New Possibilities for the Treatment of Dyslipidemias

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Cardiovascular Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2023) | Viewed by 3487

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: cardiovascular diseases; preventive; cardiology; coronary heart disease; acute coronary syndrome

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a broad spectrum of new developments concerning possibilities for treatment of dyslipidemias, particularly in the last several years. The aim of this Special Issue is to try to focus on those substances that have a chance to be implemented in clinical practice as well as some dietary approaches and nutraceuticals that might be beneficial in treating dyslipidemias and preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Particularly interesting are the available data concerning the possible adverse effects of new substances that are proposed as novel treatment possibilities for dyslipidemias. New biomarkers might also be helpful in making decisions about dyslipidemia treatment, but they require solid and proven data for their clinical use. The articles in this Special Issue are intended to help to implement novel methods for everyday clinical approaches to diagnostics and treatment of different dyslipidemias in order to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which is the killer number one not only in developed countries, as it used to be, but around the world.

Prof. Dr. Zeljko Reiner
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • dyslipidemias
  • atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
  • diagnostics and treatment
  • preventive
  • dyslipoproteinemia
  • hypercholesterolemia
  • hypolipoproteinemias
  • hyperlipidemias

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3210 KiB  
Article
National Trends in the Use of State-Reimbursed Lipid-Lowering Medications in Latvia (2012–2021)
by Arturs Praskilevics, Inga Urtane and Gustavs Latkovskis
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6390; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196390 - 06 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Background. We aimed to estimate the trends in dispensing rate and the spectrum of all state-funded lipid-lowering medications (LLMs) in Latvia over a decade. Methods. Using data from the National Health Service of the Republic of Latvia, we retrospectively analyzed all dispensed LLM-containing [...] Read more.
Background. We aimed to estimate the trends in dispensing rate and the spectrum of all state-funded lipid-lowering medications (LLMs) in Latvia over a decade. Methods. Using data from the National Health Service of the Republic of Latvia, we retrospectively analyzed all dispensed LLM-containing drug units in a ten-year period from 2012 to 2021. Results. In Latvia, 318.2 million oral and 994 subcutaneous units of LLMs were dispensed over a decade. Statins were the most dispensed LLMs (94.5%), and their use doubled from 19.7 to 43.5 million units. The proportion of high-intensity statins increased from 31.3% to 45.2%. The dispensing rate of ezetimibe increased from 184.7 thousand to 4.8 million. The share of fixed-dose statin combinations with ezetimibe grew from 0.2% to 10.0% among all statins and from 22.2% to 90.9% among all ezetimibe units. Statin use for primary and secondary prevention increased from 7.0 to 19.9 million and from 12.8 to 23.6 million units, respectively. Conclusion. The dispensing rate of statins doubled, and the use of ezetimibe increased more than 25 times in Latvia over a decade. The proportion of high-intensity statins increased from one third to almost half of all statins. Fixed-dose statin combinations with ezetimibe became frequently used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Possibilities for the Treatment of Dyslipidemias)
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14 pages, 541 KiB  
Article
Genetic Characteristics of Latvian Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia: The First Analysis from Genome-Wide Sequencing
by Gustavs Latkovskis, Raimonds Rescenko-Krums, Georgijs Nesterovics, Monta Briviba, Vita Saripo, Dainus Gilis, Elizabete Terauda, Ruta Meiere, Gunda Skudrina, Andrejs Erglis, Joana Rita Chora, Mafalda Bourbon and Janis Klovins
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(15), 5160; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12155160 - 07 Aug 2023
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Abstract
Background: There is limited data on the genetic characteristics of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in Latvia. We aim to describe monogenic variants in patients from the Latvian Registry of FH (LRFH). Methods: Whole genome sequencing with 30× coverage was performed in unrelated [...] Read more.
Background: There is limited data on the genetic characteristics of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in Latvia. We aim to describe monogenic variants in patients from the Latvian Registry of FH (LRFH). Methods: Whole genome sequencing with 30× coverage was performed in unrelated index cases from the LRFH and the Genome Database of Latvian Population. LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, LDLRAP1, ABCG5, ABCG8, LIPA, LPA, CYP27A1, and APOE genes were analyzed. Only variants annotated as pathogenic (P) or likely pathogenic (LP) using the FH Variant Curation Expert Panel guidelines for LDLR and adaptations for APOB and PCSK9 were reported. Results: Among 163 patients, the mean highest documented LDL-cholesterol level was 7.47 ± 1.60 mmol/L, and 79.1% of patients had LDL-cholesterol ≥6.50 mmol/L. A total of 15 P/LP variants were found in 34 patients (diagnostic yield: 20.9%): 14 in the LDLR gene and 1 in the APOB gene. Additionally, 24, 54, and 13 VUS were detected in LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9, respectively. No P/LP variants were identified in the other tested genes. Conclusions: Despite the high clinical likelihood of FH, confirmed P/LP variants were detected in only 20.9% of patients in the Latvian cohort when assessed with genome-wide next generation sequencing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Possibilities for the Treatment of Dyslipidemias)
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Review

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20 pages, 738 KiB  
Review
Present and Future of Dyslipidaemia Treatment—A Review
by Iveta Merćep, Andro Vujević, Dominik Strikić, Ivana Radman, Ivan Pećin and Željko Reiner
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(18), 5839; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12185839 - 08 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1238
Abstract
One of the greatest burdens on the healthcare systems of modern civilization is cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, the medical community is looking for ways to reduce the incidence of CVDs. Simple lifestyle changes from an unhealthy to a healthy lifestyle are the cornerstone [...] Read more.
One of the greatest burdens on the healthcare systems of modern civilization is cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, the medical community is looking for ways to reduce the incidence of CVDs. Simple lifestyle changes from an unhealthy to a healthy lifestyle are the cornerstone of prevention, but other risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also being currently targeted, most notably dyslipidaemia. It is well known that lowering serum lipid levels, and in particular lowering elevated LDL-cholesterol, leads to a reduction in major cardiovascular events. Although the focus to date has been on LDL-cholesterol levels and lowering them with statin therapy, this is often not enough because of increased concentrations of other lipoprotein particles in the serum and residual cardiovascular risk. Since lowering LDL-cholesterol levels is successful in most cases, there has been a recent focus on lowering residual cardiovascular risk. In recent years, new therapeutic options have emerged that target triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, lipoprotein (a) and apolipoproteins C and B. The effects of these drugs on serious adverse cardiovascular events are not yet known, but recent studies with some of these drugs have shown significant results in lowering total lipid levels. The aim of this review is to present the current therapeutic options for the treatment of dyslipidaemia and to describe the newly approved drugs as well as the drugs that are still in development. Although at this stage we cannot say with certainty whether these agents will be approved and widely used, it is safe to say that our views on the treatment of dyslipidaemia are certainly changing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Possibilities for the Treatment of Dyslipidemias)
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