Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Medicine and Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020) | Viewed by 75263

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Health and Human Performance, Nova Southeastern University, Davie, FL 32004, USA
Interests: sports supplements; human performance; skeletal muscle plasticity; sports neuroscience
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I have volunteered my time to handle a Special Issue in the Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology. This issue will focus on research in the field of sports nutrition with particular emphasis on body composition and/or performance. The aim of this Special Issue is to attract papers that address the role of sports nutrition in the field of competitive athletics as well as the general population. It is clear that sports nutrition and supplementation plays a significant role vis a vis body composition and human performance. There are several supplements with robust data to support their use such as: beta-alanine, creatine, beet root, protein, caffeine, probiotics etc. Authors are invited to submit original research papers, meta-analyses, and/or systematic reviews.

Prof. Dr. Jose Antonio
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sports Supplements
  • Creatine
  • Protein
  • Body Composition
  • Performance
  • Athlete
  • Skeletal Muscle

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1123 KiB  
Article
Intermittent Energy Restriction Attenuates the Loss of Fat Free Mass in Resistance Trained Individuals. A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Bill I. Campbell, Danielle Aguilar, Lauren M. Colenso-Semple, Kevin Hartke, Abby R. Fleming, Carl D. Fox, Jaymes M. Longstrom, Gavin E. Rogers, David B. Mathas, Vickie Wong, Sarah Ford and John Gorman
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010019 - 8 Mar 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 40176
Abstract
There is a lack of research into how lean, resistance trained (RT) individuals respond to intermittent energy restricted diets. Therefore, we investigated body composition changes in RT-individuals during continuous energy restriction or intermittent restriction. A total of 27 males and females (25 ± [...] Read more.
There is a lack of research into how lean, resistance trained (RT) individuals respond to intermittent energy restricted diets. Therefore, we investigated body composition changes in RT-individuals during continuous energy restriction or intermittent restriction. A total of 27 males and females (25 ± 6.1 years; 169 ± 9.4 cm; 80 ± 15.6 kg) were randomized to a ~25% caloric restricted diet Refeed (RF; n = 13) or Continuous group (CN; n = 14) in conjunction with 4-days/week resistance training for 7-weeks. RF implemented two consecutive days of elevated carbohydrate (CHO) intake, followed by 5-days of caloric restriction each week. CN adhered to a continuous 7-week caloric restriction. Body mass (BM), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), dry fat-free mass (dFFM), and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were assessed pre/post-diet. Both groups significantly reduced BM (RF: baseline = 76.4 ± 15.6 kg, post-diet = 73.2 ± 13.8 kg, Δ3.2 kg; CN: baseline = 83.1 ± 15.4 kg, post-diet = 79.5 ± 15 kg, Δ3.6 kg) and FM (RF: baseline = 16.3 ± 4 kg, post-diet = 13.5 ± 3.6 kg, Δ2.8 kg; CN: baseline = 16.7 ± 4.5 kg, post-diet = 14.4 ± 4.9 kg, Δ2.3 kg) with no differences between groups. FFM (RF: baseline = 60.1 ± 13.8 kg, post-diet = 59.7 ± 13.0 kg, 0.4 kg; CN: baseline = 66.4 ± 15.2 kg, post-diet = 65.1 ± 15.2 kg, Δ1.3 kg p = 0.006), dFFM (RF: baseline = 18.7 ± 5.0 kg, post-diet = 18.5 ± 4.5 kg, Δ0.2 kg; CN: baseline =21.9 ± 5.7 kg, post-diet = 20.0 ± 5.7 kg, Δ1.9 kg), and RMR (RF: baseline = 1703 ± 294, post-diet = 1665 ± 270, Δ38 kcals; CN: baseline = 1867 ± 342, post-diet = 1789 ± 409, Δ78 kcals) were better maintained in the RF group. A 2-day carbohydrate refeed preserves FFM, dryFFM, and RMR during energy restriction compared to continuous energy restriction in RT-individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
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11 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
Female Collegiate Dancers Body Composition, Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake Over Two Academic Years: A Longitudinal Analysis
by Ann F. Brown, Samantha J. Brooks, Sawyer R. Smith, Joelle M. Stephens, Alexandria K. Lotstein, Chad M. Skiles, Christopher J. Alfiero and Melanie J. Meenan
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010017 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3171
Abstract
Collegiate dancers face unique challenges to maintain a lean aesthetic, optimal diet, and a high-performance level due to the various stressors in college. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body composition (BC) and diet over two years. Participants ( [...] Read more.
Collegiate dancers face unique challenges to maintain a lean aesthetic, optimal diet, and a high-performance level due to the various stressors in college. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body composition (BC) and diet over two years. Participants (N = 17, 19.6 ± 1.6 years) completed two laboratory sessions per semester. Sessions included height and weight, BC, dietary intake, and a health history questionnaire. Regardless of rigorous dance training and variations in the academic calendar, no significant changes in BC or diet were observed within semesters of over two years. BMI was normal (24.9 ± 4.1 kg/m2) with fat mass exceeding 30% at all timepoints. Fat mass was negatively correlated with carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake (g/kg/day; r = −0.291, p = 0.004; r = −0.372, p < 0.0001; r = −0.398, p < 0.0001; respectively). Energy intake was within the recommended daily allowance (2040 ± 710 kcal/day), however may be insufficient for an active dance population. Protein (1.1 ± 0.5 g/kg), carbohydrate (3.7 ± 1.6 g/kg), calcium (835 ± 405 mg/day), iron (17 ± 15 mg/day), and potassium (1628 ± 1736 mg/day) intake fell below recommendations for an active population. Alterations in dance training and the demands of the academic calendar may be contributing to suboptimal dietary intake and BC in female collegiate dancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
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11 pages, 412 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Asparagus Racemosus Supplementation Plus 8 Weeks of Resistance Training on Muscular Strength and Endurance
by John Paul V. Anders, Joshua L. Keller, Cory M. Smith, Ethan C. Hill, Terry J. Housh, Richard J. Schmidt and Glen O. Johnson
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010004 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4498
Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated that ayurvedic ingredients exhibit ergogenic (performance enhancing) properties, however, no previous studies have examined the ergogenic potential of Asparagus racemosus. The purpose of the present study was to examine the ergogenic efficacy of supplementation with 500 mg·d−1 [...] Read more.
Previous studies have demonstrated that ayurvedic ingredients exhibit ergogenic (performance enhancing) properties, however, no previous studies have examined the ergogenic potential of Asparagus racemosus. The purpose of the present study was to examine the ergogenic efficacy of supplementation with 500 mg·d−1 of A. racemosus during bench press training. Eighteen recreationally trained men (mean ± SD; age = 20.4 ± 0.5 yrs; height = 179.7 ± 1.5 cm; weight = 84.7 ± 5.7 kg) were randomly assigned either 500 mg·d−1 of A. racemosus (n = 10) or placebo (n = 8). An overlapping sample of 10 participants were used to determine test-retest reliability. Pre- and post-training testing included bench press with one repetition maximum (1RM) and repetitions to failure at 70% of pre-training 1RM. The participants performed two sets of bench press to failure three times a week for eight weeks. Independent t-tests, Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), and regression analyses were used to analyze the dependent variables. The results demonstrated greater mean percentage (14.3 ± 7.7% vs. 7.8 ± 4.5%; p = 0.048) and individual (80% vs. 50%) increases in 1RM, mean (17.5 ± 2.2 repetitions vs. 15.2 ± 2.2 repetitions; p = 0.044) and individual (80% vs. 38%) increases in repetitions to failure, and a greater rate of increase in training loads for the Asparagus racemosus group than the placebo group. In conjunction with bench press training, supplementation with A. racemosus provided ergogenic benefits compared to placebo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
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13 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Improvement in Muscular Strength in HIV-Infected Individuals Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy
by Takshita Sookan, Ayesha Motala, Michael Ormsbee, Jose Antonio, Nombulelo Magula, Umesh Lalloo and Andrew McKune
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030066 - 14 Sep 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3578
Abstract
Purpose: This study investigated (1) the effect of a progressive resistance training (PRT) program and whey protein intake on maximal muscle strength in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) alterations in maximal strength 12 wks after the cessation [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study investigated (1) the effect of a progressive resistance training (PRT) program and whey protein intake on maximal muscle strength in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) alterations in maximal strength 12 wks after the cessation of PRT with continued supplementation. Methods: Sixty HIV-infected individuals were recruited. Whole body PRT was performed twice weekly for 12 wks. Participants received, in a double-blind placebo controlled manner, either 20 g whey or placebo (maltodextrin) before and immediately after each session. Both PRT groups continued to take either whey protein or placebo for a further 12 wks following the exercise intervention to examine the effects of detraining. Results: Forty participants (mean and standard deviation (SD) age 40.8 (±7.7) years, weight 70.8 (±16) kg, body mass index (BMI) 30.9 (±7.2) kg m2); whey protein /PRT (n = 13), placebo/PRT (n = 17), and a control group (n = 10) completed the study. A significant main effect for time occurred for the bench press (p = 0.02), the squat (p < 0.0001), the deadlift (p = 0.001) and the shoulder press (p = 0.02) one-repetition maximum (1RM) in the intervention groups. Conclusion: The PRT program increased maximal strength regardless of whey protein intake. The detraining period demonstrated minimal strength loss, which is beneficial to this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
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7 pages, 1044 KiB  
Article
The Effects of an Energy Drink on Psychomotor Vigilance in Trained Individuals
by Jose Antonio, Madaline Kenyon, Christopher Horn, Lia Jiannine, Cassandra Carson, Anya Ellerbroek, Justin Roberts, Corey Peacock and Jaime Tartar
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030047 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 7176
Abstract
The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) measures one’s behavioral alertness. It is a visual test that involves measuring the speed at which a person reacts to visual stimuli over a fixed time frame (e.g., 5 min). The purpose of this study was to assess [...] Read more.
The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) measures one’s behavioral alertness. It is a visual test that involves measuring the speed at which a person reacts to visual stimuli over a fixed time frame (e.g., 5 min). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an energy drink on psychomotor vigilance as well as a simple measure of muscular endurance (i.e., push-ups). A total of 20 exercise-trained men (n = 11) and women (n = 9) (mean ± SD: age 32 ± 7 years; height 169 ± 10 cm; weight; 74.5 ± 14.5 kg; percent body fat 20.3 ± 6.2%; years of training 14 ± 9; daily caffeine intake 463 ± 510 mg) volunteered for this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. In a randomized counterbalanced order, they consumed either the energy drink (ED) (product: BANG®, Weston Florida) or a similar tasting placebo drink (PL). In the second visit after a 1-week washout period, they consumed the alternate drink. A full 30 min post-consumption, they performed the following tests in this order: a 5-min psychomotor vigilance test, three sets of push-ups, followed once more by a 5-min psychomotor vigilance test. Reaction time was recorded. For the psychomotor vigilance test, lapses, false starts and efficiency score are also assessed. There were no differences between groups for the number of push-ups that were performed or the number of false starts during the psychomotor vigilance test. However, the ED treatment resulted in a significantly lower (i.e., faster) psychomotor vigilance mean reaction time compared to the PL (p = 0.0220) (ED 473.8 ± 42.0 milliseconds, PL 482.4 ± 54.0 milliseconds). There was a trend for the ED to lower the number of lapses (i.e., reaction time > 500 milliseconds) (p = 0.0608). The acute consumption of a commercially available ED produced a significant improvement in psychomotor vigilance in exercise-trained men and women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
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Review

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8 pages, 684 KiB  
Review
Changes in Fat Mass Following Creatine Supplementation and Resistance Training in Adults ≥50 Years of Age: A Meta-Analysis
by Scott C. Forbes, Darren G. Candow, Joel R. Krentz, Michael D. Roberts and Kaelin C. Young
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030062 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 12378
Abstract
Aging is associated with an increase in fat mass which increases the risk for disease, morbidity and premature mortality. Creatine supplementation in combination with resistance training has been shown to increase lean tissue mass in adults ≥50 years of age; however, the synergetic [...] Read more.
Aging is associated with an increase in fat mass which increases the risk for disease, morbidity and premature mortality. Creatine supplementation in combination with resistance training has been shown to increase lean tissue mass in adults ≥50 years of age; however, the synergetic effects of creatine and resistance training on fat mass in this population are unclear. Creatine metabolism plays an important role in adipose tissue bioenergetics and energy expenditure. Thus, the combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training may decrease fat mass more than resistance training alone. The purpose of this review is two-fold: (1) to perform meta-analyses on studies involving creatine supplementation during resistance training on fat mass in adults ≥50 years of age, and (2) to discuss possible mechanistic actions of creatine on reducing fat mass. Nineteen studies were included in our meta-analysis with 609 participants. Results from the meta-analyses showed that adults ≥50 years of age who supplemented with creatine during resistance training experienced a greater reduction in body fat percentage (0.55%, p = 0.04) compared to those on placebo during resistance training. Despite no statistical difference (p = 0.13), adults supplementing with creatine lost ~0.5 kg more fat mass compared to those on placebo. Interestingly, there are studies which have linked mechanism(s) explaining how creatine may influence fat mass, and these data are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
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Other

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4 pages, 211 KiB  
Comment
Contrary to the Conclusions Stated in the Paper, Only Dry Fat-Free Mass Was Different between Groups upon Reanalysis. Comment on: “Intermittent Energy Restriction Attenuates the Loss of Fat-Free Mass in Resistance Trained Individuals. A Randomized Controlled Trial”
by Jackson Peos, Andrew W. Brown, Colby J. Vorland, David B. Allison and Amanda Sainsbury
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040085 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3670
Abstract
Campbell and colleagues recently published a randomised controlled trial investigating the effects of diets involving intermittent energy restriction versus continuous energy restriction on changes in body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in resistance-trained adults[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
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