the determination of SP transition temperature TSP can lead to significant errors in its determination. Efforts to move the transition area of penetration testing closer to the transition area of standardized impact tests led to the proposal of the notched disc specimen 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm in thickness with a “U” shaped notch 0.2 mm deep in the axis plane of the disc. The paper summarizes the results obtained to date when determining the transition temperature of SP tests TSP, determined according to CWA 15627 for material of pipes made of P92, P22, and a heat treated 14MoV6-3 steel in the as delivered state. Although the results obtained confirmed the results of other works in that the presence of a notch in a SP disc is insufficient to increase the transition temperature significantly and certainly not to the values obtained by Charpy testing, comparison of the different behaviors of the alloys tested reveals some evidence that the notch reduces the energy for initiation. This implies that the test on a notched disc is more a test of crack growth and would be a useful instrument if included in the forthcoming EU standard for SP testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from SSTT2016)
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7229 KiB  
Article
High Temperature Deformation Mechanisms in a DLD Nickel Superalloy
by Sean Davies, Spencer Jeffs, Robert Lancaster and Gavin Baxter
Materials 2017, 10(5), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10050457 - 26 Apr 2017
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6179
Abstract
The realisation of employing Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) technologies to produce components in the aerospace industry is significantly increasing. This can be attributed to their ability to offer the near-net shape fabrication of fully dense components with a high potential for geometrical optimisation, [...] Read more.
The realisation of employing Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) technologies to produce components in the aerospace industry is significantly increasing. This can be attributed to their ability to offer the near-net shape fabrication of fully dense components with a high potential for geometrical optimisation, all of which contribute to subsequent reductions in material wastage and component weight. However, the influence of this manufacturing route on the properties of aerospace alloys must first be fully understood before being actively applied in-service. Specimens from the nickel superalloy C263 have been manufactured using Powder Bed Direct Laser Deposition (PB-DLD), each with unique post-processing conditions. These variables include two build orientations, vertical and horizontal, and two different heat treatments. The effects of build orientation and post-process heat treatments on the materials’ mechanical properties have been assessed with the Small Punch Tensile (SPT) test technique, a practical test method given the limited availability of PB-DLD consolidated material. SPT testing was also conducted on a cast C263 variant to compare with PB-DLD derivatives. At both room and elevated temperature conditions, differences in mechanical performances arose between each material variant. This was found to be instigated by microstructural variations exposed through microscopic and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. SPT results were also compared with available uniaxial tensile data in terms of SPT peak and yield load against uniaxial ultimate tensile and yield strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from SSTT2016)
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8024 KiB  
Article
Determination of Material Strengths by Hydraulic Bulge Test
by Hankui Wang, Tong Xu and Binan Shou
Materials 2017, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10010023 - 30 Dec 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6813
Abstract
The hydraulic bulge test (HBT) method is proposed to determine material tensile strengths. The basic idea of HBT is similar to the small punch test (SPT), but inspired by the manufacturing process of rupture discs—high-pressure hydraulic oil is used instead of punch to [...] Read more.
The hydraulic bulge test (HBT) method is proposed to determine material tensile strengths. The basic idea of HBT is similar to the small punch test (SPT), but inspired by the manufacturing process of rupture discs—high-pressure hydraulic oil is used instead of punch to cause specimen deformation. Compared with SPT method, the HBT method can avoid some of influence factors, such as punch dimension, punch material, and the friction between punch and specimen. A calculation procedure that is entirely based on theoretical derivation is proposed for estimate yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Both conventional tensile tests and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out for several ferrous alloys, and the results showed that hydraulic bulge test results are reliable and accurate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from SSTT2016)
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2770 KiB  
Article
Correlation Factor Study of Small Punch Creep Test and Its Life Prediction
by Cheng Wen, Tong Xu and Kaishu Guan
Materials 2016, 9(10), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100796 - 24 Sep 2016
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5708
Abstract
A small punch test is one of the innovative methods that can be used to evaluate the properties of a material without destructive harm to the in-service component. Conventionally identifying material properties by a uniaxial test is widely applied to engineering. How the [...] Read more.
A small punch test is one of the innovative methods that can be used to evaluate the properties of a material without destructive harm to the in-service component. Conventionally identifying material properties by a uniaxial test is widely applied to engineering. How the properties obtained from a small punch test can be applied with the same utility has been a goal. In 2006, European Code of Practice (CoP) of small punch tests was first released, in which the correlation factor, ksp, was introduced to bridge the gap between the above methods. The author investigates the relationship between a uniaxial creep text and a small punch creep test by exploring the correlation factor ksp. Various sets of experiments and a comparative study of the conventional uniaxial creep test and small punch creep test were carried out. Methods including Norton, Larson-Miller and Time versus Stress relation were employed to identify the value of ksp. Different ksp values were found in different materials, which indicate that ksp values of materials need to be identified separately. In addition, the life prediction of a small punch creep test was carried out and the results of the life prediction predict a reasonable accuracy, which indicates that the small punch creep test is a reliable method for life prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from SSTT2016)
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