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Experimental Study and Modeling of Biomass Pyrolysis

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Materials Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2022) | Viewed by 9282

Special Issue Editors

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Nieves Cano 12, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
Interests: waste valorization; biomass; sewage sludge; pyrolysis; gasification; spouted bed technology; bio-oil
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E48080 Bilbao, Spain
Interests: waste valorization; biomass; spouted bed technology; pyrolysis; gasification; pyrolysis-reforming
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomass is likely to be the only renewable source of fixed carbon, which can be converted to liquid solid and gaseous fuels and chemicals, apart from providing heat and power. Pyrolysis is one of the most energy efficient processes with the lowest cost for obtaining higher value added products from biomass and it is an attractive option for expanding the possibilities of using less desirable biomass (agro-forestry residues or sewage sludge). The yields of each pyrolysis products (solid biochar, liquid bio-oil, and gas) are greatly influenced by the types of feedstock used and the process parameters such as heating rate, temperature, volatile residence time in the reactor and the use (or not) of catalyst.

Despite the efforts of the last decades, the problems associated with the bio-oil poor quality (high oxygen content, chemical complexity and instability) and the difficulty to clarify the complex degradation mechanism of biomass (which depends on its components) have limited the implementation of this process at industrial scale. Thus, in order to step further into the implementation and optimization of large-scale biomass pyrolysis technologies, this Special Issue pursues to highlight the recent advances in the development of fundamental models capable of describing transport and pyrolysis reaction phenomena in different technologies as well as the optimum reaction conditions to produce a bio-oil of better quality.

Dr. Jon Alvarez
Dr. Maider Amutio
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Biomass
  • Pyrolysis
  • Bio-fuel
  • Kinetics
  • Modelling
  • Bio-oil
  • Biochar
  • Bio-gas
  • Renewable energy source
  • Waste valorization
  • Pyrolysis reactor

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

7 pages, 1079 KiB  
Communication
Pyrolysis of Methyl Ricinoleate: Distribution and Characteristics of Fast and Slow Pyrolysis Products
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041565 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
A stable temperature site and the speed of heating the feedstocks play a key role in pyrolysis processes. In this study, the product distribution arising from pyrolysis of methyl ricinoleate (MR) at 550 °C with low and high heating rates was first studied [...] Read more.
A stable temperature site and the speed of heating the feedstocks play a key role in pyrolysis processes. In this study, the product distribution arising from pyrolysis of methyl ricinoleate (MR) at 550 °C with low and high heating rates was first studied by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The results show that fast pyrolysis of MR favored the production of undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME) and heptanal (HEP). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to reveal the UAME and HEP formation process from pyrolysis of MR. The bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of C–C bonds in MR showed that the C11–C12 bond is the weakest. This suggests that UAME and HEP are two major products. The process of slow and fast MR pyrolysis was the dehydration-first and the pyrolysis-first trend, respectively. The calculated activation energies of MR pyrolysis to UAME and HEP and MR dehydration to 9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester were 287.72 and 238.29 kJ/mol, respectively. The much higher product yields obtained in the fast pyrolysis reactors than those from conventional tubular reactors confirmed the proposed process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Study and Modeling of Biomass Pyrolysis)
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15 pages, 2467 KiB  
Article
Batch Pyrolysis and Co-Pyrolysis of Beet Pulp and Wheat Straw
Materials 2022, 15(3), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15031230 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
Granulated beet pulp and wheat straw, first separately and then mixed in a weight ratio of 50/50%, underwent a pyrolysis process in a laboratory batch generator with process temperatures of 400 and 500 °C. The feedstock’s chemical composition and the pyrolysis products’ chemical [...] Read more.
Granulated beet pulp and wheat straw, first separately and then mixed in a weight ratio of 50/50%, underwent a pyrolysis process in a laboratory batch generator with process temperatures of 400 and 500 °C. The feedstock’s chemical composition and the pyrolysis products’ chemical composition (biochar and pyrolysis gas) were analysed. A synergistic effect was observed in the co-pyrolysis of the combined feedstock, which occurred as an increase the content of the arising gas in relation to the total weight of the products. and as a reduction of bio-oil content. The maximum gas proportion was 21.8% at 500 °C and the minimum between 12.6% and 18.4% for the pyrolysis of individual substrates at 400 °C. The proportions of the gases, including CO, CO2, CH4, H2, and O2, present in the resulting synthesis gases were also analysed. The usage of a higher pyrolysis final temperature strongly affected the increase of the CH4 and H2 concentration and the decrease of CO2 and CO concentration in the pyrolysis gas. The highest percentage of hydrogen in the synthesis gas, around 33%vol, occurred at 500 °C during co-pyrolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Study and Modeling of Biomass Pyrolysis)
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26 pages, 42421 KiB  
Article
Lab-Scale Study of Temperature and Duration Effects on Carbonized Solid Fuels Properties Produced from Municipal Solid Waste Components
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051191 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2276
Abstract
In work, data from carbonization of the eight main municipal solid waste components (carton, fabric, kitchen waste, paper, plastic, rubber, paper/aluminum/polyethylene (PAP/AL/PE) composite packaging pack, wood) carbonized at 300–500 °C for 20–60 min were used to build regression models to predict the biochar [...] Read more.
In work, data from carbonization of the eight main municipal solid waste components (carton, fabric, kitchen waste, paper, plastic, rubber, paper/aluminum/polyethylene (PAP/AL/PE) composite packaging pack, wood) carbonized at 300–500 °C for 20–60 min were used to build regression models to predict the biochar properties (proximate and ultimate analysis) for particular components. These models were then combined in general models that predict the properties of char made from mixed waste components depending on pyrolysis temperature, residence time, and share of municipal solid waste components. Next, the general models were compared with experimental data (two mixtures made from the above-mentioned components carbonized at the same conditions). The comparison showed that most of the proposed general models had a determination coefficient (R2) over 0.6, and the best prediction was found for the prediction of biochar mass yield (R2 = 0.9). All models were implemented into a spreadsheet to provide a simple tool to determine the potential of carbonization of municipal solid waste/refuse solid fuel based on a local mix of major components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Study and Modeling of Biomass Pyrolysis)
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17 pages, 1769 KiB  
Communication
The Prediction of Calorific Value of Carbonized Solid Fuel Produced from Refuse-Derived Fuel in the Low-Temperature Pyrolysis in CO2
Materials 2021, 14(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010049 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2996
Abstract
The decrease in the calorific value of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is an unintended outcome of the progress made toward more sustainable waste management. Plastics and paper separation and recycling leads to the overall decrease in waste’s calorific value, further limiting its applicability for [...] Read more.
The decrease in the calorific value of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is an unintended outcome of the progress made toward more sustainable waste management. Plastics and paper separation and recycling leads to the overall decrease in waste’s calorific value, further limiting its applicability for thermal treatment. Pyrolysis has been proposed to densify energy in RDF and generate carbonized solid fuel (CSF). The challenge is that the feedstock composition of RDF is variable and site-specific. Therefore, the optimal pyrolysis conditions have to be established every time, depending on feedstock composition. In this research, we developed a model to predict the higher heating value (HHV) of the RDF composed of eight morphological refuse groups after low-temperature pyrolysis in CO2 (300–500 °C and 60 min) into CSF. The model considers cardboard, fabric, kitchen waste, paper, plastic, rubber, PAP/AL/PE (paper/aluminum/polyethylene) composite packaging pack, and wood, pyrolysis temperature, and residence time. The determination coefficients (R2) and Akaike information criteria were used for selecting the best model among four mathematical functions: (I) linear, (II) second-order polynomial, (III) factorial regression, and (IV) quadratic regression. For each RDF waste component, among these four models, the one best fitted to the experimental data was chosen; then, these models were integrated into the general model that predicts the HHV of CSF from the blends of RDF. The general model was validated experimentally by the application to the RDF blends. The validation revealed that the model explains 70–75% CSF HHV data variability. The results show that the optimal pyrolysis conditions depend on the most abundant waste in the waste mixture. High-quality CSF can be obtained from wastes such as paper, carton, plastic, and rubber when processed at relatively low temperatures (300 °C), whereas wastes such as fabrics and wood require higher temperatures (500 °C). The developed model showed that it is possible to achieve the CSF with the highest HHV value by optimizing the pyrolysis of RDF with the process temperature, residence time, and feedstock blends pretreatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Study and Modeling of Biomass Pyrolysis)
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