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Research on Bio-Scaffold for Tissue Engineering

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 July 2024 | Viewed by 386

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Department of Architecture and Industrial Design, University of Campania, 81031 Aversa, Italy
Interests: materials science characterization; materials science engineering; biomaterials; biomechanics; advanced manufacturing
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tissue engineering is a promising field that aims to create functional human tissues and organs using a combination of cells, biomaterials, and biochemical factors. Bioscaffolds play a vital role in tissue engineering by providing a structural framework for cells to grow, differentiate, and organize into functional tissues.

Research in the area of bioscaffolds for tissue engineering focuses on developing materials that possess specific properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, mechanical strength, and the ability to support cell adhesion, migration, and tissue formation.

Some key areas of research in bioscaffold development for tissue engineering are as follows:

  1. Material selection: To make bioscaffolds, researchers investigate a range of natural, synthetic, or hybrid biomaterials. Natural biomaterials including collagen, fibrin, chitosan, and alginate offer biocompatibility and bioactive characteristics. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), and their copolymers are examples of synthetic materials that offer customizable surface characteristics, predictable degradation rates, and mechanical stability. The benefits of both natural and synthetic materials are combined in hybrid materials.
  2. Scaffold construction techniques: Different fabrication processes, including electrospinning, 3D printing, electrohydrodynamic jetting, and solvent casting, are employed to create bioscaffolds with regulated topologies and pore configurations. These methods allow complicated tissue geometries to be created and original tissue microenvironments to be mimicked.
  3. Surface modification: To strengthen cell adhesion, facilitate tissue creation, and improve cell-material interactions, researchers investigate surface modification approaches. Chemical functionalization, the immobilization of bioactive molecules, and the addition of particular physical cues such as topography, stiffness, and electrical conductivity are examples of surface changes.
  4. Biomimetic approaches: By adding particular ECM constituents, such as fibronectin, laminin, and growth factors, biomimetic bioscaffolds replicate the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) of tissues. Replicating the niche milieu necessary for cell proliferation, differentiation, and the formation of functional tissues is the aim.
  5. Composite and hierarchical scaffolds: Researchers explore the development of composite and hierarchical scaffolds that combine multiple materials, such as polymers, ceramics, and metals, to achieve a combination of mechanical strength, bioactivity, and controlled degradation rates.
  6. Decellularized scaffolds: Decellularization techniques involve removing cellular components from tissues while preserving the ECM. Decellularized bioscaffolds can serve as a scaffold template to support the seeding and differentiation of cells, leveraging the natural ECM structure and biochemical cues.
  7. In vitro and in vivo evaluation: Researchers evaluate the functionality and biocompatibility of bioscaffolds through in vitro cell culture experiments and in vivo animal studies. These assessments assess cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, tissue integration, and immunological responses.

The research on bioscaffolds for tissue engineering is multidisciplinary, involving the fields of materials science, biology, bioengineering, and medicine. The ultimate objective is to develop advanced bioscaffolds capable of recapitulating the complex architecture and functionality of native tissues, with the potential for clinical applications in regenerative medicine and organ transplantation.

Dr. Raffaella Aversa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • bone tissue engineering
  • biomechanically active scaffolds
  • metal additive scaffold manufacturing
  • structural bioresorbable materials
  • multiscale porous scaffolds
  • bioactive coatings and membranes
  • metallic smart biomaterials
  • ceramic smart biomaterials
  • polymeric smart biomaterials
  • biomechanics
  • biomimetics
  • nanocomposites
  • hybrid materials
  • bioresorbable ceramics
  • bioresorbable polymers
  • bioresorbable metals
  • polymer composites and nanomaterials
  • ceramic-polymeric hybrid systems
  • hybrid smart structures
  • functional biocoatings
  • new theoretical approaches for biomimetic material and prostheses
  • bionic prostheses based on smart materials
  • shape memory alloys

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

17 pages, 1168 KiB  
Article
Hydrogel Formulation for Biomimetic Fibroblast Cell Culture: Exploring Effects of External Stresses and Cellular Responses
by Immacolata Greco, Hatim Machrafi, Christophe Minetti, Chiara Risaliti, Allegra Bandini, Francesca Cialdai, Monica Monici and Carlo S. Iorio
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(11), 5600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25115600 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 231
Abstract
In the process of tissue engineering, several types of stresses can influence the outcome of tissue regeneration. This outcome can be understood by designing hydrogels that mimic this process and studying how such hydrogel scaffolds and cells behave under a set of stresses. [...] Read more.
In the process of tissue engineering, several types of stresses can influence the outcome of tissue regeneration. This outcome can be understood by designing hydrogels that mimic this process and studying how such hydrogel scaffolds and cells behave under a set of stresses. Here, a hydrogel formulation is proposed to create biomimetic scaffolds suitable for fibroblast cell culture. Subsequently, we examine the impact of external stresses on fibroblast cells cultured on both solid and porous hydrogels. These stresses included mechanical tension and altered-gravity conditions experienced during the 83rd parabolic flight campaign conducted by the European Space Agency. This study shows distinct cellular responses characterized by cell aggregation and redistribution in regions of intensified stress concentration. This paper presents a new biomimetic hydrogel that fulfills tissue-engineering requirements in terms of biocompatibility and mechanical stability. Moreover, it contributes to our comprehension of cellular biomechanics under diverse gravitational conditions, shedding light on the dynamic cellular adaptations versus varying stress environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Bio-Scaffold for Tissue Engineering)
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