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Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effects of Plant-Sourced Compounds

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 968

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Crop Sciences and Agroforestry, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, 16500 Praha, Czech Republic
Interests: antibiotic resistance; antimicrobial combination effect; antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity; future smart food; green extraction methods; medicinal plants; micronutrients; neglected and underutilized species (NUS); tropical fruits and vegetables; Staphylococcus aureus

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants produce a large number of diverse bioactive compounds that help them defend against pathogens and other environmental stressors. For centuries, humans have exploited plants as an invaluable source of secondary metabolites for various purposes, including treating infections, preventing chronic diseases, and preserving food. Many of these bioactive phytochemicals exhibit antibacterial and antioxidant properties, and they continue to play a significant role in modern research and medicine.

Over the last few years, antioxidants have received great attention because of their ability to inhibit free radicals responsible for oxidative stress and the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Plants are abundant sources of antioxidants, including vitamins, phenolics, and carotenoids, which play a crucial role in neutralizing harmful free radicals and reactive oxygen species, and thus they can have beneficial effects on human health.

Similarly, an extensive increase in antibiotic resistance owed to a sustained persistence of resistant bacteria has led to increased interest in plant-derived compounds and their possible antibacterial effect. Moreover, some previous studies have found that combinations of antibiotics with plant extracts or phytochemicals can significantly enhance antibiotic activity and overcome bacterial antibiotic resistance.

Although the plants have been traditionally used in various kinds of indigenous medicinal systems and many of their compounds hold promise for their antibacterial and antioxidant properties, further research is needed to fully discover their potential and to understand their mechanisms of action and possible applications in medicine and health. Moreover, their effectiveness can vary depending on factors such as the plant species, extraction methods, and concentrations used. Thus the papers in this Special Issue will provide up-to-date literature analysis and newly generated research on the antibacterial and antioxidant effectiveness of plant extracts, plant-derived compounds, or their synthetic analogs, including innovative approaches for obtaining phytochemical-rich extracts/higher yield of phytocompounds and evaluating their activities, including combinatory effect.

Dr. Johana Rondevaldova
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • antibacterial effect
  • antioxidants
  • medicinal plants
  • anti-infective agents
  • phytochemicals

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 883 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of In Vitro Synergistic Effects of Tetracycline with Alkaloid-Related Compounds against Diarrhoeic Bacteria
by Hayford Osei-Owusu, Johana Rondevaldova, Marketa Houdkova, Tomas Kudera, Tersia Needham, Anna Mascellani and Ladislav Kokoska
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(11), 6038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25116038 - 30 May 2024
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Abstract
Diarrhoea remains an important public health concern, particularly in developing countries, and has become difficult to treat because of antibacterial resistance. The development of synergistic antimicrobial agents appears to be a promising alternative treatment against diarrhoeic infections. In this study, the combined effect [...] Read more.
Diarrhoea remains an important public health concern, particularly in developing countries, and has become difficult to treat because of antibacterial resistance. The development of synergistic antimicrobial agents appears to be a promising alternative treatment against diarrhoeic infections. In this study, the combined effect of tetracycline together with either nitroxoline, sanguinarine, or zinc pyrithione (representing various classes of plant-based compounds) was evaluated in vitro against selected diarrhoeic bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Yersinia enterocolitica). The chequerboard method in 96-well microtiter plates was used to determine the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs). Three independent experiments were performed per combination, each in triplicate. It was observed that the combination of tetracycline with either nitroxoline, sanguinarine, or zinc pyrithione produced synergistic effects against most of the pathogenic bacteria tested, with FICI values ranging from 0.086 to 0.5. Tetracycline–nitroxoline combinations produced the greatest synergistic action against S. flexneri at a FICI value of 0.086. The combinations of the agents tested in this study can thus be used for the development of new anti-diarrhoeic medications. However, studies focusing on their in vivo anti-diarrhoeic activity and safety are required before any consideration for utilization in human medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effects of Plant-Sourced Compounds)
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14 pages, 1249 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Synthetic Polyoxygenated Flavonoids
by Mauricio Enrique Osorio-Olivares, Yesseny Vásquez-Martínez, Katy Díaz, Javiera Canelo, Lautaro Taborga and Luis Espinoza-Catalán
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(11), 5999; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25115999 - 30 May 2024
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Abstract
Flavonoids are an abundant class of naturally occurring compounds with broad biological activities, but their limited abundance in nature restricts their use in medicines and food additives. Here we present the synthesis and determination of the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of twenty-two structurally [...] Read more.
Flavonoids are an abundant class of naturally occurring compounds with broad biological activities, but their limited abundance in nature restricts their use in medicines and food additives. Here we present the synthesis and determination of the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of twenty-two structurally related flavonoids (five of which are new) by scientifically validated methods. Flavanones (FV1FV11) had low inhibitory activity against the bacterial growth of MRSA 97-7. However, FV2 (C5,7,3′,4′ = OH) and FV6 (C5,7 = OH; C4′ = SCH3) had excellent bacterial growth inhibitory activity against Gram-negative E. coli (MIC = 25 µg/mL for both), while Chloramphenicol (MIC = 25 µg/mL) and FV1 (C5,7,3′ = OCH3; 4′ = OH) showed inhibitory activity against Gram-positive L. monocytogenes (MIC = 25 µg/mL). From the flavone series (FO1FO11), FO2 (C5,7,3′,4′ = OH), FO3 (C5,7,4′ = OH; 3′ = OCH3), and FO5 (C5,7,4′ = OH) showed good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive MRSA 97-7 (MIC = 50, 12, and 50 µg/mL, respectively), with FO3 being more active than the positive control Vancomycin (MIC = 25 µg/mL). FO10 (C5,7= OH; 4′ = OCH3) showed high inhibitory activity against E. coli and L. monocytogenes (MIC = 25 and 15 µg/mL, respectively). These data add significantly to our knowledge of the structural requirements to combat these human pathogens. The positions and number of hydroxyl groups were key to the antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effects of Plant-Sourced Compounds)
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