Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 3.0

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Medicine and Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 May 2024 | Viewed by 12794

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Health and Human Performance, Fight Science Lab, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33328, USA
Interests: sports supplements; human performance; skeletal muscle plasticity; sports neuroscience
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is the continuation of our Special Issues “Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance” (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/jfmk/special_issues/Sports_Nutrition_Performance) and "Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 2.0" (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/jfmk/special_issues/Sports_Nutrition_Performance_2).

I have volunteered my time to handle a Special Issue in the Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology. This issue will focus on research in the field of sports nutrition with particular emphasis on body composition and/or performance. The aim of this Special Issue is to attract papers that address the role of sports nutrition in the field of competitive athletics as well as the general population. It is clear that sports nutrition and supplementation plays a significant role vis a vis body composition and human performance. There are several supplements with robust data to support their use such as: beta-alanine, creatine, beet root, protein, caffeine, probiotics etc. Authors are invited to submit original research papers, meta-analyses, and/or systematic reviews.

Dr. Jose Antonio
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sports supplements
  • creatine
  • protein
  • body composition
  • performance
  • athlete
  • skeletal muscle

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 690 KiB  
Article
Incidence of a Multicomponent Physical Exercise Program on Body Composition in Overweight or Obese People Aged 60 Years or Older from Chile
by Yazmina Pleticosic-Ramírez, Marcos Mecías-Calvo, Víctor Arufe-Giráldez and Rubén Navarro-Patón
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020081 - 24 Apr 2024
Abstract
This research aimed to explore the changes produced in body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage (FMP), muscle mass percentage (MMP), and visceral fat percentage (VFP) in 60-year-old or over overweight or obese people after a multicomponent exercise program. This quasi-experimental study involved [...] Read more.
This research aimed to explore the changes produced in body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage (FMP), muscle mass percentage (MMP), and visceral fat percentage (VFP) in 60-year-old or over overweight or obese people after a multicomponent exercise program. This quasi-experimental study involved 70 overweight or obese older people between 60 and 86 years old (M = 73.15; SD = 5.94) who were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 35) and an experimental group (EG, n = 35). At the beginning and at the end of the intervention program, anthropometric and body composition data were collected. The results showed an increase in BMI after the intervention in the CG (p = 0.010) and a decrease in the EG (p < 0.001). The results regarding the FMP indicate a significant decrease in the EG (p < 0.001) after the intervention, as occurs with the VFP (p = 0.003). The MMP increased in the EG (p < 0.001) after the intervention program. Regarding gender, statistically significant differences were found in the MMP after the intervention (p = 0.025), with higher percentages in men in the EG. VFP decreased in both men (p = 0.005) and women (p = 0.019) in the EG. From the results obtained, we can say that a 6-month multicomponent program produces a decrease in BMI, FMP, and VFP and an increase in MMP in its participants. This type of intervention seems to produce a greater increase in muscle mass in men than in women and a decrease in VFP in both genders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 3.0)
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9 pages, 246 KiB  
Article
Blood Flow Restriction during Walking Does Not Impact Body Composition or Performance Measures in Highly Trained Runners
by Ashley A. Herda, Christopher J. Cleary, Dana Young, KathleenMae B. Rogers, Santiago E. Umana Segura, Christopher Bernard, Lisa M. Vopat and Bryan G. Vopat
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020074 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Blood flow restriction (BFR) is a commonly used training modality that has been demonstrated to enhance muscle characteristics such as size and function. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 4-week walking program with or without BFR in healthy, active [...] Read more.
Blood flow restriction (BFR) is a commonly used training modality that has been demonstrated to enhance muscle characteristics such as size and function. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 4-week walking program with or without BFR in healthy, active adults has an effect on body composition, anaerobic, and aerobic running performance. Thirty-three participants, randomized among three groups, completed the walking program, which included five sets of 2 min walking intervals with 1 min rest, with or without BFR, or 10 min walking with BFR. Assessments completed before and after the walking program included body composition, 40-yard sprints, and a VO2MAX test on a treadmill. A two-way ANOVA revealed no changes among the groups nor for any variables at any time (p > 0.05). Additionally, one main effect for time indicated the VO2 at V-slope threshold was greater following training for all groups combined (p = 0.001). The results demonstrate that low volume and intensity walking with BFR for 4 weeks did not provide a sufficient stimulus for changing body composition or performance metrics in a group of very active adults. Longer or more isolated exposure of BFR on the limbs may contribute to more pronounced adaptations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 3.0)
12 pages, 368 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Chronic Dietary Protein Manipulation on Amino Acids’ Profile and Position Sense in the Elderly Suffering from Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
by Dionysia Argyropoulou, Tzortzis Nomikos, Gerasimos Terzis, Myrto Karakosta, George Aphamis, Nickos D. Geladas and Vassilis Paschalis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020062 - 04 Apr 2024
Viewed by 463
Abstract
Dietary protein with adequate essential amino acids effectively stimulates protein synthesis and improves muscle mass. Musculoskeletal disorders in lower or upper limbs are not uncommon among patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, this study primarily examines the effects of chronic dietary [...] Read more.
Dietary protein with adequate essential amino acids effectively stimulates protein synthesis and improves muscle mass. Musculoskeletal disorders in lower or upper limbs are not uncommon among patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, this study primarily examines the effects of chronic dietary protein manipulation on amino acids’ profile and position sense in the elderly suffering from T2DM. A total of 26 individuals suffering from non-insulin-dependent T2DM (age > 55 years old) participated in a 12 week nutritional intervention. The subjects were randomly assigned and the control group received 0.8–1.0 g protein/kg/day, while the intervention group received 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg/day. Lean body mass, muscle strength, and position sense were assessed at baseline, as well as at the 6th and 12th week of the intervention. Only in the intervention group, the essential amino acids intake met the current nutritional recommendations (p < 0.05), while, by the 12th week, only the intervention group showed significant improvement in the muscle strength of knee (p < 0.05) and shoulder (p < 0.05) extension. On the contrary, in the control group, a significant decline in appendicular lean mass (p < 0.05) was observed by the 12th week. Position sense at the knee joint revealed a tendency for improvement in the intervention group by the 12th week (main effect of time p = 0.072). In the present investigation, it was revealed that the higher protein intake in the intervention group seemed to have positive effects on muscle strength and nearly positive effects on position sense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 3.0)
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13 pages, 4590 KiB  
Article
A More Comfortable Method for Hydrostatic Weighing: Head above Water at Total Lung Capacity
by Erin White, Silas Bergen, Annabelle Berggren, Lillian Brinkman, Brianna Carman, Lucas Crouse, Emma Hoffmann and Sara Twedt
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9010041 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1859
Abstract
Hydrostatic weighing (HW) requires full submersion with the lungs at residual volume (RV) which is uncomfortable. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to find a more comfortable way to complete HW. A HW system was used to complete three comparisons: comparison 1: [...] Read more.
Hydrostatic weighing (HW) requires full submersion with the lungs at residual volume (RV) which is uncomfortable. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to find a more comfortable way to complete HW. A HW system was used to complete three comparisons: comparison 1: change in head position (head above water vs. head below water (HAW vs. HBW)), comparison 2: change in lung volume (total lung capacity (TLC) vs. RV), and comparison 3: change in head and lung volume changes. Participants were separated by males (n = 64) and females (n = 58). Comparison 1: HAW resulted in higher mean percent body fat (PBF) than HBW (4.5% overall, 3.8% in males, 5.4% in females, p < 0.05). Comparison 2: TLC resulted in lower mean PBF than RV (5.1% overall, 5.3% in males, 4.8% in females, p < 0.05). Comparison 3: HAW@TLC resulted in significantly lower (1.5% lower, p = 0.003) mean PBF for males but was not significantly lower for females or overall (0.6% higher, p = 0.39, 0.6% lower, p = 0.18, respectively) compared to HBW@RV. In conclusion, keeping the head above water and taking a deep inhale makes HW a more enjoyable, and accessible experience for everyone while still producing accurate PBF results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 3.0)
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12 pages, 883 KiB  
Article
Acute Effect of L-Citrulline Supplementation on Resistance Exercise Performance and Muscle Oxygenation in Recreationally Resistance Trained Men and Women
by Adam M. Gonzalez, Yang Yang, Gerald T. Mangine, Anthony G. Pinzone, Jamie J. Ghigiarelli and Katie M. Sell
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030088 - 22 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4119
Abstract
L-citrulline serves as a nitric oxide precursor with the potential to increase blood flow and improve resistance exercise performance, yet more research is needed to examine its ergogenic potential. To examine the effect of L-citrulline supplementation on resistance exercise performance, muscle oxygenation, and [...] Read more.
L-citrulline serves as a nitric oxide precursor with the potential to increase blood flow and improve resistance exercise performance, yet more research is needed to examine its ergogenic potential. To examine the effect of L-citrulline supplementation on resistance exercise performance, muscle oxygenation, and the subjective perception of effort, energy, focus, fatigue, and muscle pump, eighteen resistance-trained men (n = 11) and women (n = 7) (21.4 ± 1.8 years; 172.3 ± 7.5 cm; 76.9 ± 10.8 kg) were randomly assigned for supplementation with 8 g of L-citrulline (CIT) or a placebo (PL) in a cross-over fashion one hour prior to testing. Participants completed an isometric mid-thigh pull test (IMTP), a ballistic bench press protocol [two sets of two repetitions at 75% 1-repetition maximum (1 RM) with maximum ballistic intent], and a strength-endurance bench press protocol [five repetition-maximum sets at 75% 1RM]. Barbell velocity and power were measured via a linear position transducer during the ballistic protocol, while the repetitions completed, volume load and muscle oxygenation were quantified during the strength-endurance protocol. Subjective measures were assessed at the baseline and immediately pre- and post-exercise. Repeated measures of the analysis of variance and Bayesian equivalents revealed no significant interactions, providing evidence favoring the null hypothesis (BF10 < 1) for IMTP (PL 497.5 ± 133.6 vs. CIT 492.5 ± 129.4 N), barbell velocity, and power, and repetitions completed (PL 36.7 ± 7.2 vs. CIT 36.9 ± 8.1 repetitions). There were also no significant interactions for muscle oxygenation parameters or subjective measures except perceived fatigue. Women reported greater fatigue across all time points compared to men (~1.88 au, p = 0.045, BF10 = 0.2). The results indicate that a single 8 g dose of L-citrulline did not enhance isometric force production, muscle endurance, or muscle oxygenation parameters during the protocol implemented in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 3.0)
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9 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Two Weeks of Oral PeakATP® Supplementation on Performance during a Three-Minute All out Test
by Trevor J. Dufner, Jessica M. Moon, David H. Fukuda and Adam J. Wells
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8020042 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Exogenous ATP has been shown to increase total weight lifted during resistance training interventions and attenuate fatigue during repeated Wingate assessments. However, the influence of exogenous ATP on single bout maximal effort performance has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study [...] Read more.
Exogenous ATP has been shown to increase total weight lifted during resistance training interventions and attenuate fatigue during repeated Wingate assessments. However, the influence of exogenous ATP on single bout maximal effort performance has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PeakATP® supplementation on performance during a 3-min all-out test (3MT). Twenty adults (22.3 ± 4.4 years, 169.9 ± 9.5 cm, 78.7 ± 14.6 kg) completed two identical 3MT protocols in a double-blind, counter-balanced, crossover design. Participants were randomized to either PeakATP® (400 mg·day−1) or placebo (PLA) treatments and consumed their assigned supplement for 14 days and ingested an acute dose 30 min before each 3MT. A 14-day wash-out period was completed between each supplementation period and subsequent 3MT. Peak power, time to peak power, work above end power, end power, and fatigue index were assessed during each 3MT. Dependent t-tests and Hedge’s g effect sizes were used to assess differences between treatments. No significant differences were observed between treatments for 3MT performance (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that 3MT performance was not significantly impacted by PeakATP® supplementation. This may be due in part to the continuous nature of the 3MT as disodium ATP has been shown to be beneficial for repeated bout activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 3.0)
6 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
Weight Loss and Competition Weight in Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) Athletes
by Corey A. Peacock, Duncan French, Gabriel J. Sanders, Anthony Ricci, Charles Stull and Jose Antonio
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7040115 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3856
Abstract
Previous research has demonstrated that professional mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes employ a variety of weight manipulation strategies to compete at given weight classes. Although there is much literature demonstrating weight manipulation methods, minimal research exists analyzing how much weight MMA athletes lose [...] Read more.
Previous research has demonstrated that professional mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes employ a variety of weight manipulation strategies to compete at given weight classes. Although there is much literature demonstrating weight manipulation methods, minimal research exists analyzing how much weight MMA athletes lose prior to the official weigh-in. Moreover, there is minimal research examining how much weight professional MMA athletes gain between the official weigh-in and competition. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to analyze weight loss/regain in professional MMA athletes. Data collected from 616 professional MMA athletes (31.1 ± 4.0 yrs.; 177.1 ± 4.7 cm) competing for the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) between 2020 and 2022 were used for the study. The athlete’s weight was obtained 72 h, 48 h, and 24 h prior to the official weigh-in, at the official weigh-in, and prior to competition. Random effects analysis was utilized to compare weight at a variety of time points between different weight classes. All statistics were analyzed, and significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. There is a significant (p ≤ 0.05) difference between weight classes and time points in professional MMA. MMA athletes decrease body weight significantly prior to the official weigh-in. MMA athletes increase body weight significantly between official weigh-in and competition. Based on these data, it appears that MMA athletes average a weight loss of nearly 7% within 72 h prior to the official weigh-in. The data also suggest that athletes gain nearly 10% of total weight between the official weigh-in and competition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 3.0)
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