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Advanced Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2023) | Viewed by 36232

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Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: analytical chemistry; sample preparation; chromatography; HPLC; method validation; method development; separation science; food analysis; bioanalysis; environmental analysis; green analytical chemistry; sorptive extraction; microextraction techniques
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Chemistry Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: materials chemistry; materials characterization; nanomaterials; graphene oxide; activated carbon; wastewater treatment; separation; adsorption; catalytic oxidation; environmental applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Graphene and graphene oxide are widely applied as successful sorbent materials for various compounds obtained from biosamples and surface water samples. Therefore, they are suitable for future use in numerous biomedical and environmental applications.

Moreover, their functionalization with magnetic nanoparticles can lead to magnetic sorbents, thus allowing convenient sample treatment via magnetic separation.

To date, a plethora of graphene and graphene oxide materials have been synthesized and successfully employed for solid-phase extraction of organic compounds from environmental and biological samples. The unique properties of these materials enrich the analytical toolbox available for the analysis of various organic compounds in various matrices and make them precise and valuable means for handling analytical and environmental issues.

This Special Issue is supported by the Sample Preparation Study Group and Network, supported by the Division of Analytical Chemistry of the European Chemical Society.

Prof. Dr. Victoria Samanidou
Prof. Dr. Eleni Deliyanni
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Graphene oxide
  • Graphene
  • Solid-phase extraction
  • Microextraction
  • Green chemistry
  • Sample preparation
  • Clean-up
  • Nanomaterials
  • Magnetic solid-phase extraction
  • Dispersive solid-phase extraction
  • Magnetic sorbents
  • Biomedical applications
  • Environmental applications

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 4304 KiB  
Article
Second-Order Nonlinearity of Graphene Quantum Dots Measured by Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering
by Manoel L. Silva-Neto, Renato Barbosa-Silva, Georges Boudebs and Cid B. de Araújo
Materials 2023, 16(23), 7376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16237376 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 649
Abstract
The first hyperpolarizability of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) suspended in water was determined using the hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of the HRS technique to characterize GQDs. Two commercial GQDs (Acqua-Cyan and Acqua-Green) [...] Read more.
The first hyperpolarizability of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) suspended in water was determined using the hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of the HRS technique to characterize GQDs. Two commercial GQDs (Acqua-Cyan and Acqua-Green) with different compositions were studied. The HRS experiments were performed with an excitation laser at 1064 nm. The measured hyperpolarizabilities were (1.0±0.1)×1027 esu and (0.9±0.1)×1027 esu for Acqua-Cyan and Acqua-Green, respectively. The results were used to estimate the hyperpolarizability per nanosheet obtained by assuming that each GQD has five nanosheets with 0.3 nm thickness. The two-level model, used to calculate the static hyperpolarizability per nanosheet, provides values of (2.4±0.1)×1028 esu (Acqua-Cyan) and (0.5±0.1)×1028 esu (Aqua-Green). The origin of the nonlinearity is discussed on the basis of polarized resolved HRS experiments, and electric quadrupolar behavior with a strong dependence on surface effects. The nontoxic characteristics and order of magnitude indicate that these GQDs may be useful for biological microscopy imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials)
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10 pages, 2782 KiB  
Communication
Cubic Nonlinearity of Graphene-Oxide Monolayer
by Tikaram Neupane, Uma Poudyal, Bagher Tabibi, Wan-Joong Kim and Felix Jaetae Seo
Materials 2023, 16(20), 6664; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16206664 - 12 Oct 2023
Viewed by 691
Abstract
The cubic nonlinearity of a graphene-oxide monolayer was characterized through open and closed z−scan experiments, using a nano-second laser operating at a 10 Hz repetition rate and featuring a Gaussian spatial beam profile. The open z−scan revealed a reverse saturable absorption, indicating a [...] Read more.
The cubic nonlinearity of a graphene-oxide monolayer was characterized through open and closed z−scan experiments, using a nano-second laser operating at a 10 Hz repetition rate and featuring a Gaussian spatial beam profile. The open z−scan revealed a reverse saturable absorption, indicating a positive nonlinear absorption coefficient, while the closed z−scan displayed valley-peak traces, indicative of positive nonlinear refraction. This observation suggests that, under the given excitation wavelength, a two-photon or two-step excitation process occurs due to the increased absorption in both the lower visible and upper UV wavelength regions. This finding implies that graphene oxide exhibits a higher excited-state absorption cross-section compared to its ground state. The resulting nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction coefficients were estimated to be approximately ~2.62 × 10−8 m/W and 3.9 × 10−15 m2/W, respectively. Additionally, this study sheds light on the interplay between nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction traces, providing valuable insights into the material’s optical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials)
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13 pages, 6189 KiB  
Article
Gold Nanoparticles AuNP Decorated on Fused Graphene-like Materials for Application in a Hydrogen Generation
by Erik Biehler, Qui Quach and Tarek M. Abdel-Fattah
Materials 2023, 16(13), 4779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16134779 - 3 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
The search for a sustainable, alternative fuel source to replace fossil fuels has led to an increased interest in hydrogen fuel. This combustible gas is not only clean-burning but can readily be produced via the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. The main drawback of [...] Read more.
The search for a sustainable, alternative fuel source to replace fossil fuels has led to an increased interest in hydrogen fuel. This combustible gas is not only clean-burning but can readily be produced via the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. The main drawback of this reaction is that the reaction occurs relatively slowly and requires a catalyst to improve efficiency. This study explored a novel composite material made by combining gold nanoparticles and fused graphene-like materials (AuFGLM) as a catalyst for generating hydrogen via sodium borohydride. The novel fused graphene-like material (FGLM) was made with a sustainable dextrose solution and by using a pressure-processing method. Imaging techniques showed that FGLM appears to be an effective support template for nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize and determine the size, shape, and structure of nanoparticles and composites. The TEM study characterized the fused carbon backbone as it began to take on a rounder shape. The TEM images also revealed that the average diameter of the gold nanoparticle was roughly 23 nm. The FTIR study confirmed O-H, C-C, and C=O as functional groups in the materials. The EDS analysis showed that the composite contained approximately 6.3% gold by weight. The crystal structures of FGLM and AuFGLM were identified via P-XRD analysis. Various reaction conditions were used to test the catalytic ability of AuFGLM, including various solution pHs, temperatures, and doses of NaBH4. It was observed that optimal reaction conditions included high temperature, an acidic solution pH, and a higher dose of NaBH4. The activation energy of the reaction was determined to be 45.5 kJ mol−1, and it was found that the catalyst could be used multiple times in a row with an increased volume of hydrogen produced in ensuing trials. The activation energy of this novel catalyst is competitive compared to similar catalysts and its ability to produce hydrogen over multiple uses makes the material an exciting choice for catalyzing the hydrolysis of NaBH4 for use as a hydrogen fuel source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials)
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18 pages, 14569 KiB  
Article
Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Mechanical Properties and Durability of High-Strength Lightweight Concrete Containing Shale Ceramsite
by Xiaojiang Hong, Jin Chai Lee, Jing Lin Ng, Zeety Md Yusof, Qian He and Qiansha Li
Materials 2023, 16(7), 2756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072756 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
An effective pathway to achieve the sustainable development of resources and environmental protection is to utilize shale ceramsite (SC), which is processed from shale spoil to produce high-strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC). Furthermore, the urgent demand for better performance of HSLWC has stimulated active [...] Read more.
An effective pathway to achieve the sustainable development of resources and environmental protection is to utilize shale ceramsite (SC), which is processed from shale spoil to produce high-strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC). Furthermore, the urgent demand for better performance of HSLWC has stimulated active research on graphene oxide (GO) in strengthening mechanical properties and durability. This study was an effort to investigate the effect of different contents of GO on HSLWC manufactured from SC. For this purpose, six mixtures containing GO in the range of 0–0.08% (by weight of cement) were systematically designed to test the mechanical properties (compressive strength, flexural strength, and splitting tensile strength), durability (chloride penetration resistance, freezing–thawing resistance, and sulfate attack resistance), and microstructure. The experimental results showed that the optimum amount of 0.05% GO can maximize the compressive strength, flexural strength, and splitting tensile strength by 20.1%, 34.3%, and 24.2%, respectively, and exhibited excellent chloride penetration resistance, freezing–thawing resistance, and sulfate attack resistance. Note that when the addition of GO was relatively high, the performance improvement in HSLWC as attenuated instead. Therefore, based on the comprehensive analysis of microstructure, the optimal addition level of GO to achieve the best mechanical properties and durability of HSLWC is considered to be 0.05%. These findings can provide a new method for the use of SC in engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials)
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12 pages, 5027 KiB  
Article
Effect of Defects in Graphene/Cu Composites on the Density of States
by Song Mi Kim, Woo Rim Park, Jun Seok Park, Sang Min Song and Oh Heon Kwon
Materials 2023, 16(3), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16030962 - 20 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1514
Abstract
The process of handling and bonding copper (Cu) and graphene inevitably creates defects. To use graphene/Cu composites as electronic devices with new physical properties, it is essential to evaluate the effect of such defects. Since graphene is an ultrathin anisotropic material having a [...] Read more.
The process of handling and bonding copper (Cu) and graphene inevitably creates defects. To use graphene/Cu composites as electronic devices with new physical properties, it is essential to evaluate the effect of such defects. Since graphene is an ultrathin anisotropic material having a hexagonal structure, an evaluation of graphene/Cu composites containing defects was conducted taking into account the inherent structural characteristics. The purpose of this study is to evaluate defects that may occur in the manufacturing process and to present a usable basic method for the stable design research and development of copper/graphene composites essential for commercialization of copper/graphene composites. In the future, when performing analytical calculations on various copper/graphene composites and defect shapes in addition to the defect conditions presented in this paper, it is considered that it can be used as a useful method considering defects that occur during application to products of desired thickness and size. Herein, density functional theory was used to evaluate the behavior of graphene/Cu composites containing defects. The density of states (DOS) values were also calculated. The analysis was implemented using three kinds of models comprising defect-free graphene and two- and four-layered graphene/Cu composites containing defects. DOS and Fermi energy levels were used to gage the effect of defects on electrical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials)
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16 pages, 2797 KiB  
Article
Rheological Investigation of Welding Waste-Derived Graphene Oxide in Water-Based Drilling Fluids
by Rabia Ikram, Badrul Mohamed Jan, Waqas Ahmad, Akhmal Sidek, Mudasar Khan and George Kenanakis
Materials 2022, 15(22), 8266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15228266 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Throughout the world, the construction industry produces significant amounts of by-products and hazardous waste materials. The steel-making industry generates welding waste and dusts that are toxic to the environment and pose many economic challenges. Water-based drilling fluids (WBDF) are able to remove the [...] Read more.
Throughout the world, the construction industry produces significant amounts of by-products and hazardous waste materials. The steel-making industry generates welding waste and dusts that are toxic to the environment and pose many economic challenges. Water-based drilling fluids (WBDF) are able to remove the drill cuttings in a wellbore and maintain the stability of the wellbore to prevent formation damage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reports the application of welding waste and its derived graphene oxide (GO) as a fluid-loss additive in drilling fluids. In this research, GO was successfully synthesized from welding waste through chemical exfoliation. The examination was confirmed using XRD, FTIR, FESEM and EDX analyses. The synthesized welding waste-derived GO in WBDF is competent in improving rheological properties by increasing plastic viscosity (PV), yield point (YP) and gel strength (GS), while reducing filtrate loss (FL) and mud cake thickness (MCT). This study shows the effect of additives such as welding waste, welding waste-derived GO and commercial GO, and their amount, on the rheological properties of WBDF. Concentrations of these additives were used at 0.01 ppb, 0.1 ppb and 0.5 ppb. Based on the experiment results, raw welding waste and welding waste-derived GO showed better performance compared with commercial GO. Among filtration properties, FL and MCT were reduced by 33.3% and 39.7% with the addition of 0.5 ppb of raw welding-waste additive, while for 0.5 ppb of welding waste-derived GO additive, FL and MCT were reduced by 26.7% and 20.9%, respectively. By recycling industrial welding waste, this research conveys state-of-the-art and low-cost drilling fluids that aid in waste management, and reduce the adverse environmental and commercial ramifications of toxic wastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials)
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13 pages, 2878 KiB  
Article
Plasmon Damping Rates in Coulomb-Coupled 2D Layers in a Heterostructure
by Dipendra Dahal, Godfrey Gumbs, Andrii Iurov and Chin-Sen Ting
Materials 2022, 15(22), 7964; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15227964 - 11 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
The Coulomb excitations of charge density oscillation are calculated for a double-layer heterostructure. Specifically, we consider two-dimensional (2D) layers of silicene and graphene on a substrate. From the obtained surface response function, we calculated the plasmon dispersion relations, which demonstrate how the Coulomb [...] Read more.
The Coulomb excitations of charge density oscillation are calculated for a double-layer heterostructure. Specifically, we consider two-dimensional (2D) layers of silicene and graphene on a substrate. From the obtained surface response function, we calculated the plasmon dispersion relations, which demonstrate how the Coulomb interaction renormalizes the plasmon frequencies. Most importantly, we have conducted a thorough investigation of how the decay rates of the plasmons in these heterostructures are affected by the Coulomb coupling between different types of two-dimensional materials whose separations could be varied. A novel effect of nullification of the silicene band gap is noticed when graphene is introduced into the system. To utilize these effects for experimental and industrial purposes, graphical results for the different parameters are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials)
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11 pages, 2791 KiB  
Article
A Facile Synthesis of Noble-Metal-Free Catalyst Based on Nitrogen Doped Graphene Oxide for Oxygen Reduction Reaction
by Vladimir P. Vasiliev, Roman A. Manzhos, Valeriy K. Kochergin, Alexander G. Krivenko, Eugene N. Kabachkov, Alexander V. Kulikov, Yury M. Shulga and Gennady L. Gutsev
Materials 2022, 15(3), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15030821 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2283
Abstract
A simple method for the mechanochemical synthesis of an effective metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction was demonstrated. A nitrogen-doped carbon material was obtained by grinding a mixture of graphene oxide and melamine in a planetary ball mill. The resulting material was [...] Read more.
A simple method for the mechanochemical synthesis of an effective metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction was demonstrated. A nitrogen-doped carbon material was obtained by grinding a mixture of graphene oxide and melamine in a planetary ball mill. The resulting material was characterized by XPS, EPR, and Raman and IR spectroscopy. The nitrogen concentration on the N-bmGO surface was 5.5 at.%. The nitrogen-enriched graphene material (NbmGO has half-wave potential of −0.175/−0.09 V and was shown to possess high activity as an electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction. The electrocatalytic activity of NbmGO can be associated with a high concentration of active sites for the adsorption of oxygen molecules on its surface. The high current retention (93% for 12 h) after continuous polarization demonstrates the excellent long-term stability of NbmGO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials)
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Review

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20 pages, 3054 KiB  
Review
A Short Overview on Graphene and Graphene-Related Materials for Electrochemical Gas Sensing
by Mallikarjun Madagalam, Mattia Bartoli and Alberto Tagliaferro
Materials 2024, 17(2), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020303 - 7 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1065
Abstract
The development of new and high-performing electrode materials for sensing applications is one of the most intriguing and challenging research fields. There are several ways to approach this matter, but the use of nanostructured surfaces is among the most promising and highest performing. [...] Read more.
The development of new and high-performing electrode materials for sensing applications is one of the most intriguing and challenging research fields. There are several ways to approach this matter, but the use of nanostructured surfaces is among the most promising and highest performing. Graphene and graphene-related materials have contributed to spreading nanoscience across several fields in which the combination of morphological and electronic properties exploit their outstanding electrochemical properties. In this review, we discuss the use of graphene and graphene-like materials to produce gas sensors, highlighting the most relevant and new advancements in the field, with a particular focus on the interaction between the gases and the materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials)
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17 pages, 8185 KiB  
Review
Review on Graphene-, Graphene Oxide-, Reduced Graphene Oxide-Based Flexible Composites: From Fabrication to Applications
by Aamir Razaq, Faiza Bibi, Xiaoxiao Zheng, Raffaello Papadakis, Syed Hassan Mujtaba Jafri and Hu Li
Materials 2022, 15(3), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15031012 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 234 | Viewed by 20854
Abstract
In the new era of modern flexible and bendable technology, graphene-based materials have attracted great attention. The excellent electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of graphene as well as the ease of functionalization of its derivates have enabled graphene to become an attractive candidate [...] Read more.
In the new era of modern flexible and bendable technology, graphene-based materials have attracted great attention. The excellent electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of graphene as well as the ease of functionalization of its derivates have enabled graphene to become an attractive candidate for the construction of flexible devices. This paper provides a comprehensive review about the most recent progress in the synthesis and applications of graphene-based composites. Composite materials based on graphene, graphene oxide (GO), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), as well as conducting polymers, metal matrices, carbon–carbon matrices, and natural fibers have potential application in energy-harvesting systems, clean-energy storage devices, and wearable and portable electronics owing to their superior mechanical strength, conductivity, and extraordinary thermal stability. Additionally, the difficulties and challenges in the current development of graphene are summarized and indicated. This review provides a comprehensive and useful database for further innovation of graphene-based composite materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials)
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Other

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19 pages, 2318 KiB  
Systematic Review
Application of Graphene Oxide in Oral Surgery: A Systematic Review
by Francesco Inchingolo, Angelo Michele Inchingolo, Giulia Latini, Giulia Palmieri, Chiara Di Pede, Irma Trilli, Laura Ferrante, Alessio Danilo Inchingolo, Andrea Palermo, Felice Lorusso, Antonio Scarano and Gianna Dipalma
Materials 2023, 16(18), 6293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16186293 - 20 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
The current review aims to provide an overview of the most recent research in the last 10 years on the potentials of graphene in the dental surgery field, focusing on the potential of graphene oxide (GO) applied to implant surfaces and prosthetic abutment [...] Read more.
The current review aims to provide an overview of the most recent research in the last 10 years on the potentials of graphene in the dental surgery field, focusing on the potential of graphene oxide (GO) applied to implant surfaces and prosthetic abutment surfaces, as well as to the membranes and scaffolds used in Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) procedures. “Graphene oxide” and “dental surgery” and “dentistry” were the search terms utilized on the databases Scopus, Web of Science, and Pubmed, with the Boolean operator “AND” and “OR”. Reviewers worked in pairs to select studies based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. They included animal studies, clinical studies, or case reports, and in vitro and in vivo studies. However, they excluded systematic reviews, narrative reviews, and meta-analyses. Results: Of these 293 studies, 19 publications were included in this review. The field of graphene-based engineered nanomaterials in dentistry is expanding. Aside from its superior mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, and thermal stability, graphene and its derivatives may be functionalized with a variety of bioactive compounds, allowing them to be introduced into and improved upon various scaffolds used in regenerative dentistry. This review presents state-of-the-art graphene-based dental surgery applications. Even if further studies and investigations are still needed, the GO coating could improve clinical results in the examined dental surgery fields. Better osseointegration, as well as increased antibacterial and cytocompatible qualities, can benefit GO-coated implant surgery. On bacterially contaminated implant abutment surfaces, the CO coating may provide the optimum prospects for soft tissue sealing to occur. GBR proves to be a safe and stable material, improving both bone regeneration when using GO-enhanced graft materials as well as biocompatibility and mechanical properties of GO-incorporated membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Graphene and Graphene Oxide Materials)
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