Seaweed-Degrading Enzymes, Functions and Applications of Their Products

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2022) | Viewed by 29338

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Jeju Marine Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, 2670 Iljudong-ro, Gujwa-eup, Jeju-si 63349, Korea
Interests: marine bacteria; agarase; genomics; marine microorganism; enzyme

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Seaweed polysaccharides have been extensively studied due to their various biological functions. Numerous findings have demonstrated that marine oligosaccharides possess beneficial properties, including antitumor, antiviral, anticoagulant, and anti-inflammatory, and they have great value in healthcare, cosmetics, and the food industry. However, due to their characteristics, including poor solubility, low bioavailability, and odor, there are some limitations in the direct utilization of seaweed derivatives in industries such as food and cosmetics.

Thus, marine oligosaccharides, as the degradation products of seaweed-derived polysaccharides, have drawn increasing attention due to their biological activities, high solubility, and excellent bioavailability. Therefore, the exploitation of enzymes that can degrade marine polysaccharides is growing and is important for the process of production of high-value products from seaweed biomasses.

The Journal of Marine Drugs is planning to publish a Special Issue on “Seaweed Degrading Enzymes and Function and Application of their Product”. The Special Issue will focus on the identification, isolation, purification, and biochemical properties of enzymes from marine organisms, which can degrade seaweed’s polysaccharides such as agar, ulvan, fucose, alginate, laminarin, etc., and bioactive properties of their hydrolytic products for industrial application.

Dr. Youngdeuk Lee
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • seaweed
  • marine polysaccharides
  • seaweed-derived marine oligosaccharides
  • hydrolytic enzyme
  • polysaccharidase
  • bioactivity

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3593 KiB  
Article
A Novel κ-Carrageenase from Marine Bacterium Rhodopirellula sallentina SM41: Heterologous Expression, Biochemical Characterization and Salt-Tolerance Mechanism Investigation
by Yong-Hui Zhang, Yi-Ying Chen, Xiao-Yan Zhuang, Qiong Xiao, Jun Chen, Fu-Quan Chen, Qiu-Ming Yang, Hui-Fen Weng, Bai-Shan Fang and An-Feng Xiao
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(12), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20120783 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
κ-carrageenases are members of the glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) that hydrolyze sulfated galactans in red algae, known as κ-carrageenans. In this study, a novel κ-carrageenase gene from the marine bacterium Rhodopirellula sallentina SM41 (RsCgk) was discovered via the genome mining approach. There [...] Read more.
κ-carrageenases are members of the glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) that hydrolyze sulfated galactans in red algae, known as κ-carrageenans. In this study, a novel κ-carrageenase gene from the marine bacterium Rhodopirellula sallentina SM41 (RsCgk) was discovered via the genome mining approach. There are currently no reports on κ-carrageenase from the Rhodopirellula genus, and RsCgk shares a low identity (less than 65%) with κ- carrageenase from other genera. The RsCgk was heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and characterized for its enzymatic properties. RsCgk exhibited maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 40 °C, and 50% of its initial activity was retained after incubating at 30 °C for 2 h. More than 70% of its activity was maintained after incubation at pH 6.0–8.0 and 4 °C for 24 h. As a marine derived enzyme, RsCgk showed excellent salt tolerance, retaining full activity in 1.2 M NaCl, and the addition of NaCl greatly enhanced its thermal stability. Mass spectrometry analysis of the RsCgk hydrolysis products revealed that the enzyme had high degradation specificity and mainly produced κ-carrageenan disaccharide. Comparative molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the conformational changes of tunnel-forming loops under salt environments may cause the deactivation or stabilization of RsCgk. Our results demonstrated that RsCgk could be utilized as a potential tool enzyme for efficient production of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides under high salt conditions. Full article
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15 pages, 4268 KiB  
Article
Insights into the Influence of Signal Peptide on the Enzymatic Properties of Alginate Lyase AlyI1 with Removal Effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm
by Ming-Jing Zhang, Shuai-Ting Yun, Xiao-Chen Wang, Li-Yang Peng, Chuan Dou and Yan-Xia Zhou
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(12), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20120753 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1509
Abstract
Most reports on signal peptides focus on their ability to affect the normal folding of proteins, thereby affecting their secreted expression, while few studies on its effects on enzymatic properties were published. Therefore, biochemical characterization and comparison of alginate lyase rALYI1/rALYI1-1 (rALYI1: without [...] Read more.
Most reports on signal peptides focus on their ability to affect the normal folding of proteins, thereby affecting their secreted expression, while few studies on its effects on enzymatic properties were published. Therefore, biochemical characterization and comparison of alginate lyase rALYI1/rALYI1-1 (rALYI1: without signal peptides; rALYI1-1:with signal peptides) were conducted in our study, and the results showed that the signal peptide affected the biochemical properties, especially in temperature and pH. rALYI1 (32.15 kDa) belonging to polysaccharide lyase family 7 was cloned from sea-cucumber-gut bacterium Tamlana sp. I1. The optimum temperature of both rALYI1 and rALYI1-1 was 40 °C, but the former had a wider optimum temperature range and better thermal stability. The optimum pH of rALYI1 and rALYI1-1 were 7.6 and 8.6, respectively. The former was more stable and acid resistant. Noticeably, rALYI1 was a salt-activated enzyme and displayed remarkable salt tolerance. Alginate, an essential polysaccharide in algae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, is composed of α-L-guluronate and β-D-mannuronate. It is also found in our study that rALYI1 is also effective in removing mature biofilms compared with controls. In conclusion, the signal peptide affects several biochemical properties of the enzyme, and alginate lyase rALYI1 may be an effective method for inhibiting biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Full article
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13 pages, 1986 KiB  
Article
Characterization of a Novel Alginate Lyase with Two Alginate Lyase Domains from the Marine Bacterium Vibrio sp. C42
by Xiao-Meng Sun, Zhao Xue, Mei-Ling Sun, Yi Zhang, Yu-Zhong Zhang, Hui-Hui Fu, Yu-Qiang Zhang and Peng Wang
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(12), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20120746 - 26 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
Alginate is abundant in the cell walls of brown algae. Alginate lyases can degrade alginate, and thus play an important role in the marine carbon cycle and industrial production. Currently, most reported alginate lyases contain only one functional alginate lyase domain. AlyC8 is [...] Read more.
Alginate is abundant in the cell walls of brown algae. Alginate lyases can degrade alginate, and thus play an important role in the marine carbon cycle and industrial production. Currently, most reported alginate lyases contain only one functional alginate lyase domain. AlyC8 is a putative alginate lyase with two alginate lyase domains (CD1 and CD2) from the marine alginate-degrading strain Vibrio sp. C42. To characterize AlyC8 and its two catalytic domains, AlyC8 and its two catalytic domain-deleted mutants, AlyC8-CD1 and AlyC8-CD2, were expressed in Escherichia coli. All three proteins have noticeable activity toward sodium alginate and exhibit optimal activities at pH 8.0–9.0 and at 30–40 °C, demonstrating that both CD1 and CD2 are functional. However, CD1 and CD2 showed opposite substrate specificity. The differences in substrate specificity and degradation products of alginate between the mutants and AlyC8 demonstrate that CD1 and CD2 can act synergistically to enable AlyC8 to degrade various alginate substrates into smaller oligomeric products. Moreover, kinetic analysis indicated that AlyC8-CD1 plays a major role in the degradation of alginate by AlyC8. These results demonstrate that AlyC8 is a novel alginate lyase with two functional catalytic domains that are synergistic in alginate degradation, which is helpful for a better understanding of alginate lyases and alginate degradation. Full article
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13 pages, 1538 KiB  
Article
Genome Analysis of a Novel Polysaccharide-Degrading Bacterium Paenibacillus algicola and Determination of Alginate Lyases
by Huiqin Huang, Zhiguo Zheng, Xiaoxiao Zou, Zixu Wang, Rong Gao, Jun Zhu, Yonghua Hu and Shixiang Bao
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(6), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20060388 - 9 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2596
Abstract
Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are an important characteristic of bacteria in marine systems. We herein describe the CAZymes of Paenibacillus algicola HB172198T, a novel type species isolated from brown algae in Qishui Bay, Hainan, China. The genome of strain HB172198T is [...] Read more.
Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are an important characteristic of bacteria in marine systems. We herein describe the CAZymes of Paenibacillus algicola HB172198T, a novel type species isolated from brown algae in Qishui Bay, Hainan, China. The genome of strain HB172198T is a 4,475,055 bp circular chromosome with an average GC content of 51.2%. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the predicted genes shows that strain HB172198T encodes 191 CAZymes. Abundant putative enzymes involved in the degradation of polysaccharides were identified, such as alginate lyase, agarase, carrageenase, xanthanase, xylanase, amylases, cellulase, chitinase, fucosidase and glucanase. Four of the putative polysaccharide lyases from families 7, 15 and 38 were involved in alginate degradation. The alginate lyases of strain HB172198T exhibited the maximum activity 152 U/mL at 50 °C and pH 8.0, and were relatively stable at pH 7.0 and temperatures lower than 40 °C. The average degree of polymerization (DP) of the sodium alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) degraded by the partially purified alginate lyases remained around 14.2, and the thin layer chromatography (TCL) analysis indicated that it contained DP2-DP8 oligosaccharides. The complete genome sequence of P. algicola HB172198T will enrich our knowledge of the mechanism of polysaccharide lyase production and provide insights into its potential applications in the degradation of polysaccharides such as alginate. Full article
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19 pages, 4488 KiB  
Article
Degradation of Alginate by a Newly Isolated Marine Bacterium Agarivorans sp. B2Z047
by Xun-Ke Sun, Ya Gong, Dan-Dan Shang, Bang-Tao Liu, Zong-Jun Du and Guan-Jun Chen
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(4), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20040254 - 4 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2885
Abstract
Alginate is the main component of brown algae, which is an important primary production in marine ecosystems and represents a huge marine biomass. The efficient utilization of alginate depends on alginate lyases to catalyze the degradation, and remains to be further explored. In [...] Read more.
Alginate is the main component of brown algae, which is an important primary production in marine ecosystems and represents a huge marine biomass. The efficient utilization of alginate depends on alginate lyases to catalyze the degradation, and remains to be further explored. In this study, 354 strains were isolated from the gut of adult abalones, which mainly feed on brown algae. Among them, 100 alginate-degrading strains were gained and the majority belonged to the Gammaproteobacteria, followed by the Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria. A marine bacterium, Agarivorans sp. B2Z047, had the strongest degradation ability of alginate with the largest degradation circle and the highest enzyme activity. The optimal alginate lyase production medium of strain B2Z047 was determined as 1.1% sodium alginate, 0.3% yeast extract, 1% NaCl, and 0.1% MgSO4 in artificial seawater (pH 7.0). Cells of strain B2Z047 were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile by flagella, short rod-shaped, and approximately 0.7–0.9 µm width and 1.2–1.9 µm length. The optimal growth conditions were determined to be at 30 °C, pH 7.0–8.0, and in 3% (w/v) NaCl. A total of 12 potential alginate lyase genes were identified through whole genome sequencing and prediction, which belonged to polysaccharide lyase family 6, 7, 17, and 38 (PL6, PL7, PL17, and PL38, respectively). Furthermore, the degradation products of nine alginate lyases were detected, among which Aly38A was the first alginate lyase belonging to the PL38 family that has been found to degrade alginate. The combination of alginate lyases functioning in the alginate-degrading process was further demonstrated by the growth curve and alginate lyase production of strain B2Z047 cultivated with or without sodium alginate, as well as the content changes of total sugar and reducing sugar and the transcript levels of alginate lyase genes. A simplified model was proposed to explain the alginate utilization process of Agarivorans sp. B2Z047. Full article
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16 pages, 4106 KiB  
Article
Biochemical Properties of a New Polysaccharide Lyase Family 25 Ulvan Lyase TsUly25B from Marine Bacterium Thalassomonas sp. LD5
by Danni Wang, Yujiao Li, Lu Han, Chengying Yin, Yongqing Fu, Qi Zhang, Xia Zhao, Guoyun Li, Feng Han and Wengong Yu
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(3), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20030168 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2744
Abstract
Marine macroalgae, contributing much to the bioeconomy, have inspired tremendous attention as sustainable raw materials. Ulvan, as one of the main structural components of green algae cell walls, can be degraded by ulvan lyase through the β-elimination mechanism to obtain oligosaccharides exhibiting several [...] Read more.
Marine macroalgae, contributing much to the bioeconomy, have inspired tremendous attention as sustainable raw materials. Ulvan, as one of the main structural components of green algae cell walls, can be degraded by ulvan lyase through the β-elimination mechanism to obtain oligosaccharides exhibiting several good physiological activities. Only a few ulvan lyases have been characterized until now. This thesis explores the properties of a new polysaccharide lyase family 25 ulvan lyase TsUly25B from the marine bacterium Thalassomonas sp. LD5. Its protein molecular weight was 54.54 KDa, and it was most active under the conditions of 60 °C and pH 9.0. The Km and kcat values were 1.01 ± 0.05 mg/mL and 10.52 ± 0.28 s−1, respectively. TsUly25B was salt-tolerant and NaCl can significantly improve its thermal stability. Over 80% of activity can be preserved after being incubated at 30 °C for two days when the concentration of NaCl in the solution is above 1 M, while 60% can be preserved after incubation at 40 °C for 10 h with 2 M NaCl. TsUly25B adopted an endolytic manner to degrade ulvan polysaccharides, and the main end-products were unsaturated ulvan disaccharides and tetrasaccharides. In conclusion, our research enriches the ulvan lyase library and advances the utilization of ulvan lyases in further fundamental research as well as ulvan oligosaccharides production. Full article
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15 pages, 2670 KiB  
Article
A Novel Alginate Lyase: Identification, Characterization, and Potential Application in Alginate Trisaccharide Preparation
by Zhao Xue, Xiao-Meng Sun, Cui Chen, Xi-Ying Zhang, Xiu-Lan Chen, Yu-Zhong Zhang, Shou-Jin Fan and Fei Xu
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(3), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20030159 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2795
Abstract
Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) have many biological activities and significant applications in prebiotics, nutritional supplements, and plant growth development. Alginate lyases have unique advantages in the preparation of AOS. However, only a limited number of alginate lyases have been so far reported to have [...] Read more.
Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) have many biological activities and significant applications in prebiotics, nutritional supplements, and plant growth development. Alginate lyases have unique advantages in the preparation of AOS. However, only a limited number of alginate lyases have been so far reported to have potentials in the preparation of AOS with specific degrees of polymerization. Here, an alginate-degrading strain Pseudoalteromonasarctica M9 was isolated from Sargassum, and five alginate lyases were predicted in its genome. These putative alginate lyases were expressed and their degradation products towards sodium alginate were analyzed. Among them, AlyM2 mainly generated trisaccharides, which accounted for 79.9% in the products. AlyM2 is a PL6 lyase with low sequence identity (≤28.3%) to the characterized alginate lyases and may adopt a distinct catalytic mechanism from the other PL6 alginate lyases based on sequence alignment. AlyM2 is a bifunctional endotype lyase, exhibiting the highest activity at 30 °C, pH 8.0, and 0.5 M NaCl. AlyM2 predominantly produces trisaccharides from homopolymeric M block (PM), homopolymeric G block (PG), or sodium alginate, with a trisaccharide production of 588.4 mg/g from sodium alginate, indicating its promising potential in preparing trisaccharides from these polysaccharides. Full article
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17 pages, 4548 KiB  
Article
Biochemical Characterization and Cold-Adaption Mechanism of a PL-17 Family Alginate Lyase Aly23 from Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. ASY5 and Its Application for Oligosaccharides Production
by Xiang Tang, Chao Jiao, Yi Wei, Xiao-Yan Zhuang, Qiong Xiao, Jun Chen, Fu-Quan Chen, Qiu-Ming Yang, Hui-Fen Weng, Bai-Shan Fang, Yong-Hui Zhang and An-Feng Xiao
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(2), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20020126 - 6 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2890
Abstract
As an important enzyme involved in the marine carbon cycle, alginate lyase has received extensive attention because of its excellent degradation ability on brown algae, which is widely utilized for alginate oligosaccharide preparation or bioethanol production. In comparison with endo-type alginate lyases (PL-5, [...] Read more.
As an important enzyme involved in the marine carbon cycle, alginate lyase has received extensive attention because of its excellent degradation ability on brown algae, which is widely utilized for alginate oligosaccharide preparation or bioethanol production. In comparison with endo-type alginate lyases (PL-5, PL-7, and PL-18 families), limited studies have focused on PL-17 family alginate lyases, especially for those with special characteristics. In this study, a novel PL-17 family alginate lyase, Aly23, was identified and cloned from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora ASY5. Aly23 exhibited maximum activity at 35 °C and retained 48.93% of its highest activity at 4 °C, representing an excellent cold-adaptation property. Comparative molecular dynamics analysis was implemented to explore the structural basis for the cold-adaptation property of Aly23. Aly23 had a high substrate preference for poly β-D-mannuronate and exhibited both endolytic and exolytic activities; its hydrolysis reaction mainly produced monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. Furthermore, the enzymatic hydrolyzed oligosaccharides displayed good antioxidant activities to reduce ferric and scavenge radicals, such as hydroxyl, ABTS+, and DPPH. Our work demonstrated that Aly23 is a promising cold-adapted biocatalyst for the preparation of natural antioxidants from brown algae. Full article
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12 pages, 1277 KiB  
Article
A Novel Agarase, Gaa16B, Isolated from the Marine Bacterium Gilvimarinus agarilyticus JEA5, and the Moisturizing Effect of Its Partial Hydrolysis Products
by Youngdeuk Lee, Eunyoung Jo, Yeon-Ju Lee, Tae-Yang Eom, Yehui Gang, Yoon-Hyeok Kang, Svini Dileepa Marasinghe, Sachithra Amarin Hettiarachchi, Do-Hyung Kang and Chulhong Oh
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20010002 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2678
Abstract
We recently identified a β-agarase, Gaa16B, in the marine bacterium Gilvimarinus agarilyticus JEA5. Gaa16B, belonging to the glycoside hydrolase 16 family of β-agarases, shows less than 70.9% amino acid similarity with previously characterized agarases. Recombinant Gaa16B lacking the carbohydrate-binding region (rGaa16Bc) [...] Read more.
We recently identified a β-agarase, Gaa16B, in the marine bacterium Gilvimarinus agarilyticus JEA5. Gaa16B, belonging to the glycoside hydrolase 16 family of β-agarases, shows less than 70.9% amino acid similarity with previously characterized agarases. Recombinant Gaa16B lacking the carbohydrate-binding region (rGaa16Bc) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Activity assays revealed the optimal temperature and pH of rGaa16Bc to be 55 C and pH 6–7, respectively, and the protein was highly stable at 55 C for 90 min. Additionally, rGaa16Bc activity was strongly enhanced (2.3-fold) in the presence of 2.5 mM MnCl2. The Km and Vmax of rGaa16Bc for agarose were 6.4 mg/mL and 953 U/mg, respectively. Thin-layer chromatography analysis revealed that rGaa16Bc can hydrolyze agarose into neoagarotetraose and neoagarobiose. Partial hydrolysis products (PHPs) of rGaa16Bc had an average molecular weight of 88–102 kDa and exhibited > 60% hyaluronidase inhibition activity at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, whereas the completely hydrolyzed product (CHP) showed no hyaluronidase at the same concentration. The biochemical properties of Gaa16B suggest that it could be useful for producing functional neoagaro-oligosaccharides. Additionally, the PHP of rGaa16Bc may be useful in promoting its utilization, which is limited due to the gel strength of agar. Full article
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19 pages, 13028 KiB  
Article
Pretreatment Techniques and Green Extraction Technologies for Agar from Gracilaria lemaneiformis
by Qiong Xiao, Xinyi Wang, Jiabin Zhang, Yonghui Zhang, Jun Chen, Fuquan Chen and Anfeng Xiao
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(11), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19110617 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3055
Abstract
Optimizing the alkali treatment process alone without tracking the changes of algae and agar quality with each pretreatment process will not achieve the optimal agar yield and final quality. In this study, we monitored the changes of the morphology and weight of algae [...] Read more.
Optimizing the alkali treatment process alone without tracking the changes of algae and agar quality with each pretreatment process will not achieve the optimal agar yield and final quality. In this study, we monitored the changes of the morphology and weight of algae with each treatment process, and comprehensively analyzed the effects of each pretreatment process on the quality of agar by combining the changes of the physicochemical properties of agar. In conventional alkali-extraction technology, alkali treatment (7%, w/v) alone significantly reduced the weight of algae (52%), but hindered the dissolution of algae, resulting in a lower yield (4%). Acidification could solve the problem of algal hardening after alkali treatment to improve the yield (12%). In enzymatic extraction technology, agar with high purity cannot be obtained by enzyme treatment alone, but low gel strength (405 g/cm2) and high sulfate content (3.4%) can be obtained by subsequent acidification and bleaching. In enzyme-assisted extraction technology, enzyme damage to the surface fiber of algae promoted the penetration of low-concentration alkali (3%, w/v), which ensured a high desulfurization efficiency and a low gel degradation rate, thus improving yield (24.7%) and gel strength (706 g/cm2), which has the potential to replace the traditional alkali-extraction technology. Full article
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Review

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24 pages, 3092 KiB  
Review
Structure Characteristics, Biochemical Properties, and Pharmaceutical Applications of Alginate Lyases
by Shu-Kun Gao, Rui Yin, Xiao-Chen Wang, Hui-Ning Jiang, Xiao-Xiao Liu, Wei Lv, Yu Ma and Yan-Xia Zhou
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(11), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19110628 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3290
Abstract
Alginate, the most abundant polysaccharides of brown algae, consists of various proportions of uronic acid epimers α-L-guluronic acid (G) and β-D-mannuronic acid (M). Alginate oligosaccharides (AOs), the degradation products of alginates, exhibit excellent bioactivities and a great potential for broad applications [...] Read more.
Alginate, the most abundant polysaccharides of brown algae, consists of various proportions of uronic acid epimers α-L-guluronic acid (G) and β-D-mannuronic acid (M). Alginate oligosaccharides (AOs), the degradation products of alginates, exhibit excellent bioactivities and a great potential for broad applications in pharmaceutical fields. Alginate lyases can degrade alginate to functional AOs with unsaturated bonds or monosaccharides, which can facilitate the biorefinery of brown algae. On account of the increasing applications of AOs and biorefinery of brown algae, there is a scientific need to explore the important aspects of alginate lyase, such as catalytic mechanism, structure, and property. This review covers fundamental aspects and recent developments in basic information, structural characteristics, the structure–substrate specificity or catalytic efficiency relationship, property, molecular modification, and applications. To meet the needs of biorefinery systems of a broad array of biochemical products, alginate lyases with special properties, such as salt-activated, wide pH adaptation range, and cold adaptation are outlined. Withal, various challenges in alginate lyase research are traced out, and future directions, specifically on the molecular biology part of alginate lyases, are delineated to further widen the horizon of these exceptional alginate lyases. Full article
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