Offshore Renewable Energy

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2024) | Viewed by 8456

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, China
Interests: water conservancy and hydropower engineering; new energy engineering

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Guest Editor
School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, China
Interests: offshore new energy; underwater robot

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Guest Editor
National Ocean Technology Centre, Ministry of Natural Resources, Tianjin, China
Interests: wave energy conversion; offshore wind; offshore solar; offshore hybrid power system; autonomous subsea vehicle

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Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
Interests: offshore geotechnical engineering

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Guest Editor
Ocean Institute, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Taicang 215400, China
Interests: wave energy technology; hydrodynamic modelling and control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Offshore renewable energy is an abundant clean energy source. Its development and utilization will be beneficial for the development of a low-carbon economy and the achievement of energy-saving and emission reduction goals. It can achieve a complementary energy supply between land and sea, reducing the pressure on the conventional fossil energy supply in economically developed and energy-intensive coastal areas. The development of offshore renewable energy is a long-term process, but it is worth noting that, with the development and gradual maturity of various technologies, offshore renewable energy will become the mainstream new energy in the future. This Special Issue aims to provide updates regarding the development and utilization of offshore renewable energy. Potential topics include, but are not limited to, novel concepts, control strategy, modelling methods, intelligent equipment and monitoring technology applications.

Prof. Dr. Jijian Lian
Dr. Qiang Fu
Prof. Dr. Lin Cui
Prof. Dr. Run Liu 
Prof. Dr. Bingyong Guo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • development and utilization of offshore renewable energy
  • control strategy for multi-energy complementary offshore renewable energy system
  • modelling methods in hydrodynamic and mechanic
  • simulation under multiple physics system or environment
  • physical experiments and testing
  • grid integration and energy storage
  • intelligent equipment, control and applications
  • marine technology for operation & maintenance
  • risk management and reliability assessment.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 5268 KiB  
Article
Design and Optimization of the Teardrop Buoy Driven by Ocean Thermal Energy
by Danyao Zhao, Shizhen Li, Wenzhuo Shi, Zhengtong Zhou and Fen Guo
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(4), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12040661 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 261
Abstract
With the inception of the Argo program, the global ocean observation network is undergoing continuous advancement, with profiling buoys emerging as pivotal components of this network, thus garnering increased attention in research. In efforts to enhance the efficiency of profiling buoys and curtail [...] Read more.
With the inception of the Argo program, the global ocean observation network is undergoing continuous advancement, with profiling buoys emerging as pivotal components of this network, thus garnering increased attention in research. In efforts to enhance the efficiency of profiling buoys and curtail energy consumption, a teardrop-shaped buoy design is proposed in this study. Moreover, an optimization methodology leveraging neural networks and genetic algorithms has been devised to attain an optimal profile curve. This curve seeks to minimize drag and drag coefficient while maximizing drainage, thereby improving hydrodynamic performance. Simulation-based validation and analysis are conducted to assess the efficacy of the optimized buoy design. Results indicate that the drag of the teardrop-shaped buoy with a deflector decreased by 9.2% compared to pre-optimized configurations and by 22% compared to buoys lacking deflectors. The hydrodynamic profile devised in this study effectively enhances buoy performance, laying a solid foundation for ocean thermal energy generation and buoyancy regulation control. Additionally, the optimized scheme serves as a valuable blueprint for the design of ocean exploration devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewable Energy)
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20 pages, 3036 KiB  
Article
IRNLGD: An Edge Detection Algorithm with Comprehensive Gradient Directions for Tidal Stream Turbine
by Dingnan Song, Ran Liu, Zhiwei Zhang, Dingding Yang and Tianzhen Wang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(3), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12030498 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Tidal stream turbines (TSTs) harness the kinetic energy of tides to generate electricity by rotating the rotor. Biofouling will lead to an imbalance between the blades, resulting in imbalanced torque and voltage across the windings, ultimately polluting the grid. Therefore, rotor condition monitoring [...] Read more.
Tidal stream turbines (TSTs) harness the kinetic energy of tides to generate electricity by rotating the rotor. Biofouling will lead to an imbalance between the blades, resulting in imbalanced torque and voltage across the windings, ultimately polluting the grid. Therefore, rotor condition monitoring is of great significance for the stable operation of the system. Image-based attachment detection algorithms provide the advantage of visually displaying the location and area of faults. However, due to the limited availability of data from multiple machine types and environments, it is difficult to ensure the generalization of the network. Additionally, TST images degrade, resulting in reduced image gradients and making it challenging to extract edge and other features. In order to address the issue of limited data, a novel non-data-driven edge detection algorithm, indexed resemble-normal-line guidance detector (IRNLGD), is proposed for TST rotor attachment fault detection. Aiming to solve the problem of edge features being suppressed, IRNLGD introduces the concept of “indexed resemble-normal-line direction” and integrates multi-directional gradient information for edge determination. Real-image experiments demonstrate IRNLGD’s effectiveness in detecting TST rotor edges and faults. Evaluation on public datasets shows the superior performance of our method in detecting fine edges in low-light images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewable Energy)
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19 pages, 10917 KiB  
Article
Behavior Analysis of a Bucket Foundation with an Offshore Wind Turbine during the In-Water Sinking Process
by Fangdi Ye, Jijian Lian, Tianrun Xiao, Dongzhi Xiong, Haijun Wang, Yaohua Guo and Nan Shao
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(3), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12030494 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 514
Abstract
To enhance the safety of the in-water sinking operation for an integrated system, including a bucket foundation (BF), tower, and rotor nacelle assembly (RNA), in complex marine environmental conditions, a model test of in-water sinking for an offshore wind turbine and bucket foundation [...] Read more.
To enhance the safety of the in-water sinking operation for an integrated system, including a bucket foundation (BF), tower, and rotor nacelle assembly (RNA), in complex marine environmental conditions, a model test of in-water sinking for an offshore wind turbine and bucket foundation (OWT–BF) is conducted. The motion behavior of the OWT–BF and the sling tensions during the in-water sinking process are investigated, and the numerical method is validated through test results. The results demonstrate a positive correlation between the wave height and motion response of the OWT–BF. The most critical stage of the in-water sinking operation occurs when the top cover of the bucket is fully submerged, resulting from the substantial cross-sectional difference between the bucket base and the transition section. Furthermore, the closer the OWT–BF is to the seabed, the less it is affected by waves in terms of motion response. It is advisable to conduct the in-water sinking operation of the OWT–BF in sea states with wave heights below 1.5 m. Simultaneously, slings can efficiently control the motion response of the OWT–BF, thereby enhancing the safety of the sinking operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewable Energy)
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17 pages, 4927 KiB  
Article
Design and Experimental Study of 50 kW Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Test Platform Based on Organic Rankine Cycle
by Beichen Lu, Yanjun Liu, Xiaoyu Zhai, Li Zhang and Yun Chen
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(3), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12030463 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 751
Abstract
In recent years, clean and renewable energy sources have received much attention to balance the contradiction between resource needs and environmental sustainability. Among them, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which consists of surface warm seawater and deep cold seawater, can rely on thermal [...] Read more.
In recent years, clean and renewable energy sources have received much attention to balance the contradiction between resource needs and environmental sustainability. Among them, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which consists of surface warm seawater and deep cold seawater, can rely on thermal cycling to generate electricity and has great potential in alleviating the energy crisis. In this paper, the design and experiment study of a 50 kW OTEC platform is proposed. Thermodynamic modeling, calculation, optimization, and engineering calibration of the system were carried out, and the thermal efficiency reached 2.63% to meet the power generation demand. Experiments were also carried out by using a heat pump unit to simulate hot and cold seawater environments, and data on the stable operation of the system were obtained, with the grid-connected power reaching 47.5 kW and a thermal efficiency of 2.46%. The accuracy of the design scheme is verified, and the theoretical basis and data support are provided for the practical development and application of ocean thermal energy conversion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewable Energy)
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18 pages, 6836 KiB  
Article
Suppression of Negative Sequence Current on HVDC Modular Multilevel Converters in Offshore Wind Power
by Xiaoning Xu, Di Wang, Xuesong Zhou and Long Tao
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(3), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12030383 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 632
Abstract
The High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission technology employing modular multilevel converters (MMCs) can effectively enhance the transmission efficiency and stability of offshore wind farms, thereby aiding the promotion of large−scale utilization of new energy. This holds significant importance for achieving the dual [...] Read more.
The High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission technology employing modular multilevel converters (MMCs) can effectively enhance the transmission efficiency and stability of offshore wind farms, thereby aiding the promotion of large−scale utilization of new energy. This holds significant importance for achieving the dual carbon goals. Aiming at the problem of negative sequence current circulation in MMC−HVDC transmission systems, a circulation suppression strategy based on augmented order decoupling linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC) is proposed in this paper. By introducing new state variables into the traditional ADRC structure, the actual output deviation signal and observation gain signal from the disturbance observation value of the system are used. It can not only realize the decoupling control of disturbance and tracking terms but also enhance the disturbance immunity, robustness and rapidity of the controller. Finally, an 18−level MMC system model is built based on Matlab (9.12.0.1884302 (R2022a)) & Simulink (R2022a), and the circulation suppression effects of stable operation and voltage sudden change are simulated and compared, which verifies the suppression effect of the improved control strategy on negative sequence current circulation, which lays a theoretical and application foundation for the sustainable development of the offshore wind power industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewable Energy)
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28 pages, 9156 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis of a Floating Wind–Wave Power Generation Platform Based on the Frequency Domain Model
by Mingsheng Chen, Jiang Deng, Yi Yang, Hao Zhou, Tao Tao, Shi Liu, Liang Sun and Lin Hua
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12020206 - 23 Jan 2024
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 647
Abstract
Integrating wave energy converters (WECs) onto floating offshore wind turbine platforms has emerged as a recent focal point of research aiming to achieve synergistic marine energy utilization and enhance the spatial efficiency of renewable energy. The power performance of WECs relies on hydrodynamic [...] Read more.
Integrating wave energy converters (WECs) onto floating offshore wind turbine platforms has emerged as a recent focal point of research aiming to achieve synergistic marine energy utilization and enhance the spatial efficiency of renewable energy. The power performance of WECs relies on hydrodynamic interactions with the floating platform. However, the coupled dynamic response and power generation mechanism remain unclear. This study establishes a multi-body model for the constrained motion of floating-platform and point-absorber WECs in the frequency domain. The power performance of WECs under different arrangements is compared and optimized. The performance of different hydrodynamic models in the South China Sea is analyzed further. The results indicate that exceptional peak performance is achieved when a single point absorber is placed on the floating platform. However, its performance under the full spectrum of wave frequencies in real sea conditions is suboptimal. Conversely, as the number of point absorbers on the floating platform increases, the performance of the hybrid system becomes more stable in real sea conditions. Furthermore, the array arrangement of point absorbers on the floating platform leads to multiple peaks in their power performance, and in selected array arrangements, the average power generation at specific frequencies is significantly superior to that of a single point absorber on the floating platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewable Energy)
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23 pages, 18097 KiB  
Article
Design and Performance Evaluation of an Enclosed Inertial Wave Energy Converter with a Nonlinear Stiffness Mechanism
by Jian Qin, Zhenquan Zhang, Xuening Song, Shuting Huang, Yanjun Liu and Gang Xue
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12010191 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 727
Abstract
In order to enhance the power generation efficiency and reliability of wave energy converters (WECs), an enclosed inertial WEC with a magnetic nonlinear stiffness mechanism (nonlinear EIWEC) is proposed in this paper. A mathematical model of the nonlinear EIWEC was established based on [...] Read more.
In order to enhance the power generation efficiency and reliability of wave energy converters (WECs), an enclosed inertial WEC with a magnetic nonlinear stiffness mechanism (nonlinear EIWEC) is proposed in this paper. A mathematical model of the nonlinear EIWEC was established based on the Cummins equation and the equivalent magnetic charge method, and the joint simulations were carried out using MATLAB/Simulink 2020 and AMESim 2020 softwares. The effect of the magnetic nonlinear stiffness mechanism (NSM) on the performance of the EIWEC system was investigated. The results show that the nonlinear negative stiffness property of NSM can significantly improve the motion response and output power of EIWEC under low-frequency waves. Compared to EIWEC without NSM (linear EIWEC), nonlinear EIWEC has a higher generation efficiency and wider frequency bandwidth. Additionally, the effects of linear spring, internal mass body, and hydraulic power take-off (PTO) system parameters on the energy conversion capability of the system were analyzed to provide a reference for the design of nonlinear EIWECs. In general, the proposed nonlinear EIWEC could provide good development potential for the scale utilization of wave energy resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewable Energy)
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18 pages, 3713 KiB  
Article
Study on Mooring Design of 15 MW Floating Wind Turbines in South China Sea
by Mingsheng Chen, Jiale Jiang, Wei Zhang, Chun Bao Li, Hao Zhou, Yichen Jiang and Xinghan Sun
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12010033 - 22 Dec 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Wind turbines and floating platform upsizing are major trends in the current offshore wind development. However, harsh environmental conditions increase the risk of anchor dragging and mooring failure when deploying large offshore floating wind turbines. Therefore, it is necessary to design a mooring [...] Read more.
Wind turbines and floating platform upsizing are major trends in the current offshore wind development. However, harsh environmental conditions increase the risk of anchor dragging and mooring failure when deploying large offshore floating wind turbines. Therefore, it is necessary to design a mooring system for the specific deployment site. This study aims to perform the mooring system design of a floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) operated in the South China Sea, which is a combination of the IEA 15 MW wind turbine and UMaine VolturnUS-S floating platform. Hydrodynamic coefficients were calculated based on the potential flow theory, considering the environmental loads in the South China Sea. Additionally, the hydrodynamic coefficients were imported into AQWA to calculate the time-domain mooring tension. The mooring design parameters, such as mooring line length, nominal sizes, and anchor point, were determined using the criterion of anchor uplift, maximum breaking strength, and fatigue life, respectively. The design criterion required that the anchor uplift is not more than the allowable value, the long-term breaking limit of mooring with a 100-year return period should be less than the maximum breaking limit, and the fatigue damage accumulation in 50 years should be safe. The mooring design procedure provides a reference for mooring system design and safe operation of large floating wind turbines in the South China Sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewable Energy)
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15 pages, 7207 KiB  
Article
Annular Electromagnetic Generator for Harvesting Ocean Wave Energy
by Chunjie Wang, Linghao Guo, Peng Chen, Qiang Fu and Lin Cui
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122266 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 756
Abstract
To sustainably power ocean sensors by harvesting ocean wave energy, an annular electromagnetic generator (A-EMG) based on the principle of Faraday electromagnetic induction is proposed in this paper. The specific structure and working principle of the generator are introduced. The distribution of the [...] Read more.
To sustainably power ocean sensors by harvesting ocean wave energy, an annular electromagnetic generator (A-EMG) based on the principle of Faraday electromagnetic induction is proposed in this paper. The specific structure and working principle of the generator are introduced. The distribution of the magnetic field in the coil, the variation in the induced voltage and the influence of the coil parameters on the output were simulated by the COMSOL Multiphysics software version 6.0. At the same time, an experimental platform was built to test the output characteristics of the generator. Through a comparative study of the capacitor’s charging characteristics, the optimal connection mode between the multiple groups of coils of the generator was preliminarily verified. Finally, the six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) platform was used to simulate various wave motion parameters, and the feasibility of the generator for supplying power to ocean sensors was verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewable Energy)
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35 pages, 13668 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Simulation of a Turbine Access System with Three-Axial Active Motion Compensation
by Jingfu Wang, Songtao Zhang, Jiahuan Cheng, Yunfei Li, Yan Shen and Zihao Wu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122237 - 26 Nov 2023
Viewed by 847
Abstract
As an essential transportation equipment for personnel to access offshore wind plants, the safety and stability of the turbine access system (TAS) have gained increasing significance. However, when sea conditions deteriorate, the end of the TAS will experience large-angle shaking and an increase [...] Read more.
As an essential transportation equipment for personnel to access offshore wind plants, the safety and stability of the turbine access system (TAS) have gained increasing significance. However, when sea conditions deteriorate, the end of the TAS will experience large-angle shaking and an increase in the heave height. A novel 3-DOFs TAS with active motion compensation for the Fujian coastal area is designed to solve the problem of the stability of the end of the TAS under sea conditions with a significant wave height of 2.2 m, including structural design, kinematic analysis, hydraulic drive design, and control system design. In the research, a new stacking compensation method is proposed to compensate for the roll angle, pitch angle, and heave height at the end of the TAS. The 3-DOFs TAS is modeled mathematically by the Denavit–Hartenberg parameters, and the hydraulic system model is established. In order to improve the compensation effect, a fuzzy PID controller with feedforward compensation is designed based on fuzzy PID control, and the model simulation experiment is carried out by MATLAB/Simulink. Finally, the experimental simulation shows that under the compensation of the feedforward compensation fuzzy PID control algorithm and the new compensation algorithm, the roll angle of the TAS is reduced by a maximum of 84.8%, the pitch angle is reduced by 75%, and the heave height is reduced by 73.6%. This validates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and provides a reference for future TAS design and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewable Energy)
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22 pages, 4100 KiB  
Article
Design Longitudinal Control System Using Suitable T-Foil Modeling for the Offshore Wind Power Operation and Maintenance Vessel with Severe Sea States
by Jia Yuan, Zhen Liu, Hua Geng, Songtao Zhang, Lihua Liang and Peng Zhao
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(11), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11112182 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 731
Abstract
In order to reduce the offshore wind power operation and maintenance vessel motion induced by severe sea states, a suitable stabilizer with the ship based on linear quadratic regulator strategy is proposed in this paper. First of all, the dynamics of the ship [...] Read more.
In order to reduce the offshore wind power operation and maintenance vessel motion induced by severe sea states, a suitable stabilizer with the ship based on linear quadratic regulator strategy is proposed in this paper. First of all, the dynamics of the ship motion model are established to study the longitudinal control system. The six degrees of freedom nonlinear motion model and nonlinear coupled longitudinal motion (heave and pitch) model are described in detail in this paper. Secondly, this work presents matching suitability between the T-foil and the operation and maintenance vessel. Therefore, the most suitable installation position and the optimum strut’s height of T-foil are determined by meshing the ship hull model, setting the water channel, and a series of corresponding computer fluid dynamic simulation. Following that, the linear quadratic regulator controller is studied with active longitudinal control system based on the suitable T-foil. Furthermore, a longitudinal control system is built, including free vessel module and the suitable T-foil stabilizer-based proposed controller module. Finally, the simulation results indicate that the designed T-foil and the longitudinal control system are feasible and effective to ensure the heave and pitch motion reduction based on the proposed controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Renewable Energy)
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