Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO): Clinical Challenges and Opportunities

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Pulmonology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 November 2024 | Viewed by 3552

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Engineering and Medical Technology, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata 950-3198, Japan
Interests: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); cardiopulmonary bypass; diabetes; insulin resistance; metabolism; hypertension; inflammation; cardiac function; cardiovascular disease; blood pressure

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has gained popularity in various clinical emergencies and intensive care settings as a rescue tool for severe circulatory and/or respiratory failure. This proven rescue therapy is being increasingly used, but its further development and application remain challenging. The use of ECMO has entered a new phase during the COVID-19 pandemic. Managing ECMO is challenging due to the risks and possibilities faced by patients.

In this Special Issue, we plan to collect information on important ECMO-related complications, including, but not limited to, cardiovascular–pulmonary disease-related acute organ support and chronic support, as well as the publication of articles and reviews on emerging challenges and new strategies for further communication.

Dr. Yutaka Fujii
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
  • clinical emergencies
  • intensive care
  • respiratory failure
  • COVID-19
  • cardiovascular–pulmonary disease
  • organ support
  • challenges
  • strategies
  • complications
  • acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  • cardiopulmonary bypass
  • cardiac function
  • basic research

Published Papers (3 papers)

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15 pages, 1664 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Patients with Severe ARDS on VV ECMO Treated with Inhaled NO: A Retrospective Observational Study
by Stefan Muenster, Jennifer Nadal, Jens-Christian Schewe, Heidi Ehrentraut, Stefan Kreyer, Christian Putensen and Stefan Felix Ehrentraut
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(6), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13061555 - 8 Mar 2024
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Abstract
(1) Background: This retrospective study focused on severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients treated with veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and who inhaled nitric oxide (NO) for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and/or right ventricular failure (RV failure). (2) Methods: [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This retrospective study focused on severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients treated with veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and who inhaled nitric oxide (NO) for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and/or right ventricular failure (RV failure). (2) Methods: Out of 662 ECMO-supported patients, 366 received VV ECMO, including 48 who inhaled NO. We examined the NO’s indications, dosing, duration, and the ability to lower PAH. We compared patients with and without inhaled NO in terms of mechanical ventilation duration, ECMO weaning, organ dysfunction, in-hospital mortality, and survival. (3) Results: Patients received 14.5 ± 5.5 ppm NO for 3 days with only one-third experiencing decreased pulmonary arterial pressure. They spent more time on VV ECMO, had a higher ECMO weaning failure frequency, and elevated severity scores (SAPS II and TIPS). A Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed reduced survival in the NO group. Multiple variable logistic regression indicated a twofold increased risk of death for ARDS patients on VV ECMO with NO. We observed no increase in continuous renal replacement therapy. (4) Conclusions: This study suggests that persistent PAH and/or RV failure is associated with poorer outcomes in severe ARDS patients on VV-ECMO, with an inhaled NO responder rate of only 30%, and it does not impact acute kidney failure rates. Full article
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6 pages, 170 KiB  
Brief Report
A Survey to Quantify the Number and Structure of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Retrieval Programs in the United States
by Mircea R. Mihu, Laura V. Swant, Robert S. Schoaps, Caroline Johnson and Aly El Banayosy
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(6), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13061725 - 17 Mar 2024
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Abstract
(1) Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) represents a potentially lifesaving support for respiratory and/or circulatory failure but its availability is limited to larger medical centers. A well-organized regional ECMO center with remote cannulation and retrieval ability can offer this intervention to patients [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) represents a potentially lifesaving support for respiratory and/or circulatory failure but its availability is limited to larger medical centers. A well-organized regional ECMO center with remote cannulation and retrieval ability can offer this intervention to patients treated at hospitals without ECMO. Information regarding the number and structure of ECMO retrieval programs in the United States is limited and there are no data regarding the size and structure of existing programs and which physician specialists perform cannulations and provide management. (2) Methods: We created a survey of 12 questions that was sent out to all adult US ECMO programs registered in the ELSO database. The data for the study were collected through an online survey instrument that was developed in Survey Monkey (Monkey Headquarters, Portland, OR). (3) Results: Approximately half of the centers that received the survey responded: 136 out of 274 (49.6%). Sixty-three centers (46%) have an ECMO retrieval program; 58 of these offer both veno-arterial (V-A) and veno-venous (V-V) ECMO, while 5 programs offer V-V ECMO rescue only. Thirty-three (52%) centers perform less than 10 ECMO retrievals per year, and only five (8%) hospitals can perform more than 50 ECMO rescues per year. Cardiothoracic surgeons perform the majority of the ECMO cannulations during retrievals in 30 programs (48%), followed by intensivists in eight (13%) programs and cardiologists in three (5%) centers. (4) Conclusions: Many ECMO centers offer ECMO retrievals; however, only a minority of the programs perform a large number of rescues per year. These cannulations are primarily performed by cardiothoracic surgeons. Full article
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14 pages, 1916 KiB  
Systematic Review
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Pulmonary Embolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Jonathan Jia En Boey, Ujwal Dhundi, Ryan Ruiyang Ling, John Keong Chiew, Nicole Chui-Jiet Fong, Ying Chen, Lukas Hobohm, Priya Nair, Roberto Lorusso, Graeme MacLaren and Kollengode Ramanathan
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13010064 - 22 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Background: The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for high-risk pulmonary embolism (HRPE) with haemodynamic instability or profound cardiogenic shock has been reported. Guidelines currently support the use of ECMO only in patients with cardiac arrest or circulatory collapse and in conjunction with [...] Read more.
Background: The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for high-risk pulmonary embolism (HRPE) with haemodynamic instability or profound cardiogenic shock has been reported. Guidelines currently support the use of ECMO only in patients with cardiac arrest or circulatory collapse and in conjunction with other curative therapies. We aimed to characterise the mortality of adults with HRPE treated with ECMO, identify factors associated with mortality, and compare different adjunct curative therapies. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, searching four international databases from their inception until 25 June 2023 for studies reporting on more than five patients receiving ECMO for HRPE. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. A subgroup analysis investigating the outcomes with curative treatment for HRPE was also performed. The intra-study risk of bias and the certainty of evidence were also assessed. This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022297518). Results: A total of 39 observational studies involving 6409 patients receiving ECMO for HRPE were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled mortality was 42.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.2% to 48.7%, moderate certainty). Patients treated with ECMO and catheter-directed therapy (28.6%) had significantly lower mortality (p < 0.0001) compared to those treated with ECMO and systemic thrombolysis (57.0%). Cardiac arrest prior to ECMO initiation (regression coefficient [B]: 1.77, 95%-CI: 0.29 to 3.25, p = 0.018) and pre-ECMO heart rate (B: −0.076, 95%-CI: −0.12 to 0.035, p = 0.0003) were significantly associated with mortality. The pooled risk ratio when comparing mortality between patients on ECMO and those not on ECMO was 1.51 (95%-CI: 1.07 to 2.14, p < 0.01) in favour of ECMO. The pooled mortality was 55.2% (95%-CI: 47.7% to 62.6%), using trim-and-fill analysis to account for the significant publication bias. Conclusions: More than 50% of patients receiving ECMO for HRPE survive. While outcomes may vary based on the curative therapy used, early ECMO should be considered as a stabilising measure when treating patients with HRPE. Patients treated concurrently with systemic thrombolysis have higher mortality than those receiving ECMO alone or with other curative therapies, particularly catheter-directed therapies. Further studies are required to explore ECMO vs. non-ECMO therapies in view of currently heterogenous datasets. Full article
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