Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 2.0

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Medicine and Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 49275

Special Issue Editor


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Department of Health and Human Performance, Fight Science Lab, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33328, USA
Interests: sports supplements; human performance; skeletal muscle plasticity; sports neuroscience
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

This Special Issue is the continuation of our Special Issue “Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance” (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/jfmk/special_issues/Sports_Nutrition_Performance).

I have volunteered my time to handle a Special Issue in the Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology. This issue will focus on research in the field of sports nutrition with particular emphasis on body composition and/or performance. The aim of this Special Issue is to attract papers that address the role of sports nutrition in the field of competitive athletics as well as the general population. It is clear that sports nutrition and supplementation plays a significant role vis a vis body composition and human performance. There are several supplements with robust data to support their use such as: beta-alanine, creatine, beet root, protein, caffeine, probiotics etc. Authors are invited to submit original research papers, meta-analyses, and/or systematic reviews.

Prof. Dr. Jose Antonio
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sports supplements
  • creatine
  • protein
  • body composition
  • performance
  • athlete
  • skeletal muscle

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 722 KiB  
Article
Plasma Amino Acid Response to Whey Protein Ingestion Following 28 Days of Probiotic (Bacillus subtilis DE111) Supplementation in Active Men and Women
by Jeremy R. Townsend, William C. Vantrease, Megan D. Jones, Philip A. Sapp, Kent D. Johnson, Cheryle N. Beuning, Allison A. Haase and Claudia M. Boot
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6010001 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2714
Abstract
We sought to determine if 28 days of probiotic supplementation influenced the plasma amino acid (AA) response to acute whey protein feeding. METHODS: Twenty-two recreationally active men (n = 11; 24.3 ± 3.2 yrs; 89.3 ± 7.2 kg) and women (n [...] Read more.
We sought to determine if 28 days of probiotic supplementation influenced the plasma amino acid (AA) response to acute whey protein feeding. METHODS: Twenty-two recreationally active men (n = 11; 24.3 ± 3.2 yrs; 89.3 ± 7.2 kg) and women (n = 11; 23.0 ± 2.8 yrs; 70.2 ± 15.2 kg) participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Before (PRE) and after 28 days of supplementation (POST), participants reported to the lab following a 10-hr fast and provided a resting blood draw (0 min), then subsequently consumed 25 g of whey protein. Blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 2 h post-consumption (15–120 min) and later analyzed for plasma leucine, branched-chain AA (BCAA), essential AA (EAA), and total AA (TAA). Participants received a probiotic (PROB) consisting of 1 x10-9 colony forming units (CFU) Bacillus subtilis DE111 (n = 11) or a maltodextrin placebo (PL) (n = 11) for 28 days. Plasma AA response and area under the curve (AUC) values were analyzed via repeated measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: Our analysis indicated no significant (p < 0.05) differential responses for plasma leucine, BCAA, EAA, or TAA between PROB and PL from PRE to POST. AUC analysis revealed no group × time interaction for plasma leucine (p = 0.524), BCAA (p = 0.345), EAA (p = 0.512), and TAA (p = 0.712). CONCLUSION: These data indicate that 28 days of Bacillus subtilis DE111 does not affect plasma AA appearance following acute whey protein ingestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 2.0)
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16 pages, 2972 KiB  
Article
Examination of Curcumin and Fenugreek Soluble Fiber Supplementation on Submaximal and Maximal Aerobic Performance Indices
by Jensen Goh, Walter Menke, Lauren P. Herrick, Marilyn S. Campbell, Mark G. Abel, Bradley S. Fleenor and Haley C. Bergstrom
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020034 - 30 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3794
Abstract
This study examined the effects of curcumin and fenugreek soluble fiber supplementation on the ventilatory threshold (VT) and peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O2 peak). Methods: Forty-five untrained men and women were randomly assigned to one of three supplementation groups: placebo [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of curcumin and fenugreek soluble fiber supplementation on the ventilatory threshold (VT) and peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O2 peak). Methods: Forty-five untrained men and women were randomly assigned to one of three supplementation groups: placebo (PLA, n = 13), 500 mg·day−1 CurQfen® (CUR, n = 14), or 300 mg·day−1 fenugreek soluble fiber (FEN, n = 18). Participants completed a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer to determine the VT and V ˙ O2 peak before (PRE) and after (POST) 28 days of daily supplementation. Separate, one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used to examine the between-group differences for adjusted POST VT and V ˙ O2 peak values, covaried for the respective PRE-test values. Results: The adjusted POST VT V ˙ O2 values for the CUR (mean ± SD = 1.593 ± 0.157 L·min−1) and FEN (1.597 ± 0.157 L·min−1) groups were greater than (p = 0.039 and p = 0.025, respectively) the PLA (1.465 ± 0.155 L·min−1) group, but the FEN and CUR groups were not different (p = 0.943). There were no differences in the adjusted V ˙ O2 peak values (F = 0.613, p = 0.547) among groups. Conclusion: These findings indicated that fenugreek soluble fiber was responsible for the improvements in the submaximal performance index for both CUR and FEN groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 2.0)
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9 pages, 235 KiB  
Article
25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein, Bioavailable 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, and Body Composition in a Diverse Sample of Women Collegiate Indoor Athletes
by Jennifer B. Fields, Sina Gallo, Jenna M. Worswick, Deanna R. Busteed and Margaret T. Jones
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020032 - 9 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2574
Abstract
Women athletes are at higher risk for bone diseases; yet, information on vitamin D status ((25(OH)D), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), and bioavailable 25(OH)D is limited. Collegiate athletes (n = 36) from volleyball (WVB), basketball (WBB), and track and field (WTF) were [...] Read more.
Women athletes are at higher risk for bone diseases; yet, information on vitamin D status ((25(OH)D), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), and bioavailable 25(OH)D is limited. Collegiate athletes (n = 36) from volleyball (WVB), basketball (WBB), and track and field (WTF) were measured for (25(OH)D), VDBP, and bioavailable 25(OH)D; body composition and bone mineral density (BMD); and skin pigmentation. Participants self-reported daily vitamin D intake and sun exposure. One-way analysis of variance analyzed mean differences in measures across sports. Linear regression examined relationships between 25(OH)D; VDBP; bioavailable 25(OH)D; and whole body, hip, and spine BMD. Participants’ (mean ± SD, 19.4 ± 1.4 years, 172.75 ± 8.21 cm, 70.9 ± 13.2 kg, and 22.9 ± 4.1% body fat) overall mean 25(OH)D was 70.5 ± 32.25 nmol/L, and 28% of participants were deemed inadequate and 61% below thresholds identified as sufficient for athletes. Although WBB athletes consumed higher (p = 0.007) dietary vitamin D (760.9 ± 484.2 IU/d) than WVB (342.6 ± 257.8) and WTF (402.3 ± 376.4) athletes did, there were no differences across sport in serum 25(OH)D. WVB and WTF had higher bioavailable 25(OH)D than WBB. No relationships existed between vitamin D status and body composition. Vitamin D inadequacy was identified among 1/3 of women indoor sport athletes. Consistent monitoring of vitamin D status and diet are recommended to sustain athlete health and sport performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 2.0)

Review

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31 pages, 7007 KiB  
Review
Effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on Physical Performance: Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis
by Diego A. Bonilla, Yurany Moreno, Camila Gho, Jorge L. Petro, Adrián Odriozola-Martínez and Richard B. Kreider
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6010020 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 34457
Abstract
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is considered a potent adaptogen and anti-stress agent that could have some potential to improve physical performance. This preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA)-based comprehensive systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis aimed to evaluate clinical trials [...] Read more.
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is considered a potent adaptogen and anti-stress agent that could have some potential to improve physical performance. This preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA)-based comprehensive systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis aimed to evaluate clinical trials up to 2020 from PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar databases regarding the effect of Ashwagandha supplementation on physical performance in healthy individuals. Besides implementing estimation statistics analysis, we developed Bayesian hierarchical models for a pre-specified subgroup meta-analysis on strength/power, cardiorespiratory fitness and fatigue/recovery variables. A total of 13 studies met the requirements of this systematic review, although only 12 were included in the quantitative analysis. A low-to-moderate overall risk of bias of the trials included in this study was detected. All Bayesian hierarchical models converged to a target distribution (Ȓ = 1) for both meta-analytic effect size (μ) and between-study standard deviation (τ). The meta-analytic approaches of the included studies revealed that Ashwagandha supplementation was more efficacious than placebo for improving variables related to physical performance in healthy men and female. In fact, the Bayesian models showed that future interventions might be at least in some way beneficial on the analyzed outcomes considering the 95% credible intervals for the meta-analytic effect size. Several practical applications and future directions are discussed, although more comparable studies are needed in exercise training, and athletic populations are needed to derive a more stable estimate of the true underlying effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 2.0)
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Other

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14 pages, 2061 KiB  
Case Report
Physiological, Psychological and Performance-Related Changes Following Physique Competition: A Case-Series
by Jaymes M. Longstrom, Lauren M. Colenso-Semple, Brian J. Waddell, Gianna Mastrofini, Eric T. Trexler and Bill I. Campbell
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020027 - 25 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5063
Abstract
The purpose of this case-series was to evaluate the physiological, psychological and performance-related changes that occur during the postcompetition period. Participants included three male (34.3 ± 6.8 years, 181.6 ± 8.9 cm) and four female (29.3 ± 4.9 years, 161.4 ± 6.0 cm) [...] Read more.
The purpose of this case-series was to evaluate the physiological, psychological and performance-related changes that occur during the postcompetition period. Participants included three male (34.3 ± 6.8 years, 181.6 ± 8.9 cm) and four female (29.3 ± 4.9 years, 161.4 ± 6.0 cm) natural physique athletes. Body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM); Skinfold), resting metabolic rate (RMR; indirect calorimetry), total body water (TBW; bioelectrical impedance analysis), sleep quality (PSQI; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), quality of life measures (RAND SF36), menstrual irregularities, and knee extension performance were assessed 1–2 weeks prior to competition, and 4 weeks and 8–10 weeks postcompetition. Blood hormones (free triiodothyronine; T3, free thyroxine; T4, and leptin) were assessed at 1–2 weeks prior to competition and 8–10 weeks postcompetition. Participants tracked daily macronutrient intake daily for the duration of the study. Group-level data were analyzed using exploratory, one-tailed, nonparametric statistical tests. Bodyweight, FM, bodyfat%, RMR, and blood hormones (T3, T4, and leptin) increased significantly (p < 0.05) at the group level. Relative (%Δ) increases in fat mass were associated with △RMR (τ = 0.90; p = 0.001) and △leptin (τ = 0.68; p = 0.02), and △leptin was associated with △RMR (τ = 0.59; p = 0.03). The time course for recovery appears to vary substantially between individuals potentially due to strategies implemented postcompetition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 2.0)
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