Magnetic Nanospecies: Synthesis, Properties, Physical and Biomedical Applications

A special issue of Magnetochemistry (ISSN 2312-7481). This special issue belongs to the section "Magnetic Nanospecies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 19274

Special Issue Editor

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Biomedical Chemistry laboratory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Lavrentyev Ave. 8, Russia
Interests: biomedical Imaging; drug-delivery systems; theranostics; anti-cancer drugs; medicinal chemistry; nanomaterials; nanocomposites; nuclear magnetic resonance; magnetic resonance imaging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Magnetic nanospecies have been used for various applications, including diagnosis, contrast agents and molecular probes, magnetic resonance imaging, structural biology, drug and gene delivery, and therapeutic applications. Studying magnetic nanospecies’ structural features and coating procedures and stability opens up excellent prospects for multifunctional and bioinspired material and devices. The influence of magnetic fields can be used as an exogenous stimulus to induce changes in the physical, chemical, and structural properties. Therefore, magnetic nanospecies synthesis, conjugation strategies to apply bioinspired construction for diagnosis, and simultaneous therapy have been a feature of the last several years. New prospects in the theranostics area will lead to obtaining a promising tool for clinics.

This Special Issue is focused on the most recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, properties, and various applications of magnetic nanospecies. We invite original contributions and review articles focusing on the synthesis and optimization of magnetic nanoparticle properties, surface coating for enhanced stability or other properties, studies on biocompatibility and toxicity, and applications in various areas such as diagnostics, imaging, drug–gene delivery, and therapy.

Dr. Alexey Chubarov
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • magnetic nanospecies
  • magnetic nanoparticles and nanocomposites
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • magnetic hyperthermia
  • nanotechnology
  • nanomaterials for drug delivery
  • coatings
  • multifunctional materials
  • biomaterials
  • theranostic applications
  • biocompatibility
  • toxicity

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 6708 KiB  
Article
Magnetism and EPR Spectroscopy of Nanocrystalline and Amorphous TiO2: Fe upon Al Doping
Magnetochemistry 2023, 9(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry9010026 - 09 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1467
Abstract
This work is devoted to the study of the magnetic properties and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of TiO2:Fe nanoparticles doped with Al in different structural states. The sol-gel methods have been used to obtain the particles in both crystalline (average [...] Read more.
This work is devoted to the study of the magnetic properties and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of TiO2:Fe nanoparticles doped with Al in different structural states. The sol-gel methods have been used to obtain the particles in both crystalline (average size from 3 to 20 nm) and X-ray amorphous states. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of crystalline samples TiO2:Fe doped with aluminum besides a resonance line with g-factor ~2 exhibit a small signal with a g-factor of 4.3 from Fe3+ ions with rhombohedral distortions. The fraction of Fe3+ with rhombohedral distortions increases with increasing aluminum content. For the amorphous state at Al doping, the resonance with a g-factor of 4.3 is completely dominant in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. The density functional theory calculation shows that aluminum prefers to be localized near iron ions, distorting the nearest Fe3+ environment. The complex integral electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of all samples was fitted with sufficient accuracy by three separate resonance lines with different widths and intensities. The temperature behavior of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum can be described by the coexistence of paramagnetic centers (isolated Fe3+ ions including dipole-dipole interactions) and iron clusters with negative exchange interactions. Full article
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12 pages, 4415 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Nylon 6 Nanocomposites for the Microextraction of Nucleic Acids from Biological Samples
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(8), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8080085 - 03 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1896
Abstract
Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential for nucleic acid separation, detection, and delivery. MNPs are considered a valuable tool in biomedicine due to their cost-effectiveness, stability, easy surface functionalization, and the possibility of the manipulations under a magnetic field. [...] Read more.
Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential for nucleic acid separation, detection, and delivery. MNPs are considered a valuable tool in biomedicine due to their cost-effectiveness, stability, easy surface functionalization, and the possibility of the manipulations under a magnetic field. Herein, the synthesis of magnetic nylon 6 nanocomposites (MNPs@Ny6) was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used for morphology and size analysis. A new method of UV-induced immobilization of oligonucleotides on MNPs@Ny6 for nucleic acid magnetic separation was proposed. MNPs@Ny6 shows a high oligonucleotide binding capacity of 2.2 nmol/mg with 73.3% loading efficiency. The proposed system has been applied to analyze model mixtures of target RNA on the total yeast RNA background. The RNA target isolation efficiency was 60% with high specificity. The bind RNA release was 88.8% in a quantity of 0.16 nmol/mg. The total RNA capture efficiency was 53%. Considering this, the MNPs@Ny6 is an attractive candidate for nucleic acids-specific magnetic isolation. Full article
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22 pages, 5674 KiB  
Article
Fluorescent Single-Core and Multi-Core Nanoprobes as Cell Trackers and Magnetic Nanoheaters
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(8), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8080083 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely studied due to their versatility for diagnosis, tracking (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and therapeutic (magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery) applications. In this work, iron oxide MNPs with different single-core (8–40 nm) and multi-core (140–200 nm) [...] Read more.
Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely studied due to their versatility for diagnosis, tracking (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and therapeutic (magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery) applications. In this work, iron oxide MNPs with different single-core (8–40 nm) and multi-core (140–200 nm) structures were synthesized and functionalized by organic and inorganic coating materials, highlighting their ability as magnetic nanotools to boost cell biotechnological procedures. Single core Fe3O4@PDA, Fe3O4@SiO2-FITC-SiO2 and Fe3O4@SiO2-RITC-SiO2 MNPs were functionalized with fluorescent components with emission at different wavelengths, 424 nm (polydopamine), 515 (fluorescein) and 583 nm (rhodamine), and their ability as transfection and imaging agents was explored with HeLa cells. Moreover, different multi-core iron oxide MNPs (Fe3O4@CS, Fe3O4@SiO2 and Fe3O4@Citrate) coated with organic (citrate and chitosan, CS) and inorganic (silica, SiO2) shells were tested as efficient nanoheaters for magnetic hyperthermia applications for mild thermal heating procedures as an alternative to simple structures based on single-core MNPs. This work highlights the multiple abilities offered by the synergy of the use of external magnetic fields applied on MNPs and their application in different biomedical approaches. Full article
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16 pages, 2460 KiB  
Article
High Drug Capacity Doxorubicin-Loaded Iron Oxide Nanocomposites for Cancer Therapy
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(5), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8050054 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3171
Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential in the drug delivery area. Iron oxide (Fe3O4) MNPs have demonstrated a promising effect due to their ferrimagnetic properties, large surface area, stability, low cost, easy synthesis, and functionalization. Some coating procedures are [...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential in the drug delivery area. Iron oxide (Fe3O4) MNPs have demonstrated a promising effect due to their ferrimagnetic properties, large surface area, stability, low cost, easy synthesis, and functionalization. Some coating procedures are required to improve stability, biocompatibility, and decrease toxicity for medical applications. Herein, the co-precipitation synthesis of iron oxide MNPs coated with four types of primary surfactants, polyethylene glycol 2000 (PEG 2000), oleic acid (OA), Tween 20 (Tw20), and Tween 80 (Tw80), were investigated. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), ζ-potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used for morphology, size, charge, and stability analysis. Methylene blue reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection assay and the toxicity experiment on the lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line were conducted. Two loading conditions for anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) on MNPs were proposed. The first one provides high loading efficiency (~90%) with up to 870 μg/mg (DOX/MNPs) drug capacity. The second is perspective for extremely high capacity 1757 μg/mg with drug wasting (DOX loading efficiency ~24%). For the most perspective MNP_OA and MNP_OA_DOX in cell media, pH 7.4, 5, and 3, the stability experiments are also presented. MNP_OA_DOX shows DOX pH-dependent release in the acidic pH and effective inhibition of A549 cancer cell growth. The IC50 values were calculated as 1.13 ± 0.02 mM in terms of doxorubicin and 0.4 ± 0.03 µg/mL in terms of the amount of the nanoparticles. Considering this, the MNP_OA_DOX nano theranostics agent is a highly potential candidate for cancer treatment. Full article
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12 pages, 1348 KiB  
Article
The Effect of pH and Buffer on Oligonucleotide Affinity for Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
Magnetochemistry 2021, 7(9), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7090128 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2109
Abstract
Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential in the nucleic acid delivery approach for therapeutic applications. Herein, the formation of a stable complex of iron oxide nanoparticles with oligonucleotides was investigated. Several factors, such as pH, buffer components, and oligonucleotides [...] Read more.
Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential in the nucleic acid delivery approach for therapeutic applications. Herein, the formation of a stable complex of iron oxide nanoparticles with oligonucleotides was investigated. Several factors, such as pH, buffer components, and oligonucleotides sequences, were chosen for binding efficiency studies and oligonucleotide binding constant calculation. Standard characterization techniques, such as dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy, provide MNPs coating and stability. The toxicity experiments were performed using lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line and high reactive oxygen species formation with methylene blue assay. Fe3O4 MNPs complexes with oligonucleotides show high stability and excellent biocompatibility. Full article
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Review

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26 pages, 4088 KiB  
Review
Magnetic Nanocomposites and Imprinted Polymers for Biomedical Applications of Nucleic Acids
Magnetochemistry 2023, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry9010012 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2580
Abstract
Magnetic nanocomposites (MNCs) combine the features of magnetic nanoparticles and a second material, which provide distinct physical, chemical, and biological properties. The magnetic core for nanocomposite synthesis is extensively used due to its high saturation magnetization, chemical stability, large surface area, and easy [...] Read more.
Magnetic nanocomposites (MNCs) combine the features of magnetic nanoparticles and a second material, which provide distinct physical, chemical, and biological properties. The magnetic core for nanocomposite synthesis is extensively used due to its high saturation magnetization, chemical stability, large surface area, and easy functionalization. Moreover, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic particle imaging (MPI), hyperthermia, and targeted drug and gene delivery by an external magnetic field. Numerous composing units exist, which leads to the outstanding application of composites. This review focuses on nucleic acid-based bioapplications of MNCs with polymeric, organic, inorganic, biomolecules, and bioinspared surface coating. In addition, different forms, such as core–shell, doping, multilayer, yolk–shell, and Janus-shaped hybrids, are discussed, and their unique properties are highlighted. The unique types of nanocomposites as magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) properties are presented. This review presents only the synthesis of MNCs using ready-made magnetic cores. These restrictions are associated with many materials, the quantitative and qualitative magnetic core composition, and synthesis procedures. This review aims to discuss the features of nucleic acid-based MNC information available to researchers in this field and guide them through some problems in the area, structure variation, and surface functionalization possibilities. The most recent advancements of MNCs and imprinted polymers in nucleic acid-based therapy, diagnostics, theranostics, magnetic separation, biocatalytic, and biosensing are introduced. Full article
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18 pages, 17255 KiB  
Review
Serum Albumin for Magnetic Nanoparticles Coating
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8020013 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4785
Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential in biochemistry and medical science. In particular, iron oxide nanoparticles have demonstrated a promising effect in various biomedical applications due to their high magnetic properties, large surface area, stability, and easy functionalization. However, colloidal stability, biocompatibility, and [...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have great potential in biochemistry and medical science. In particular, iron oxide nanoparticles have demonstrated a promising effect in various biomedical applications due to their high magnetic properties, large surface area, stability, and easy functionalization. However, colloidal stability, biocompatibility, and potential toxicity of MNPs in physiological environments are crucial for their in vivo application. In this context, many research articles focused on the possible procedures for MNPs coating to improve their physic-chemical and biological properties. This review highlights one viable fabrication strategy of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles using human serum albumin (HSA). HSA is mainly a transport protein with many functions in various fundamental processes. As it is one of the most abundant plasma proteins, not a single drug in the blood passes without its strength test. It influences the stability, pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution of different drug-delivery systems by binding or forming its protein corona on the surface. The development of albumin-based drug carriers is gaining increasing importance in the targeted delivery of cancer therapy. Considering this, HSA is a highly potential candidate for nanoparticles coating and theranostics area and can provide biocompatibility, prolonged blood circulation, and possibly resolve the drug-resistance cancer problem. Full article
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