Current Trends and Future Directions in Prosthetic and Implant Dentistry in the Digital Era

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Dentistry, Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2022) | Viewed by 28601

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Guest Editor
School of Dentistry, Department of Neurosciences, Section of Prosthodontics and Digital Dentistry, University of Padova, 35122 Padova, Italy
Interests: digital dentistry; dental materials; prosthodontics; CAD-CAM technology; intraoral scanner; additive manufacturing; subtractive manufacturing; implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis; facial scanners
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Guest Editor
1. Department of Oral Surgery, University Clinic of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany
2. Department of Neuroscience, School of Dentistry, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Interests: dental implants; bone regeneration; scaffolds; biomaterials; bone tissue engineering; 3D printing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Advancements in digital technologies are reshaping the world of dentistry, from prosthodontics to implant dentistry. Intraoral scanners, facial scanners, 3D printers, and milling machines have revolutionized the clinical approach and the operative workflow in daily practice. However, digital dentistry brings several challenges to clinicians due to the rapid evolution of the new technologies and the lack of evidence-based guidelines for their correct use.

The aim of this Special Issue is to cover the latest advances in the development and application of digital technologies in prosthetic and implant dentistry. We wish to provide both clinicians and the researchers with a comprehensive and up-to-date source of information on current trends, limitations and potential future applications of digital technologies in daily clinical practice.

This Special Issue calls for high-quality research papers, reviews, case series, and case reports focusing on contemporary digital technologies used in prosthetic and implant dentistry. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • 3D printing
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Subtractive manufacturing
  • Milling technologies
  • CAD/CAM materials
  • Digital implant planning
  • Digital workflow
  • Facial scanners
  • Computer-guided implant surgery
  • Intraoral scanner technology
  • Digital design and fabrication of dental prostheses

Dr. Adolfo Di Fiore
Dr. Giulia Brunello
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • 3D printing
  • CAD/CAM dentistry
  • digital dentistry
  • digital denture
  • digital impression
  • computer-guided implant surgery
  • dental implants

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 153 KiB  
Editorial
Think Digital—The New Era in the Dentistry Field
by Adolfo Di Fiore
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(14), 4073; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11144073 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
In recent years the dental field has evolved incredibly due to the introduction of digital technology [...] Full article

Research

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11 pages, 1732 KiB  
Article
Association between Peri-Implant Soft Tissue Health and Different Prosthetic Emergence Angles in Esthetic Areas: Digital Evaluation after 3 Years’ Function
by Diego Lops, Eugenio Romeo, Stefano Calza, Antonino Palazzolo, Lorenzo Viviani, Stefano Salgarello, Barbara Buffoli and Magda Mensi
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(21), 6243; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11216243 - 23 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3782
Abstract
Background: The aim of the present retrospective study was to assess peri-implant soft tissue health for implants restored with different prosthetic emergence profile angles. Methods: Patients were treated with implants supporting fixed dentures and were followed for 3 years. Buccal emergence angle (EA) [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the present retrospective study was to assess peri-implant soft tissue health for implants restored with different prosthetic emergence profile angles. Methods: Patients were treated with implants supporting fixed dentures and were followed for 3 years. Buccal emergence angle (EA) measured at 3 years of follow-up visits (t1) were calculated for two different groups: Group 1 (153 implants) for restorations with angle between implant axis and prosthetic emergence angle from ≥30°, and Group 2 (67 implants) for those with angle ≤30°, respectively. Image J software was used for the measurements. Moreover, peri-implant soft tissue parameters such as pocket probing depth (PPD), plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) were assessed, respectively. Results: A total of 57 patients were included in the analysis and a total of 220 implants were examined. Mean (±SD) EA in Groups 1 and 2 was 46.4 ± 12.2 and 24.5 ± 4.7 degrees, respectively. After 3 years of follow-up, a PPD difference of 0.062 mm (CI95% −0.041 mm; 0.164 mm) was calculated between the two groups and was not statistically significant (p = 0.238). Similar results were found for PI (OR = 0.78, CI95% 0.31; 1.98, p = 0.599). Furthermore, GI scores of 2 and 3 were found for nine implants (5.9%) in Group 1, and for five implants in Group 2 (7.5%). A non-significant difference (p = 0.76) was found. Conclusions: Peri-implant soft-tissue health does not seem to be influenced by EA itself, when a proper emergence profile is provided for implant-supported reconstructions in anterior areas. Full article
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13 pages, 7673 KiB  
Article
Intraoral Scanning as an Alternative to Evaluate the Accuracy of Dental Implant Placements in Partially Edentate Situations: A Prospective Clinical Case Series
by Jan van Hooft, Guido Kielenstijn, Jeroen Liebregts, Frank Baan, Gert Meijer, Jan D’haese, Ewald Bronkhorst and Luc Verhamme
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(19), 5876; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11195876 - 05 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
(1) Background: For years, Cone-Beam Computed Tomography’s (CBCT) have been the golden standard to evaluate implant placement accuracy. By validating Intraoral Scans (IOS) as an alternative to determine implant placement accuracy, a second CBCT could be avoided. (2) Methods: Using dynamic guided implant [...] Read more.
(1) Background: For years, Cone-Beam Computed Tomography’s (CBCT) have been the golden standard to evaluate implant placement accuracy. By validating Intraoral Scans (IOS) as an alternative to determine implant placement accuracy, a second CBCT could be avoided. (2) Methods: Using dynamic guided implant surgery, 23 implants were placed in 16 partially edentate patients. Preoperatively, both CBCT and IOS (Trios® 3) were obtained and subsequently imported into DTX Studio™ planning software to determine the ideal implant location. A CBCT scan and an IOS including scan abutments were acquired immediately after placement. Both postoperative CBCT and postoperative IOS were used to compare the achieved implant position with the planned implant position and were projected and analyzed using the Implant Position Orthogonal Projection (IPOP) method. (3) Results: Mean differences between the CBCT and IOS methods on the mesio–distal plane were 0.09 mm (p = 0.419) at the tip, 0.01 mm (p = 0.910) at the shoulder, −0.55° (p = 0.273) in angulation, and 0.2 mm (p = 0.280) in implant depth. Mean differences between both methods on the bucco-lingual/bucco-palatal plane were 0.25 mm (p = 0.000) at the tip, 0.12 mm (p = 0.011) at the shoulder, −0.81° (p = 0.002) in angulation, and 0.17 mm (p = 0.372) in implant depth. A statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test. All mesiodistal deviations between the two methods showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). Buccolingual/buccopalatal deviations showed no significant difference in implant depth deviation. However, significant differences were found at the tip, shoulder, and angulation (p < 0.05). These values are of minimal clinical significance. (4) Conclusions: This study supports the hypothesis that a postoperative IOS is a valid alternative for determining implant placement accuracy. Full article
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12 pages, 2778 KiB  
Article
Effect of Scanned Area and Operator on the Accuracy of Dentate Arch Scans with a Single Implant
by Vinicius Rizzo Marques, Gülce Çakmak, Hakan Yilmaz, Samir Abou-Ayash, Mustafa Borga Donmez and Burak Yilmaz
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(14), 4125; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11144125 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
Studies have shown the effect of the operator and scanned areas on the accuracy of single implant scans. However, the knowledge on the scan accuracy of the remaining dental arch during single implant scans, which may affect the occlusion, is limited. The aim [...] Read more.
Studies have shown the effect of the operator and scanned areas on the accuracy of single implant scans. However, the knowledge on the scan accuracy of the remaining dental arch during single implant scans, which may affect the occlusion, is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of scanned areas and the operator on the scan accuracy of a dentate arch while scanning a single implant. A dentate model with an anterior implant was digitized with a laboratory scanner (reference scan). Three operators with similar experience performed 10 complete- and 10 partial-arch scans (left 2nd molar to right canine) with an intraoral scanner (TRIOS 3), and these scans were superimposed over the reference. The accuracy was analyzed at 22 points in complete-arch and at 16 points in partial-arch scans on 2nd molars and incisors. Data were evaluated with 2-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (α = 0.05). The trueness of the total scanned area was higher in partial- than in complete-arch scans (p < 0.001). The trueness and precision of the scans were higher in the anterior site compared with the posterior in complete- (trueness: p ≤ 0.022, precision: p ≤ 0.003) and partial-arch (trueness: p ≤ 0.016, precision: p ≤ 0.016) scans of each operator and when the operator scan data were pooled. The complete-arch scan’s precision was not influenced by the operator (p ≥ 0.029), whereas the partial-arch scans of operator 1 and 2 were significantly different (p = 0.036). Trueness was higher in partial- compared with complete-arch scans, but their precision was similar. Accuracy was higher in the anterior site regardless of the scan being a partial- or a complete-arch. The operator’s effect on the accuracy of partial- and complete-arch scans was small. Full article
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13 pages, 1706 KiB  
Article
Update on the Accuracy of Conventional and Digital Full-Arch Impressions of Partially Edentulous and Fully Dentate Jaws in Young and Elderly Subjects: A Clinical Trial
by Maximiliane Amelie Schlenz, Julian Maximilian Stillersfeld, Bernd Wöstmann and Alexander Schmidt
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(13), 3723; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11133723 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1919
Abstract
To update the available literature on the accuracy of conventional and digital full-arch impressions using the latest hardware and software, participants of different age groups and dental status were investigated. An established reference aid-based method was applied to analyze five intraoral scanners (IOS) [...] Read more.
To update the available literature on the accuracy of conventional and digital full-arch impressions using the latest hardware and software, participants of different age groups and dental status were investigated. An established reference aid-based method was applied to analyze five intraoral scanners (IOS) CS 3800 (CS), iTero Element 5D (IT), Medit i700 (ME), Primescan (PS), and Trios 4 (TR), and one conventional polyether impression (CVI). Forty-five participants were classified into three groups: Age 27.3 ± 2.7 years fully dentate, 60.6 ± 8.1 years fully dentate, and 65.7 ± 6.2 years partially edentulous. The IOS datasets were investigated using three-dimensional software (GOM Inspect), and plaster casts of CVI were analyzed using a co-ordinate measurement machine. The deviations of the reference aid to impressions were determined. No significant differences in age between the three groups were observed by the IOS in terms of trueness (p < 0.05). These findings were confirmed for precision, except for TR. In contrast to CS (mean ± standard deviation 98.9 ± 62.1 µm) and IT (89.0 ± 91.0 µm), TR (58.3 ± 66.8 µm), ME (57.9 ± 66.7 µm), and PS (55.5 ± 48.7 µm) did not show significant differences than those of CVI (34.8 ± 29.6 µm) in overall view. Within the study, the latest IOSs still showed limitations in the accuracy of full-arch impressions. However, they seemed to be unaffected by age and fully dentate or partially edentulous dentitions with small gaps. Full article
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16 pages, 4184 KiB  
Article
Accuracy of DICOM–DICOM vs. DICOM–STL Protocols in Computer-Guided Surgery: A Human Clinical Study
by Gianmaria D’Addazio, Edit Xhajanka, Tonino Traini, Manlio Santilli, Imena Rexhepi, Giovanna Murmura, Sergio Caputi and Bruna Sinjari
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2336; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092336 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1911
Abstract
Guided implant surgery can enhance implant placement positioning, increasing predictability and decreasing postoperative complications., To date, the best protocol to be used for template realization is still unknown. Thus, the aim herein was to clinically compare the accuracy of two different protocols. A [...] Read more.
Guided implant surgery can enhance implant placement positioning, increasing predictability and decreasing postoperative complications., To date, the best protocol to be used for template realization is still unknown. Thus, the aim herein was to clinically compare the accuracy of two different protocols. A total of 48 implants were divided into Group A (24 implants), in which a stereolithographic template was realized using the digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data arrived from cone beam computer tomographies (CBCTs) (patients and prothesis alone), and Group B (24 implant), in which a standard intraoral stent with a standardized extraoral support was used for patients’ intraoral impressions and CBCT. The preimplant virtual planning and postsurgery CBCT images of both groups were superimposed, and differences were registered in terms of average deviations at the platform (a) and implant apex (b), mean depth change (c), and angular deviation (d). The results demonstrated that there were no statistically significant differences between groups (p = 0.76) for the parameters measured. However, statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between maxillary and mandible implant surgery, as the latter showed greater accuracy. Additional studies are necessary to further reduce discrepancies between planning and surgical procedures. Full article
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9 pages, 1456 KiB  
Article
Marginal Bone Maintenance and Different Prosthetic Emergence Angles: A 3-Year Retrospective Study
by Diego Lops, Eugenio Romeo, Michele Stocchero, Antonino Palazzolo, Barbara Manfredi and Luca Sbricoli
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(7), 2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11072014 - 04 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2346
Abstract
The aim of the present retrospective study was to assess marginal bone changes around implants restored with different prosthetic emergence profile angles. Patients were treated with implants supporting fixed dentures and were followed for 3 years. Marginal bone levels (MBL) measured at the [...] Read more.
The aim of the present retrospective study was to assess marginal bone changes around implants restored with different prosthetic emergence profile angles. Patients were treated with implants supporting fixed dentures and were followed for 3 years. Marginal bone levels (MBL) measured at the prosthesis installation (t0) and at the 3-year follow-up visit (t1) were considered. The MBL change from t0 to t1 was investigated. Two groups were considered: Group 1 for restorations with an angle between implant axis and prosthetic emergence profile >30°, and Group 2 for those with an angle ≤30°, respectively. Moreover, peri-implant soft tissue parameters, such as the modified bleeding index (MBI) and plaque index (PI) were assessed. Seventy-four patients were included in the analysis and a total of 312 implants were examined. The mean EA in groups 1 and 2 was 45 ± 4 and 22 ± 7 degrees, respectively. The mean marginal bone level change (MBL change) of 0.06 ± 0.09 mm and 0.06 ± 0.10 mm were, respectively, in groups 1 and 2. The difference in the MBL change between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.969). The MBL change does not seem to be influenced by the emergence angle for implants with a stable internal conical connection and platform-switching of the abutment diameter. Full article
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11 pages, 6782 KiB  
Article
Accuracy of a Computer-Aided Dynamic Navigation System in the Placement of Zygomatic Dental Implants: An In Vitro Study
by Juan Ramón González Rueda, Irene García Ávila, Víctor Manuel de Paz Hermoso, Elena Riad Deglow, Álvaro Zubizarreta-Macho, Jesús Pato Mourelo, Javier Montero Martín and Sofía Hernández Montero
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(5), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11051436 - 05 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the accuracy of zygomatic dental implant (ZI) placement carried out using a dynamic navigation system. Materials and Methods: Forty (40) ZIs were randomly distributed into one of two study groups: (A) [...] Read more.
The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the accuracy of zygomatic dental implant (ZI) placement carried out using a dynamic navigation system. Materials and Methods: Forty (40) ZIs were randomly distributed into one of two study groups: (A) ZI placement via a computer-aided dynamic navigation system (n = 20) (navigation implant (NI)); and (B) ZI placement using a conventional free-hand technique (n = 20) (free-hand implant (FHI)). A cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of the existing situation was performed preoperatively to plan the surgical approach for the computer-aided study group. Four zygomatic dental implants were placed in anatomically based polyurethane models (n = 10) manufactured by stereolithography, and a postoperative CBCT scan was performed. Subsequently, the preoperative planning and postoperative CBCT scans were added to dental implant software to analyze the coronal entry point, apical end point, and angular deviations. Results were analyzed using the Student’s t-test. Results: The results showed statistically significant differences in the apical end-point deviations between FHI and NI (p = 0.0018); however, no statistically significant differences were shown in the coronal entry point (p = 0.2617) or in the angular deviations (p = 0.3132). Furthermore, ZIs placed in the posterior region showed more deviations than the anterior region at the coronal entry point, apical end point, and angular level. Conclusions: The conventional free-hand technique enabled more accurate placement of ZIs than the computer-assisted surgical technique. In addition, placement of ZIs in the anterior region was more accurate than that in the posterior region. Full article
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16 pages, 1416 KiB  
Article
A Retrospective Digital Analysis of Contour Changing after Tooth Extraction with or without Using Less Traumatic Surgical Procedures
by Giovanni Battista Menchini-Fabris, Paolo Toti, Roberto Crespi, Giovanni Crespi, Saverio Cosola and Ugo Covani
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11040922 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2644
Abstract
Background: The present retrospective analysis aimed to compare two different single tooth extraction surgical approaches in both premolar and molar areas: less traumatic magneto-electrical versus conventional tooth extraction in minimizing the edentulous ridge volume loss. Methods: In the present retrospective control trial, 48 [...] Read more.
Background: The present retrospective analysis aimed to compare two different single tooth extraction surgical approaches in both premolar and molar areas: less traumatic magneto-electrical versus conventional tooth extraction in minimizing the edentulous ridge volume loss. Methods: In the present retrospective control trial, 48 patients who underwent one-tooth extraction, were allocated either to control (28 sites treated with conventional tooth extraction procedures) or test group (20 subjects treated with less traumatic tooth extraction procedures by tooth sectioning and magnetoelectric roots subluxation). Intraoperatively (during tooth extraction surgery just after the subsequent filling of the alveolar socket with the sterile fast re-absorbable gelatin sponge), and then four months later, contours of the sockets were acquired through a laser intra-oral scanner. The digitally superimposed models were converted to dicom (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) format first, then volumetric and area evaluations were performed with a DentaScan tool package. Non-parametric tests were applied with a level of significance set at p < 0.01. Results: significant reductions of anatomical features were observed four months later in all the groups (p-values < 0.001) with volume losses leading to a final alveolar ridge volume of 0.87 ± 0.34 cm3 for atraumatic extractions and 0.66 ± 0.19 cm3 for conventional extractions. No significant differences were registered for outcomes related to the basal surface variables. When just molar tooth were considered, the outcomes relating to volume loss between baseline and four months (ΔV) and its percentage (ΔV%) showed a better behavior in the less traumatic procedure (ΔV = −0.30 ± 0.10 cm3 and ΔV% = −22.3 ± 8.4%) compared to the conventional extractions (ΔV = −0.59 ± 0.10 cm3 and ΔV% = −44.3 ± 5.8%) with p-values < 0.0001. Conclusions: at four months, the less traumatic tooth extraction procedures by tooth sectioning and magnetoelectric root subluxation seemed to be able to better preserve the volume of the alveolar crest (reduction close to 22% with less traumatic extraction in molar sites) when compared to subjects treated with the conventional tooth extraction techniques. Full article
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6 pages, 516 KiB  
Article
Trueness of Intraoral Scanners in Implant-Supported Rehabilitations: An In Vitro Analysis on the Effect of Operators’ Experience and Implant Number
by Paolo Pesce, Francesco Bagnasco, Nicolò Pancini, Marco Colombo, Luigi Canullo, Francesco Pera, Eriberto Bressan, Marco Annunziata and Maria Menini
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(24), 5917; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10245917 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2318
Abstract
(1) Background: Intraoral scanners (IOS) are widely used in prosthodontics. However, a good trueness is mandatory to achieve optimal clinical results. The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare two IOS considering the operator’s experience and different implant clinical scenarios. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Intraoral scanners (IOS) are widely used in prosthodontics. However, a good trueness is mandatory to achieve optimal clinical results. The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare two IOS considering the operator’s experience and different implant clinical scenarios. (2) Methods: Two IOS (IT—Itero, Align Technology; and OP—Opera MC, Opera System, Monaco) were compared simulating three different clinical scenarios: single implant, two implants, and full-arch rehabilitation. Ten scans were taken for each configuration by two different operators (one expert, one inexperienced); influence of operator experience and the type of scanner used was investigated. (3) Results: Trueness of the scans differed between the experienced and non-experienced operator and this difference was statistically significant in all the three scenarios (p = 0.000–0.001, 0.037). A significant difference was present between the scanners (p = 0.000), in the two-implant and full-arch scenarios (p = 0.00). (4) Conclusions: Experience of the operator significantly affect trueness of IT and OP scanners. A statistically significant difference was present among IOS in the two-implant and full-arch scenarios. Full article
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Review

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14 pages, 636 KiB  
Review
Peri-Implant Bone Loss and Overload: A Systematic Review Focusing on Occlusal Analysis through Digital and Analogic Methods
by Adolfo Di Fiore, Mattia Montagner, Stefano Sivolella, Edoardo Stellini, Burak Yilmaz and Giulia Brunello
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(16), 4812; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11164812 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2540
Abstract
The present review aimed to assess the possible relationship between occlusal overload and peri-implant bone loss. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, the MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane databases were searched from January 1985 up to and including December 2021. The search strategy applied [...] Read more.
The present review aimed to assess the possible relationship between occlusal overload and peri-implant bone loss. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, the MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane databases were searched from January 1985 up to and including December 2021. The search strategy applied was: (dental OR oral) AND implants AND (overload OR excessive load OR occlusal wear) AND (bone loss OR peri-implantitis OR failure). Clinical studies that reported quantitative analysis of occlusal loads through digital contacts and/or occlusal wear were included. The studies were screened for eligibility by two independent reviewers. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. In total, 492 studies were identified in the search during the initial screening. Of those, 84 were subjected to full-text evaluation, and 7 fulfilled the inclusion criteria (4 cohort studies, 2 cross-sectional, and 1 case-control). Only one study used a digital device to assess excessive occlusal forces. Four out of seven studies reported a positive correlation between the overload and the crestal bone loss. All of the included studies had moderate to serious overall risk of bias, according to the ROBINS-I tool. In conclusion, the reported data relating the occlusal analysis to the peri-implant bone level seem to reveal an association, which must be further investigated using new digital tools that can help to standardize the methodology. Full article
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10 pages, 550 KiB  
Review
Effect of Toothpaste on the Surface Roughness of the Resin-Contained CAD/CAM Dental Materials: A Systematic Review
by Adolfo Di Fiore, Edoardo Stellini, Michele Basilicata, Patrizio Bollero and Carlo Monaco
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(3), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11030767 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2873
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this review is to describe the possible effect of toothbrushing on surface roughness of resin-contained CAD/CAM materials. Methods: Systematic literature search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2000 and February 2020 has been conducted, which evaluated the [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this review is to describe the possible effect of toothbrushing on surface roughness of resin-contained CAD/CAM materials. Methods: Systematic literature search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2000 and February 2020 has been conducted, which evaluated the effect of brushing on surface roughness of resin-contained CAD/CAM dental materials. The research was conducted in Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Science Direct using a combination of the following MeSH/Emtree terms: “brushing”, “resin-based”, “dental”, “CAD/CAM”, and “surface roughness”. Results: A total of 249 articles were found in the search during initial screening. Fifty-five articles were selected for the full-text evaluation after the steps of reading of abstract/title and remotion of duplicate. Only six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The Cohen’s Kappa agreement test showed an index of 0.91 for full-text. Discussion: Four of five selected articles identified an increase of surface roughness on resin-contained CAD/CAM materials after toothbrushing. Although all the articles examined used different toothpastes with no homogeneous relative dentine abrasivity (RDA) and cycles of brushing, the findings are about the same. The possible reason is attributable to the compositions of the resin-contained CAD/CAM materials. Conclusions: The surface roughness of most resin-contained CAD/CAM materials was affected by artificial toothbrushing. Correct knowledge of the composition of the dental material and toothpastes is fundamental to avoid an increase of surface roughness on prosthetic rehabilitation. Full article
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