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Advanced Energy Storage Materials: Preparation, Characterization and Applications (2nd Edition)

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2024 | Viewed by 7109

Special Issue Editors

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, China
Interests: energy materials and devices; corrosion and protection; surface treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China
Interests: functional polymer composites; solid composite electrolytes; solid-state batteries; flexible energy storage devices; intelligent electronics; alkali metal-ion battery electrode
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As the worldwide demand for energy is expected to continue to increase at a rapid rate, it is critical that improved technologies for sustainably producing, converting, and storing energy are developed. Electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems with high efficiency, low costs, application flexibility, safety, and accessibility are the focus of intensive research and development efforts. Materials play a key role in the efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Among various EES technologies, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have attracted plenty of interest in past decades due to their high energy density, long cycle life, low self-discharge, and no memory effect when used as power sources. On the other hand, sodium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and metal–air batteries have also received intensive attention in research and development, as well as toward industrialization. The development of high-performance EES never ceases. Materials with high performance, stability, and low costs are critical for building up a synergetic effect for realizing a sustainable future.

The aim of this Special Issue, entitled “Advanced Energy Storage Materials: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications”, is to present recent advancements in various aspects related to materials and processes contributing to the creation of sustainable energy storage systems and environmental solutions, particularly those applicable to clean energy developments. These include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • The development of advanced materials for high-performance energy storage devices, including lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, lithium–sulfur batteries, and aqueous rechargeable batteries;
  • The design of next-generation energy conversion and storage devices (flexible/transparent/microbatteries, etc.);
  • The development of innovative high-energy-density batteries for the grid connection of renewable sources and green transport;
  • Mathematical modeling, including the computational fluid dynamics of batteries and related topics.

We are pleased to invite you to submit full research papers, communications, and review papers to this Special Issue.

Dr. Junwei Wu
Dr. Chen Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • lithium-ion batteries
  • sodium/potassium-ion batteries
  • lithium–sulfur batteries
  • metal–air batteries
  • solid-state batteries
  • supercapacitors

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 9946 KiB  
Article
Thermal Energy Storage Using Phase Change Materials in High-Temperature Industrial Applications: Multi-Criteria Selection of the Adequate Material
by Luisa F. Cabeza, Franklin R. Martínez, Emiliano Borri, Svetlana Ushak and Cristina Prieto
Materials 2024, 17(8), 1878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17081878 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 857
Abstract
Thermal energy storage (TES) plays an important role in industrial applications with intermittent generation of thermal energy. In particular, the implementation of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) technology in industrial thermal processes has shown promising results, significantly reducing sensible heat losses. However, [...] Read more.
Thermal energy storage (TES) plays an important role in industrial applications with intermittent generation of thermal energy. In particular, the implementation of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) technology in industrial thermal processes has shown promising results, significantly reducing sensible heat losses. However, in order to implement this technology, a proper selection of materials is important. In this study, a new multi-criteria phase change material (PCM) selection methodology is presented, which considers relevant factors from an application and material handling point of view, such as hygroscopicity, metal compatibility (corrosion), level hazard, cost, and thermal and atmospheric stability. The methodology starts after setting up the system requirements where the PCM will be used, then a material screening is able to find all possible candidates that are listed with all available properties as listed before. Then, a color map is produced, with a qualitative assessment of material properties drawbacks, hazard level, melting enthalpy, and price. The experimentation starts with a preliminary set of tests on hygroscopicity and one-week corrosion test, which allows disregarding PCMs and selecting a short list of potential PCMs that would need further characterization before the final selection. Full article
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12 pages, 1878 KiB  
Article
Preparation of GO/Diatomite/Polyacrylonitrile Functional Separator and Its Application in Li–S Batteries
by Jing Yang, Wenjie Xiao, Xiaoyu Wu, Yitao Zha and Sainan Liu
Materials 2024, 17(4), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17040789 - 6 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries have received extensive attention due to their numerous advantages, including a high theoretical specific capacity, high energy density, abundant reserves of sulfur in cathode materials, and low cost. Li–S batteries also face several challenges, such as the insulating properties of [...] Read more.
Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries have received extensive attention due to their numerous advantages, including a high theoretical specific capacity, high energy density, abundant reserves of sulfur in cathode materials, and low cost. Li–S batteries also face several challenges, such as the insulating properties of sulfur, volume expansion during charging and discharging processes, polysulfide shuttling, and lithium dendritic crystal growth. In this study, a composite of a porous multi-site diatomite-loaded graphene oxide material and a PAN fiber membrane is developed to obtain a porous and high-temperature-resistant GO/diatomite/polyacrylonitrile functional separator (GO/DE/PAN) to improve the electrochemical performance of Li–S batteries. The results show that the use of GO/DE/PAN helps to inhibit lithium phosphorus sulfide (LPS) shuttling and improve the electrolyte wetting of the separator as well as the thermal stability of the battery. The initial discharge capacity of the battery using GO/DE/PAN is up to 964.7 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C, and after 100 cycles, the reversible capacity is 683 mAh g−1 with a coulombic efficiency of 98.8%. The improved electrochemical performance may be attributed to the porous structure of diatomite and the layered composite of graphene oxide, which can combine physical adsorption and spatial site resistance as well as chemical repulsion to inhibit the shuttle effect of LPS. The results show that GO/DE/PAN has great potential for application in Li–S batteries to improve their electrochemical performance. Full article
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12 pages, 6338 KiB  
Communication
The Preparation and Properties of Ti(Nb)-Si-C Coating on the Pre-Oxidized Ferritic Stainless Steel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect
by Xichao Li, Yongchen Chi, Shouli Wei, Xianwei Sun, Jingxiang Zhao, Qiangqiang Hou, Kang Fu, Zuoqiang Dai and Lili Zheng
Materials 2024, 17(3), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17030632 - 28 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 688
Abstract
Cr2O3 scale growth and volatilization are the main cause of the performance degradation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with an Fe-based ferritic stainless steel (FSS) interconnect. In this work, an amorphous Ti(Nb)-Si-C coating is prepared on the pre-oxidized SUS430 [...] Read more.
Cr2O3 scale growth and volatilization are the main cause of the performance degradation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with an Fe-based ferritic stainless steel (FSS) interconnect. In this work, an amorphous Ti(Nb)-Si-C coating is prepared on the pre-oxidized SUS430 with D.C. magnetron sputtering as the protective coating. The amorphous Ti(Nb)-Si-C coated alloy exhibits significantly enhanced oxidation resistance, and the oxidation kinetics obey the parabolic law with a low parabolic rate of 9.36 × 10−15 g2·cm−4·s−1. A dual-layer oxide scale is formed composed of an inner layer rich in Cr2O3 and an outer layer rich in rutile TiO2 and amorphous SiO2. MnCr2O4 appears at the interface between the inner and outer oxide layers. Meanwhile, the amorphous Ti(Nb)-Si-C coating also effectively blocks the outward diffusion of Cr. In addition, the coated steel presents good electrical properties with an area-specific resistance (ASR) of 13.57 mΩ·cm2 at 800 °C after oxidation at 800 °C in air for 500 h. Full article
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13 pages, 3454 KiB  
Article
An Ionic Liquid Electrolyte Additive for High-Performance Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
by Zeliang Guan, Ling Bai and Binyang Du
Materials 2023, 16(23), 7504; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16237504 - 4 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
With the development of mobile electronic devices, there are more and more requirements for high-energy storage equipment. Traditional lithium-ion batteries, like lithium–iron phosphate batteries, are limited by their theoretical specific capacities and might not meet the requirements for high energy density in the [...] Read more.
With the development of mobile electronic devices, there are more and more requirements for high-energy storage equipment. Traditional lithium-ion batteries, like lithium–iron phosphate batteries, are limited by their theoretical specific capacities and might not meet the requirements for high energy density in the future. Lithium–sulfur batteries (LSBs) might be ideal next-generation energy storage devices because they have nearly 10 times the theoretical specific capacities of lithium-ion batteries. However, the severe capacity decay of LSBs limits their application, especially at high currents. In this study, an ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte additive, TDA+TFSI, was reported. When 5% of the TDA+TFSI additive was added to a traditional ether-based organic electrolyte, the cycling performance of the LSBs was significantly improved compared with that of the LSBs with the pure traditional organic electrolyte. At a rate of 0.5 C, the discharge specific capacity in the first cycle of the LSBs with the 5% TDA+TFSI electrolyte additive was 1167 mAh g−1; the residual specific capacities after 100 cycles and 300 cycles were 579 mAh g−1 and 523 mAh g−1, respectively; and the average capacity decay rate per cycle was only 0.18% in 300 cycles. Moreover, the electrolyte with the TDA+TFSI additive had more obvious advantages than the pure organic ether-based electrolyte at high charge and discharge currents of 1.0 C. The residual discharge specific capacities were 428 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles and 399 mAh g−1 after 250 cycles, which were 13% higher than those of the LSBs without the TDA+TFSI additive. At the same time, the Coulombic efficiencies of the LSBs using the TDA+TFSI electrolyte additive were more stable than those of the LSBs using the traditional organic ether-based electrolyte. The results showed that the LSBs with the TDA+TFSI electrolyte additive formed a denser and more uniform solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film during cycling, which improved the stability of the electrochemical reaction. Full article
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13 pages, 6848 KiB  
Article
Solution Combustion Synthesis of High-Performance Nano-LiFePO4/C Cathode Material from Cost-Effective Mixed Fuels
by Haozhi Duan, Dehai Meng and Shuxia Yuan
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7155; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227155 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 839
Abstract
Solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is considered as an efficient and energy-saving method for preparing LiFePO4/C composite material with the nanostructure (Nano-LiFePO4/C). In this study, Nano-LiFePO4/C cathode material was prepared using SCS using a cost-effective combination of urea [...] Read more.
Solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is considered as an efficient and energy-saving method for preparing LiFePO4/C composite material with the nanostructure (Nano-LiFePO4/C). In this study, Nano-LiFePO4/C cathode material was prepared using SCS using a cost-effective combination of urea and sorbitol as mixed fuels. The effect of mixed fuels on combustion behavior and microstructure as well as on electrochemical performance was studied using XRD, BET, SEM, TEM, and electrochemical characterization methods. Multiple characterization results indicated that the maximum temperature (Tm) and particle size were influenced by the usage of urea and sorbitol. The sample derived under optimum conditions exhibits a mesoporous nanostructure with a large surface specific area and attractive electrochemical performance with a discharge capacity of 153.5 mAh/g at 0.1 C, which shows strong potential for commercial applications in the future. Full article
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16 pages, 9862 KiB  
Article
Double Carbon Networks Reinforce the Thermal Storage and Thermal Transfer Properties of 1-Octadecanol Phase Change Materials
by Xiuli Wang, Qingmeng Wang, Xiaomin Cheng, Xiaolan Chen and Mingjun Bai
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7067; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227067 - 7 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 695
Abstract
Using thermal storage materials with excellent thermal properties in the energy utilization system enables efficient use of renewable energy sources. Organic phase change materials (PCMs) have the advantages of high heat storage density, no corrosion, and low cost, but low thermal conductivity and [...] Read more.
Using thermal storage materials with excellent thermal properties in the energy utilization system enables efficient use of renewable energy sources. Organic phase change materials (PCMs) have the advantages of high heat storage density, no corrosion, and low cost, but low thermal conductivity and insufficient heat transfer capacity have always been the bottlenecks in their application. In this paper, melamine foam@ reduction graphene oxide (MF@rGO) and carbon foam@ reduction graphene oxide (CF@rGO) composite foams with double carbon networks were prepared by self-assembly method and further employed in 1-octadecinal (OD) PCMs. The microstructure, chemical composition, phase change behavior, thermal conductivity, and photothermal conversion performance of MF@rGO/OD and CF@rGO/OD were studied in detail using SEM, FTIR, Raman DSC, and LFA. The melting and solidification enthalpies of CF@rGO/OD composite PCMs were 208.3 J/g and 191.4 J/g, respectively, its thermal conductivity increased to 1.54 W/m·K, which is 6.42 times that of pure OD. The porous structure and high thermal conductivity of the double carbon network substantially enhance the efficiency of energy storage and release in composite PCMs. CF@rGO/OD composite PCMs have excellent heat storage performance and heat transfer capacity, and a wide range of application prospects in the fields of low-temperature solar heat storage, precision instrument temperature control, and intelligent buildings. Full article
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16 pages, 5731 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Experimental Study of Phase Change Materials for Asphalt Pavement
by Zhuqiang Huang, Jianguo Wei, Qilin Fu, Yuming Zhou, Ming Lei, Zhilong Pan and Xiangchao Zhang
Materials 2023, 16(17), 6002; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16176002 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
This study aimed to address the issue of high-temperature challenges in asphalt pavement by developing two types of phase change materials (PCMs) for temperature control. Encapsulated paraffin wax particles (EPWP) and encapsulated myristic acid particles (EMAP) were synthesized using acid-etched ceramsite (AECS) as [...] Read more.
This study aimed to address the issue of high-temperature challenges in asphalt pavement by developing two types of phase change materials (PCMs) for temperature control. Encapsulated paraffin wax particles (EPWP) and encapsulated myristic acid particles (EMAP) were synthesized using acid-etched ceramsite (AECS) as the carrier, paraffin wax (PW) or myristic acid (MA) as the core material, and a combination of epoxy resin and cement as the encapsulation material. The investigation encompassed leakage tests on PCMs; rutting plate rolling forming tests; SEM, FTIR, XRD, and TG-DSC microscopic tests; as well as heat storage and release tests and temperature control assessments using a light heating device. The study revealed the following key findings. Both types of PCMs exhibited no PCM leakage even under high temperatures and demonstrated low crushing ratios during rut-forming tests. Microscopic evaluations confirmed the chemical stability and phase compatibility of the constituents within the two types of PCMs. Notably, the phase change enthalpies of EPWP and EMAP were relatively high, measuring 133.31 J/g and 138.52 J/g, respectively. The utilization of AECS as the carrier for PCMs led to a substantial 4.61-fold increase in the adsorption rate. Moreover, the PCMs showcased minimal mass loss at 180 °C, rendering them suitable for asphalt pavement applications. The heat storage and release experiments further underscored the PCMs’ capacity to regulate ambient temperatures through heat absorption and release. When subjected to light heating, the maximum temperatures of the two types of phase change Marshall specimens were notably lower by 6.6 °C and 4.8 °C, respectively, compared to standard Marshall specimens. Based on comprehensive testing, EPWP displayed enhanced adaptability and demonstrated substantial potential for practical implementation in asphalt pavements. Full article
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13 pages, 4086 KiB  
Article
Vanadium Nitride Nanoparticles Grown on Carbon Fiber Cloth as an Advanced Binder-Free Anode for the Storage of Sodium and Potassium Ions
by Yiwei Qin, Haimin Zhang, Jiachen Yanghe, Jing Yang, Wei Li, Xiaojun Zhao and Sainan Liu
Materials 2023, 16(17), 5820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16175820 - 25 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 962
Abstract
The escalating demand for sustainable and high-performance energy storage systems has led to the exploration of alternative battery technologies for lithium-ion batteries. Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) have emerged as promising candidates because of their abundant Na/K resources, inexpensive costs, and [...] Read more.
The escalating demand for sustainable and high-performance energy storage systems has led to the exploration of alternative battery technologies for lithium-ion batteries. Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) have emerged as promising candidates because of their abundant Na/K resources, inexpensive costs, and similar chemistries to lithium-ion batteries. However, inherent challenges, such as large ionic radii, sluggish kinetics, and serious volume expansion, necessitate the development of robust and efficient anode materials for SIBs and PIBs. Vanadium nitride has attracted increasing attention as a viable anode due to its high electronic conductivity and potential capacity. In this study, we report on a flexible electrode for SIBs and PIBs that creates binder-free anodes by synthesizing vanadium nitride nanoparticles grown directly on carbon fiber cloths (VN/CFC). The unique architecture and binder-free nature of this anode ensure a robust electrode–electrolyte interface and enhance its electron/ion transport kinetics. The results demonstrate that the material exhibits an outstanding specific discharge capacity of 227 mAh g−1 after undergoing 1000 cycles at a current density of 2 A g−1 for SIBs. An electrochemical analysis indicated that the excellent performance of the material is attributed to the bind-free structure of carbon fiber cloth and the fast kinetics of surface pseudo-capacitive contribution. Furthermore, the material continues to demonstrate an impressive performance, even for PIBs, with a specific discharge capacity of 125 mAh g−1 after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A g−1. This study provides a new perspective for designing and developing advanced binder-free anodes for the storage of sodium and potassium ions, paving the way for high-performance energy storage applications. Full article
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