Nutritional Supplements and Cardiovascular Function in Athletes and Sedentary People

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 477

Special Issue Editor

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Medicine, Osijek University, Josip Juraj Strossmayer Osijek, Osijek, Croatia
Interests: microcirculation; n-3 PUFAs; endothelium; oxidative stress; eicosanoids; nutrients; exercise
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The endothelium is pivotal in maintaining various vascular functions, such as vascular reactivity to stimuli, coagulation, and inflammatory responses. Endothelial dysfunction underlies all cardiometabolic diseases (e.g., hypertension, diabetes mellitus, autoimmune diseases, and coronary heart disease). Although exercise benefits endothelial function and prevents or alleviates cardiovascular diseases, strenuous exercise can also lead to endothelial dysfunction and vascular/tissue damage. It is well documented that increased oxidative stress deleteriously affects endothelium-dependent vascular function by altering different metabolic pathways involved in vascular reactivity. On the other hand, different nutraceuticals with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties can significantly impact vascular function and cardiovascular health. For professional athletes, appropriate nutrition is necessary to perform high physical and metabolic activity to match their increased energy and nutritional needs. Nutritional supplements, such as nutrients with antioxidative properties, may have a role in preparation for exercise, increasing the efficiency of exercise, supporting the recovery from exercise, and helping to prevent injury. This may help reduce exercise-induced inflammation. However, understanding physiological mechanisms at the cellular and molecular level of the effects of various nutritional supplements on cardiovascular health is still superficial. There is a need for controlled randomized studies of the effects of nutrients on cardiovascular health in athletes as well as in sedentary people in terms of preventive and potentially curative effects. There is much uncertainty about the doses, duration, and chronic effects of nutritional supplementation (in food or pharmaceutical remedies). Thus, this Special Issue review in original research articles performed in humans or experimental models on the effects of nutritional supplements or enriched food on cardiovascular health in athletes and sedentary persons are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Ines Drenjančević
Guest Editor

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  • athletes
  • sedentary
  • eating habits
  • nutrition
  • endothelium
  • microcirculation
  • nutritional supplements
  • oxidative stress
  • antioxidants
  • NRF2-signalling pathway
  • functional food
  • cardiovascular function
  • prevention

Published Papers (1 paper)

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18 pages, 2533 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Effect of Stress-Reducing Interventions on Heart Rate Variability in Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Ouahiba El-Malahi, Darya Mohajeri, Alexander Bäuerle, Raluca Mincu, Korbinian Rothenaicher, Greta Ullrich, Christos Rammos, Martin Teufel, Tienush Rassaf and Julia Lortz
Life 2024, 14(6), 749; - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 314
Stress is recognized as a significant trigger and exacerbator of various medical conditions, particularly in the field of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given that heart rate variability (HRV) offers insight into the functioning of the autonomic nervous system and has been identified as a [...] Read more.
Stress is recognized as a significant trigger and exacerbator of various medical conditions, particularly in the field of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given that heart rate variability (HRV) offers insight into the functioning of the autonomic nervous system and has been identified as a predictive factor for increased cardiovascular mortality, exploring the correlation between stress and HRV is pertinent. We systematically reviewed trials where researchers investigated the effects of stress-reducing interventions on biomarkers and time-domain/frequency-domain parameters of HRV in CVD. Eligible studies underwent meta-analysis utilizing a random-effects model. The meta-analysis showed overall beneficial effects of stress-reducing interventions on HRV for the standard deviation of Normal-to-Normal intervals (SDNN) in short-term and 24 h assessments, as well as for the low-frequency power (LF) in short-term assessment. Overall effect sizes were notably high and showed significant p-values (short-term SDNN: MD = 6.43, p = 0.01; 24 h SDNN: MD = 10.92, p = 0.004; short-term LF: MD = 160.11, p < 0.001). Our findings highlight the significant impact of stress-reducing interventions in modulating HRV by influencing short-term SDNN and LF parameters, as well as the 24 h assessment of SDNN. These results emphasize the importance of stress-reducing measures in lowering the risk of further progression in CVD and improving patient outcomes. Full article
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