Sleep Disorders: Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Neurology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2024 | Viewed by 2219

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ivan Vargas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychological Science, University of Arkansas, 310 Memorial Hall, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
Interests: sleep disorders; treatment; sleep health; insomnia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the area of sleep disorders, prior studies consistently support two notions: (1) comorbid sleep disorders are highly prevalent among clinical populations, and (2) a history of sleep disturbance can increase the risk of developing a clinical disorder. It is therefore critical that we continue to investigate the role of sleep disorders in overall patient health. This Special Issue aims to collate state-of-the-art research on the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders. In general, we encourage basic, translational, and clinical research that has the potential to inform advances in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders, and more specifically, those studies that may have implications for better understanding the impact of sleep on physical health. Original articles, reviews, and communications are welcome.  We look forward to receiving your contributions. You may contact the Guest Editor, Dr. Ivan Vargas, if you are interested in submitting to this Special Issue or have any questions.

Dr. Ivan Vargas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sleep disorders
  • treatment
  • sleep health
  • insomnia

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 600 KiB  
Article
Acute Effect of Positive Airway Pressure on Heart Rate Variability in Obstructive Sleep Apnea
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7606; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12247606 - 10 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Autonomic dysregulation is associated with cardiovascular consequences in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on autonomic activity and to identify factors contributing to heart rate variability (HRV) changes in OSA. [...] Read more.
Autonomic dysregulation is associated with cardiovascular consequences in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on autonomic activity and to identify factors contributing to heart rate variability (HRV) changes in OSA. Frequency domain HRV parameters were calculated and compared between the baseline polysomnography and during the CPAP titration in 402 patients with moderate to severe OSA. There were significant reductions in total power, very low-frequency band power, low-frequency band power, and high-frequency band power during the CPAP titration as compared to the baseline polysomnography. This tendency was pronounced in male patients with severe OSA. Multivariate analysis found that changes in the apnea-hypopnea index and oxygen saturation were significantly associated with changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, respectively. This study demonstrated that HRV parameters significantly changed during the CPAP titration, indicating a beneficial effect of CPAP in the restoration of sympathetic and parasympathetic hyperactivity in OSA. Prospective longitudinal studies should determine whether long-term CPAP treatment aids in maintaining the long-lasting improvement of the autonomic functions, thereby contributing to the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in patients with OSA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders: Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment)
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20 pages, 1236 KiB  
Article
A Pilot Nurse-Administered CBT Intervention for Insomnia in Patients with Schizophrenic Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Effectiveness Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(19), 6147; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12196147 - 23 Sep 2023
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder among the population with schizophrenia and has a significant impact on their quality of life. Cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT) have shown effectiveness in the treatment of insomnia in the general population. The aim of this this pilot [...] Read more.
Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder among the population with schizophrenia and has a significant impact on their quality of life. Cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT) have shown effectiveness in the treatment of insomnia in the general population. The aim of this this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a group intervention led by nurses in an outpatient mental health centre. The group work combined cognitive behavioural and psychoeducational therapeutic interventions to improve insomnia in patients with schizophrenic disorder and their health-related quality of life. This randomized clinical trial included intervention and control groups with follow-up assessments at 6 and 9 months, using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) scales. The inclusion criteria were as follows: over 18 years of age, diagnosis of schizophrenia, and a score of >7 on the ISI scale. The total sample was 40 participants. The ISI scale showed a mean difference of 3.63 (CI 95%: 2.02–5.23) (p = 0.000) and 4.10 (CI 95%: 2.45–5.75) (p = 0.000) and a large effect size (F: 28.36; p = 0.000; ηp2: 0.427). Regarding the PSQI scale, the mean difference was 3.00 (CI 95%: 1.53–4.49) (p = 0.000) and 2.30 (CI 95%: 0.85–3.75) (p = 0.000), with a medium effect size (F: 18.31; p = 0.000 ηp2: 0.325). The EQ-VAS scale showed a difference in mean scores between the groups of 10.48 (CI 95%: −19.66–−1.29) (p = 0.027). CBT adapted for populations with mental disorders, carried out by nurses, is effective in improving insomnia and health-related quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders: Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment)
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9 pages, 418 KiB  
Article
The Assessment of Post-COVID Fatigue and Its Relationship to the Severity and Duration of Acute COVID Illness
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(18), 5910; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12185910 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Emerging data suggests that COVID-19 is associated with fatigue well beyond the acute illness period. The present analysis aimed to: (1) characterize the prevalence and incidence of high fatigue at baseline and follow-up; (2) examine the impact of COVID-19 diagnosis on fatigue level [...] Read more.
Emerging data suggests that COVID-19 is associated with fatigue well beyond the acute illness period. The present analysis aimed to: (1) characterize the prevalence and incidence of high fatigue at baseline and follow-up; (2) examine the impact of COVID-19 diagnosis on fatigue level following acute illness; and (3) examine the impact of acute COVID-19 symptom severity and duration on fatigue at follow-up. Subjects (n = 1417; 81.0% female; 83.3% White; X¯age = 43.6 years) completed the PROMIS-Fatigue during the initial wave of the pandemic at baseline (April–June 2020) and 9-month follow-up (January–March 2021). A generalized linear model (binomial distribution) was used to examine whether COVID-19 positivity, severity, and duration were associated with higher fatigue level at follow-up. Prevalence of high fatigue at baseline was 21.88% and 22.16% at follow-up, with 8.12% new cases at follow-up. Testing positive for COVID-19 was significantly associated with higher fatigue at follow-up. COVID-19 symptom duration and severity were significantly associated with increased fatigue at follow-up. COVID-19 symptom duration and severity during acute illness may precipitate longer-term fatigue, which could have implications for treatment planning and future research. Future studies should further evaluate the relationship between symptom severity, duration, and fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Disorders: Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment)
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