Type 2 Diabetes Research

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Endocrinology & Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 May 2024 | Viewed by 6788

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Faculty of Health, Social Care and Medicine, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, UK
2. Department of Women's and Children's Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
3. Paediatric Department, Southport and Ormskirk NHS Trust, Ormskirk, UK
Interests: type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes; technology; health inequalities

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I have the honour of being the Guest Editor of a new Special Issue for the Journal of Clinical Medicine, titled “Type 2 Diabetes Research”.

The incidence of Type 2 diabetes is rising globally. Type 2 diabetes is also increasingly prevalent in children and young people who are affected by obesity. This Special Issue will bring together exciting papers focused on research on type 2 diabetes. Manuscripts that describe research on type 2 diabetes screening, management, structured education and the psychological impacts and their complications, including original research, reviews, or mini-reviews, will be welcome. The roles of new treatment, technologies and prevention are also of interest.

Prof. Dr. Sze May Ng
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • type 2 diabetes
  • screening
  • prevention
  • management
  • education
  • psychological impact
  • obesity
  • diabetes complications
  • diabetes treatment
  • continuous glucose monitoring

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1192 KiB  
Article
The Association between Self-Care Activities and Depression in Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Survey Study
by Sawsan M. Kurdi, Ahmad Alamer, Aya Albaggal, Marwa Alsuwaiket, Fawaz M. Alotaibi, Ibrahim M. Asiri, Dhfer M. Alshayban, Mohammed M. Alsultan, Bashayer Alshehail, Bassem A. Almalki, Dania Hussein, Mansour M. Alotaibi and Osamah M. Alfayez
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020419 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 708
Abstract
This study examined the level of adherence to self-care behaviors among individuals with type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia and its connection with depression and demographic factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among diabetes patients using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to measure [...] Read more.
This study examined the level of adherence to self-care behaviors among individuals with type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia and its connection with depression and demographic factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among diabetes patients using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to measure depression and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) to evaluate diabetes self-care activities. Among the 252 participants who completed the survey, 43.2% were older than 55 and 59% were men. The ordinal regression model showed an association between the PHQ-9 and SDSCA scores with an OR of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.71 to 0.96, p = 0.013). The PHQ-9 score was significantly associated with blood sugar monitoring (OR: 0.90 [95% CI: 0.82 to 0.99, p = 0.003]), exercise (OR: 0.88 [95% CI: 0.79 to 0.98, p = 0.002]), and diet (OR: 0.94 [95% CI: 0.85 to 1.03, p = 0.045]). Of all the diabetes-related factors, only a history of hospitalization and receiving diabetes education were found to be associated with improved self-care behaviors. In conclusion, a negative association was found between PHQ-9 scores and the SDSCA mean score and most daily diabetic self-care behavior components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Type 2 Diabetes Research)
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16 pages, 902 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Crucial Parameters in Diabesity-Related Liver Fibrosis: A Preliminary Study
by Szymon Suwała, Aleksandra Białczyk, Kinga Koperska, Alicja Rajewska, Magdalena Krintus and Roman Junik
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7760; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247760 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 755
Abstract
Diabetes and obesity have been recognized as confirmed risk factors for the occurrence of liver fibrosis. Despite the long-standing acknowledgment of “diabesity”, the simultaneous existence of diabetes and obesity, scholarly literature has shown limited attention to this topic. The aim of this pilot [...] Read more.
Diabetes and obesity have been recognized as confirmed risk factors for the occurrence of liver fibrosis. Despite the long-standing acknowledgment of “diabesity”, the simultaneous existence of diabetes and obesity, scholarly literature has shown limited attention to this topic. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the prevalence of liver fibrosis among individuals with diabetes (specifically those who are obese) in order to identify the key factors associated with hepatofibrosis and determine the most important associations and differences between patients with and without liver fibrosis. The research included a total of 164 participants (48.17% had comorbid obesity). Liver elastography (Fibroscan) was performed on these individuals in addition to laboratory tests. Liver fibrosis was found in 34.76% of type 2 diabetes patients; male gender almost doubled the risk of hepatofibrosis (RR 1.81) and diabesity nearly tripled this risk (RR 2.81; however, in degree III of obesity, the risk was elevated to 3.65 times higher). Anisocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or elevated liver enzymes raised the incidence of liver fibrosis by 1.78 to 2.47 times. In these individuals, liver stiffness was negatively correlated with MCV, platelet count, and albumin concentration; GGTP activity and HbA1c percentage were positively correlated. The regression analysis results suggest that the concentration of albumin and the activity of GGTP are likely to have a substantial influence on the future management of liver fibrosis in patients with diabesity. The findings of this study can serve as the basis for subsequent investigations and actions focused on identifying potential therapeutic and diagnostic avenues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Type 2 Diabetes Research)
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15 pages, 1625 KiB  
Article
Combined Inositols, α-Lactalbumin, Gymnema Sylvestre and Zinc Improve the Lipid Metabolic Profile of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Alessandro Nani, Federico Bertuzzi, Elena Meneghini, Elena Mion and Basilio Pintaudi
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7650; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247650 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 824
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by high blood glucose levels and lipid alterations. Besides pharmacological treatment, lifestyle modifications and nutraceuticals can be used to manage glucose and lipid profiles, which is crucial for preventing, or avoiding, serious consequences associated with the [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by high blood glucose levels and lipid alterations. Besides pharmacological treatment, lifestyle modifications and nutraceuticals can be used to manage glucose and lipid profiles, which is crucial for preventing, or avoiding, serious consequences associated with the condition. This randomized controlled clinical trial on 75 patients with T2DM evaluated the effects of a combination of myo-inositol and d-chiro-inositol (40:1), α-lactalbumin, Gymnema sylvestre, and zinc on glucose and lipid profile. The intention-to-treat analysis displayed no significant differences in glucose parameters between the groups; however, the study group displayed reduced levels of total cholesterol (p = 0.01) and LDL (p = 0.03) after 3 months of supplementation. A subgroup analysis involving patients who did not modify their antidiabetic therapy, after 6 months displayed improved levels of total cholesterol (p = 0.03) and LDL (p = 0.04) in the study group versus placebo, along with a greater body weight reduction (p = 0.03) after 3 months. Furthermore, within the study group, levels of HDL (p = 0.03) and triglycerides (p = 0.04) improved after 3 months. These findings support supplementation with myo-inositol and d-chiro-inositol (40:1), α-lactalbumin, Gymnema sylvestre, and zinc as an adjuvant and safe strategy to manage the lipid profiles of patients with T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Type 2 Diabetes Research)
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11 pages, 1138 KiB  
Article
Diabetes-Related Mortality in a Developing Country: An Exploration of Tertiary Hospital Data
by Yanjmaa Sankhuu, Odgarig Altaisaikhan, Munkh-Od Battsogt, Oyuntugs Byambasukh and Altaisaikhan Khasag
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(20), 6687; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12206687 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 749
Abstract
(1) Background: Given the growing global diabetes crisis, this study examined the causes of mortality in diabetic patients at a Mongolian tertiary care hospital. (2) Between 2017 and 2021, data from 100 individuals with diabetes (53% male, mean age 58.5 years, duration of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Given the growing global diabetes crisis, this study examined the causes of mortality in diabetic patients at a Mongolian tertiary care hospital. (2) Between 2017 and 2021, data from 100 individuals with diabetes (53% male, mean age 58.5 years, duration of diabetes, 9.6 years, HbA1c level, 9.7%, 11.1% type 1 diabetes) were reviewed. (3) Results: The predominant cause of mortality was sepsis, accounting for 65.0% of cases and emerging as a contributing factor in 75.0% of instances. Renal failure constituted the second leading cause of death, accounting for 19.0% of mortalities. Other contributing factors included chronic liver disease (6.0%) and ARDS (3.0%). Regarding sepsis, the individuals affected were relatively younger (57.5 ± 11.2 vs. 61.7 ± 11.2, p = 0.988), with a slightly higher prevalence among female patients (77.4%) and those with T1DM (81.8%), though these differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Patients with sepsis exhibited lower BMI values (26.7 ± 4.1 vs. 28.5 ± 6.2, p = 0.014) and poorer glycemic control (9.8 ± 3.1 vs. 9.6 ± 5.1, p = 0.008); (4) Conclusions: This hospital-based data analysis in Mongolia highlights sepsis as the primary cause of mortality among diabetes patients in tertiary hospitals regardless of age, gender, or diabetes type while also indicating a potential association between a lower BMI, poor glycemic control, smoking, and the risk of sepsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Type 2 Diabetes Research)
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Review

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13 pages, 754 KiB  
Review
From Innate Immunity to Metabolic Disorder: A Review of the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Diabetes Mellitus
by Iris Maria Nițulescu, George Ciulei, Angela Cozma, Lucia Maria Procopciuc and Olga Hilda Orășan
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(18), 6022; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12186022 - 17 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1911
Abstract
The role of the NLRP3 inflammasome is pivotal in the pathophysiology and progression of diabetes mellitus (DM), encompassing both type 1 (T1D), or type 2 (T2D). As part of the innate immune system, NLRP3 is also responsible for the chronic inflammation triggered by [...] Read more.
The role of the NLRP3 inflammasome is pivotal in the pathophysiology and progression of diabetes mellitus (DM), encompassing both type 1 (T1D), or type 2 (T2D). As part of the innate immune system, NLRP3 is also responsible for the chronic inflammation triggered by hyperglycemia. In both conditions, NLRP3 facilitates the release of interleukin-1β and interleukin-18. For T1D, NLRP3 perpetuates the autoimmune cascade, leading to the destruction of pancreatic islet cells. In T2D, its activation is associated with the presence of insulin resistance. NLRP3 activation is also instrumental for the presence of numerous complications associated with DM, microvascular and macrovascular. A considerable number of anti-diabetic drugs have demonstrated the ability to inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Type 2 Diabetes Research)
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Other

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10 pages, 1093 KiB  
Protocol
Therapeutic Exercise Intervention Using Vibration Platforms for Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study
by Juan Fabregat-Fernández, Vicente Rodríguez-Pérez, Rocío Llamas-Ramos, Ana Felicitas López-Rodríguez, Jesús Seco-Calvo and Inés Llamas-Ramos
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(20), 6518; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12206518 - 14 Oct 2023
Viewed by 989
Abstract
Diabetes generates a great impact on society, as well as a concern for health professionals due to its high and increasing prevalence; there are several studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of vibration platforms and their benefits at a physiological level. The aim of [...] Read more.
Diabetes generates a great impact on society, as well as a concern for health professionals due to its high and increasing prevalence; there are several studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of vibration platforms and their benefits at a physiological level. The aim of this study will be to analyze the decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin and glycemia levels after the use of whole-body vibration platforms and the possible inclusion of this therapeutic option within the usual treatments. This is a double-blind, randomized controlled trial with parallel group design in a 1:1 ratio. The sample will be composed of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in in the Plasencia area (Cáceres, Extremadura). Participants will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control group using a randomization list and will follow the inclusion criteria: type 2 diabetics between 50 and 60 years of age and not taking diabetes medication. All participants will undergo a determination of glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, lipid profile, weight and height, and different functional tests such as Time Up and Go, 10 Meters Walk Test, and 5 Sit To Stand. The experimental group will perform a whole-body vibration intervention on an oscillating platform for 12 weeks with a weekly frequency of three nonconsecutive days and a duration of 12 min. The exercises will consist of 60 s of work and 60 s with rest. The control group will carry out their normal life insisting on the importance of glycemic controls before and after their daily physical exercise. This study has been registered at clinical.trial.org, ID: NCT 05968222. Whole-body vibration platforms have demonstrated their effectiveness in different pathologies such as stroke, fibromyalgia, sclerosis multiple, or Parkinson’s. For that reason, an improvement in glycemic and lipid values and body composition are expected in people with diabetes after a whole-body vibration intervention for 12 weeks’ duration. In addition, whole-body vibration platforms could be postulated as an alternative to usual treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Type 2 Diabetes Research)
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