Novel Insights into COVID-19-Associated Complications and Sequelae

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 August 2024 | Viewed by 7229

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28922 Alcorcón, Spain
Interests: infectious diseases; HIV/AIDS; COVID-19; neglected and emergent diseases

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28922 Alcorcón, Spain
Interests: COVID-19; cardiovascular risk; dyslipidemia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound effect on daily life. Although it was mainly an acute disease, sequelae and complications of the disease were recognized soon in the pandemic course. Indeed, some of these complications were included in the initial term “post-acute sequelae of COVID-19” now recognized as long-COVID.

Acute COVID-19 has been thoroughly studied, but the pathophysiology and prognosis of the short and long-term sequelae are uncertain. A better understanding of these conditions, including characterizing the illness and the impact of vaccination would be of the highest importance. Unmet clinical needs still exist such as risk factors, early prediction of patients who will develop severe COVID-19 or sequelae, treatment options, and preventive measures.

This Special Issue aims to promote a better understanding of the short and long-term sequelae and complications of COVID-19, including long-COVID conditions, from several points of view. We would like to invite original research, short communications, review, and viewpoints. We look forward to your valuable scientific contributions.

Prof. Dr. Maria Velasco-Arribas
Prof. Dr. Carlos Guijarro Herraiz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • complication
  • sequelae
  • long COVID
  • diagnosis
  • treatment
  • prognosis
  • vaccination
  • epidemiology

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2475 KiB  
Article
Tackling Post-COVID-19 Rehabilitation Challenges: A Pilot Clinical Trial Investigating the Role of Robotic-Assisted Hand Rehabilitation
by Ana Cisnal, Gonzalo Alonso-Linaje, Juan Carlos Fraile, Javier Pérez-Turiel, Pablo Álvarez and Socorro Martinez
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(6), 1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13061543 - 7 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Background: Prolonged hospitalization in severe COVID-19 cases can lead to substantial muscle loss and functional deterioration. While rehabilitation is essential, conventional approaches face capacity challenges. Therefore, evaluating the effectiveness of robotic-assisted rehabilitation for patients with post-COVID-19 fatigue syndrome to enhance both motor function [...] Read more.
Background: Prolonged hospitalization in severe COVID-19 cases can lead to substantial muscle loss and functional deterioration. While rehabilitation is essential, conventional approaches face capacity challenges. Therefore, evaluating the effectiveness of robotic-assisted rehabilitation for patients with post-COVID-19 fatigue syndrome to enhance both motor function and overall recovery holds paramount significance. Our objective is to assess the effectiveness of rehabilitation in post-COVID-19 patients with upper extremity impairment through the utilization of a hand exoskeleton-based robotic system. Methods: A total of 13 participants experiencing acute or limited functional or strength impairment in an upper extremity due to COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. A structured intervention consisted of 45 min therapy sessions, conducted four times per week over a six-week period, utilizing a hand exoskeleton. The research employed standardized health assessments, motion analysis, and semi-structured interviews for pre-intervention and follow-up evaluations. Paired sample t-tests were employed to statistically analyze the outcomes. Results: The outcomes showed a reduction in overall dependence levels across participants, positive changes in various quality of life-related measurements, and an average increase of 60.4 ± 25.7% and 28.7 ± 11.2% for passive and active flexion, respectively. Conclusions: Our data suggest that hand exoskeleton-based robotic systems hold promise to optimize the rehabilitation outcomes following severe COVID-19. Trial registration: ID NCT06137716 at ClinicalTrials.gov. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Insights into COVID-19-Associated Complications and Sequelae)
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10 pages, 853 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 in a Dutch Nursing Home: A Longitudinal Retrospective Care-Home-Level Case Study on Infection Rate, Survival Rate, and Daily Functioning
by Danielle de Vries, Darwin Röhlinger, Irma Everink, Bjorn Winkens, Joyce Heffels, Adam Gordon and Jos Schols
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13010149 - 27 Dec 2023
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Abstract
During the pandemic, nursing homes in the Netherlands were heavily affected by COVID-19. This study assesses the impact of COVID-19 on infection rate, survival rate, and daily functioning over the course of two years among residents of a nursing home in the Netherlands [...] Read more.
During the pandemic, nursing homes in the Netherlands were heavily affected by COVID-19. This study assesses the impact of COVID-19 on infection rate, survival rate, and daily functioning over the course of two years among residents of a nursing home in the Netherlands that was amongst the first nursing homes to be affected by the pandemic. This retrospective study followed 70 residents during a two-year period, starting in March 2020. Data were collected on baseline characteristics of participants and the onset, duration, and sequelae of COVID-19 infections. Primary outcomes were mortality and infection rate. The secondary outcome was daily functioning using the Barthel Index at intervals of six months. Within two years, 44 (62.9%) residents were diagnosed with COVID-19. During this study, 72.7% (n = 32) of the COVID-positive residents died, of which 22 deaths were related to the COVID-19 infection. Overall mortality was 60% (n = 42), while COVID-related mortality was 31.4% (n = 22). COVID-19 and multimorbidity (>3 morbidities) were independent risk factors for mortality. Barthel Index scores showed no significant difference in daily functioning. Overall, a high COVID-19 infection rate was seen and was the most common cause of death. COVID-19 did not affect functional status over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Insights into COVID-19-Associated Complications and Sequelae)
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12 pages, 1508 KiB  
Article
Novel Risks of Unfavorable Corticosteroid Response in Patients with Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19 Identified Using Artificial Intelligence-Assisted Analysis of Chest Radiographs
by Min Hyung Kim, Hyun Joo Shin, Jaewoong Kim, Sunhee Jo, Eun-Kyung Kim, Yoon Soo Park and Taeyoung Kyong
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(18), 5852; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12185852 - 8 Sep 2023
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Abstract
The prediction of corticosteroid responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is crucial in clinical practice, and exploring the role of artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted analysis of chest radiographs (CXR) is warranted. This retrospective case–control study involving mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients treated with corticosteroids was [...] Read more.
The prediction of corticosteroid responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is crucial in clinical practice, and exploring the role of artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted analysis of chest radiographs (CXR) is warranted. This retrospective case–control study involving mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients treated with corticosteroids was conducted from 4 September 2021, to 30 August 2022. The primary endpoint of the study was corticosteroid responsiveness, defined as the advancement of two or more of the eight-categories-ordinal scale. Serial abnormality scores for consolidation and pleural effusion on CXR were obtained using a commercial AI-based software based on days from the onset of symptoms. Amongst the 258 participants included in the analysis, 147 (57%) were male. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that high pleural effusion score at 6–9 days from onset of symptoms (adjusted odds ratio of (aOR): 1.022, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.003–1.042, p = 0.020) and consolidation scores up to 9 days from onset of symptoms (0–2 days: aOR: 1.025, 95% CI: 1.006–1.045, p = 0.010; 3–5 days: aOR: 1.03 95% CI: 1.011–1.051, p = 0.002; 6–9 days: aOR; 1.052, 95% CI: 1.015–1.089, p = 0.005) were associated with an unfavorable corticosteroid response. AI-generated scores could help intervene in the use of corticosteroids in COVID-19 patients who would not benefit from them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Insights into COVID-19-Associated Complications and Sequelae)
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12 pages, 2300 KiB  
Article
Utility of Serum Ferritin for Predicting Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Patients with Long COVID
by Yukichika Yamamoto, Yuki Otsuka, Kazuki Tokumasu, Naruhiko Sunada, Yasuhiro Nakano, Hiroyuki Honda, Yasue Sakurada, Toru Hasegawa, Hideharu Hagiya and Fumio Otsuka
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(14), 4737; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12144737 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4063
Abstract
Objective: The most common symptom of post-acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is fatigue, and it potentially leads to myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS); however, a specific prognosticator is lacking. We aimed to elucidate the clinical characteristics of patients who developed ME/CFS after COVID-19. [...] Read more.
Objective: The most common symptom of post-acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is fatigue, and it potentially leads to myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS); however, a specific prognosticator is lacking. We aimed to elucidate the clinical characteristics of patients who developed ME/CFS after COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, patients who visited Okayama University Hospital for long COVID between February 2021 and March 2022 were investigated. Results: Of the 234 patients, 139 (59.4%) had fatigue symptoms. Fifty patients with fatigue symptoms (21.4%) met the criteria for ME/CFS (ME/CFS group), while the other 89 patients did not (non-ME/CFS group); 95 patients had no fatigue complaints (no-fatigue group). Although the patients’ backgrounds were not significantly different between the three groups, the ME/CFS group presented the highest scores on the self-rating symptom scales, including the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS), EuroQol, and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Furthermore, serum ferritin levels, which were correlated with FAS and SDS scores, were significantly higher in the ME/CFS group (193.0 μg/L, interquartile range (IQR): 58.8–353.8) than in the non-ME/CFS group (98.2 μg/L, 40.4–251.5) and no-fatigue group (86.7 μg/L, 37.5–209.0), and a high serum ferritin level was prominent in female patients. Endocrine workup further showed that the ME/CFS group had higher thyrotropin levels but lower growth hormone levels in serum and that insulin-like growth factor-I levels were inversely correlated with ferritin levels (R = −0.328, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Serum ferritin level is a possible predictor of the development of ME/CFS related to long COVID, especially in female patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Insights into COVID-19-Associated Complications and Sequelae)
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