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Electron Beam Processing of Materials, Volume II

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 April 2024 | Viewed by 3054

Special Issue Editor

Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria
Interests: electron beam technologies; modeling and application of mathematics in physics; interaction of electrons with materials; technology process optimization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Topical Collection is the continuation of our previous Special Issue, “Electron Beam Processing of Materials”. In the first volume of the Special Issue, we successfully collated many publications presenting the latest research, creating an extremely useful reference for scholars in the field.

In this second volume of the Special Issue, we want to continue exploring state-of-the-art research on material processing using electron beam methods for different applications.

As in the previous Special Issue, we will focus on a timely approach to surveying recent progress in the development and optimization of electron beam applications in modern, ecological, conventional, and non-conventional methods for material processing. The articles presented in this Special Issue will cover various topics, ranging from beam physics and generation to metal melting and welding, additive manufacturing, electron beam processing of polymers and composites, electron accelerator applications for material modification, surface treatment methods, electron beam evaporation and deposition of functional coatings, electron beam lithography, process modeling, etc. Therefore, this Special Issue welcomes contributions from all researchers working on material processing using electron beams, as well as on their characterization, properties, and applications.

The authors of full research papers, communications, and review papers are invited to contribute to this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Katia Vutova
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electron beam
  • melting and refining
  • additive manufacturing
  • welding
  • evaporation
  • coatings
  • thin films
  • surface modification
  • lithography
  • modeling
  • novel materials
  • new applications

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 9368 KiB  
Article
Electron Beam Welding Process for Ti6Al-4V Titanium Alloy
Materials 2023, 16(14), 5174; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16145174 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 732
Abstract
The electron beam welding process of titanium alloys induces a series of physicochemical changes in the material that remain a relevant and necessary area of investigation. A necessary step performed after the electron beam welding process of titanium alloys in the Ti6Al-4V grade [...] Read more.
The electron beam welding process of titanium alloys induces a series of physicochemical changes in the material that remain a relevant and necessary area of investigation. A necessary step performed after the electron beam welding process of titanium alloys in the Ti6Al-4V grade to mitigate the resulting thermal stresses is the post-weld heat-treatment process conducted through stress relieving. This study presents the comparative analysis results of the mechanical properties and structure of the Ti6Al-4V titanium alloy after electron beam welding and subsequent stress-relieving heat treatment at a temperature of 590 °C for 2 h. The analysis focused on the levels of mechanical properties such as microhardness in the heat-affected zone and weld, tensile strength, and microstructure analysis in the heat-affected zone and weld. The aim of the research was to answer the questions regarding whether the post-weld heat treatment through stress relieving after electron beam welding of the Ti6Al-4V titanium alloy would significantly affect the changes in mechanical properties and microstructure of the alloy and whether the applied welding speed in the study would cause a significant depletion of alloying elements in the material. During the course of the study, it was found that conducting the electron beam welding process at a speed of 8 mm/s resulted in a depletion of one of the alloying elements (aluminum) in the face area. However, the decrease in aluminum content was not significant and did not exceed the critical value of 6% specified in the material standards, which determined the material’s application based on its strength properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electron Beam Processing of Materials, Volume II)
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11 pages, 3092 KiB  
Article
Study on Hardness of Heat-Treated CoCrMo Alloy Recycled by Electron Beam Melting
Materials 2023, 16(7), 2634; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072634 - 26 Mar 2023
Viewed by 959
Abstract
The hardness of heat (thermally) treated CoCrMo ingots, recycled by electron beam melting and refining (EBMR) of a technogenic CoCrMo material (waste from the dental technology) under different process conditions (temperature and residence time) is examined. The heat treatment consists of two-step heating [...] Read more.
The hardness of heat (thermally) treated CoCrMo ingots, recycled by electron beam melting and refining (EBMR) of a technogenic CoCrMo material (waste from the dental technology) under different process conditions (temperature and residence time) is examined. The heat treatment consists of two-step heating up to temperatures of 423 K and 1343 K and retention times of 40 and 60 min, respectively. The influence of various loads (0.98 N, 1.96 N, 2.94 N, 4.9 N, and 9.8 N) on the hardness of the CoCrMo alloy, recycled by EBMR, before and after heat treatment is studied. It has been found that regardless of the EBMR process conditions, the obtained samples after heat treatment have similar hardness values (between 494.2 HV and 505.9 HV) and they are significantly lower than the hardness of the specimens before the heat treatment. The highest hardness (600 HV) is measured in the alloy recycled at 1845 K refining temperature for 20 min. This is due to the smaller crystal structure of the resulting alloy and the higher cobalt content. The results obtained show that the heat treatment leads to considerable changes in the microstructure of the CoCrMo ingots recycled by EBMR. With the increase of the e-beam refining temperature, after the heat treatment, the grains’ size increases and the grains’ shape indicates an incomplete phase transition from γ-fcc to ε-hcp phase. This leads to a slight increase in the hardness of the alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electron Beam Processing of Materials, Volume II)
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14 pages, 2411 KiB  
Article
Study of the Possibility of Recycling of Technogenic Hafnium during Electron Beam Refining
Materials 2022, 15(23), 8518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15238518 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 967
Abstract
The possibility of removing metallic (such as Zr, Fe, Cr, and Zn) impurities and non-metallic (such as [O] and C) impurities from technogenic hafnium through single and double refining in the conditions of electron beam melting (EBM) has been studied. The influence of [...] Read more.
The possibility of removing metallic (such as Zr, Fe, Cr, and Zn) impurities and non-metallic (such as [O] and C) impurities from technogenic hafnium through single and double refining in the conditions of electron beam melting (EBM) has been studied. The influence of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters on the degree of removal of these impurities from the base metal under vacuum conditions and within a temperature interval of 2500 K to 3100 K is defined. The relative volatility of metal impurities and the stability of the oxides and carbides present in the base metal are evaluated. The possibility for complete removal of Fe, Cr, Zn, [O], and C during EBM is shown. In the case of double refining, at a temperature of 2700 K for 20 min, the maximum degree of removal of Zr is 46.8%, the achieved highest hafnium purity is 99.004%, and the overall effectiveness of the refining of hafnium from impurities is 53%. There is a correlation between the degree of removal of Zr and the micro-hardness of the Hf ingots obtained after EBM. The weight losses vary in the ranges of 1.5–5.8% and 1–8% under the studied single and double refining processes, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electron Beam Processing of Materials, Volume II)
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