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Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation

Special Issue Editors

Department of Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28922 Madrid, Spain
Interests: pain; chronic pain; rehabilitation; exercise therapy; manual therapy; electromyography; measurement properties; applied kinesiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Motor Science Institute, Federal University of Alfenas, Alfenas 37133-840, Brazil
Interests: headache; postural control; musculoskeletal disorders; pain; rehabilitation; temporomandibular disorders
Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy, University of Luebeck, 23562 Luebeck, Germany
Interests: musculoskeletal pain; headache disorders; chronic pain assessment and management; vestibular symptoms; gait and balance analysis; physiotherapy interventions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite you to contribute to our Special Issue, “Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation”, which aims to enhance evidence about the assessment and treatment strategies addressed to musculoskeletal conditions and its repercussions on patients’ lives.

Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most disabling conditions worldwide. It is generally related to chronic conditions that affects sensorial, physical, and social dimensions. This Special Issue welcomes well-designed and good-quality studies about musculoskeletal disorders, their impact, and treatment. We also welcome studies related to musculoskeletal function and the measurement properties of the instruments used in their assessment are important because it would help us to trust in the data obtained during our assessment and to rationalize the treatment approach. Studies using quantitative, qualitative, mixed-methods or systematic reviews with or without metanalysis are considered. 

You may choose our Joint Special Issue in Healthcare.

Prof. Dr. Lidiane L. Florencio
Prof. Dr. Carina Ferreira Pinheiro-Araujo
Prof. Dr. Gabriela Ferreira Carvalho
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • rehabilitation
  • exercise therapy
  • manual therapy
  • measurement properties
  • applied kinesiology
  • pain
  • chronic pain

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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8 pages, 336 KiB  
Article
Impairment on Cardiovascular Autonomic Modulation in Women with Migraine
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010763 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Autonomic dysfunction, such as reduced vagally mediated heart rate variability, has been suggested in headache patients but is still uncertain when considering primary headache disorders. This study aims to compare the heart rate and blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity between women with [...] Read more.
Autonomic dysfunction, such as reduced vagally mediated heart rate variability, has been suggested in headache patients but is still uncertain when considering primary headache disorders. This study aims to compare the heart rate and blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity between women with migraine and controls. A migraine (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20) of age-matched women without headache were evaluated. Heart rate variability was analyzed through frequency-domain using spectral analysis presenting variance, low-frequency (LF; 0.04–0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF; 0.15–0.4 Hz) bands and by time domain (root mean square of successive R-R interval differences, RMSSD). Blood pressure variability was analyzed with spectral analysis and baroreflex sensitivity with the sequence method. Migraine group had lower heart rate variability characterized by a reduction in total variance, LF oscillations (sympathetic/vagal modulation) and HF oscillations (vagal modulation), and a reduction in SD and RMSSD compared to control group. No difference was found in the blood pressure variability analysis. Regarding baroreflex sensitivity, migraine group had decreased values of total gain, gain down and up compared to control group. Women with migraine exhibited autonomic modulation alterations, expressed by decreased values of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity, but not by differences in blood pressure variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation)
12 pages, 1092 KiB  
Article
Aquatic Exercise on Brain Activity in Type 2 Diabetic: Randomized Clinical Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 14759; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192214759 - 10 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1516
Abstract
Background: A water-based physical exercise program is extremely important for the rehabilitation of type 2 diabetes. Little is known about its action on cerebral electrical activity. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a water-based physical exercise protocol on electroencephalographic activity, blood glucose levels, [...] Read more.
Background: A water-based physical exercise program is extremely important for the rehabilitation of type 2 diabetes. Little is known about its action on cerebral electrical activity. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a water-based physical exercise protocol on electroencephalographic activity, blood glucose levels, and functional capacity, as well as their correlation, in type 2 diabetics. Methods: Study design: Randomized Clinical Trial. Forty volunteers were randomized into two groups: control (n = 20) and study (n = 20). A water-based physical exercise program comprising 50 min sessions was conducted three times a week for five weeks. Assessments were performed at the pre- and post-intervention and follow-up phases. The qualitative data were compared using the Mann–Whitney test and Chi-Square. Quantitative data were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis, Independent t, and ANOVA mixed tests. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to correlate the data. Results: The data were similar when comparing the groups. Six-minute walk test data increased in the comparison between times (p = 0.01—PrexPos). EEG data decreased in comparison between times (prexfollow-up—p < 0.05), except AF3. EEG data decreased in the timexgroup comparison (prexfollow-up and postxfollow-up—p < 0.05). Conclusions: The water-based exercise protocol maintained electroencephalographic activity, glucose levels, and functional capacity in people with type 2 diabetes, and there was no relationship between brain electrical activity and capillary blood glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation)
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14 pages, 574 KiB  
Article
Effect of Foot Reflexology on Muscle Electrical Activity, Pressure, Plantar Distribution, and Body Sway in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 14547; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192114547 - 05 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Objective: To verify the effect of foot reflexology on the electrical muscle activity of the lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscle, and to examine the distribution, plantar pressure, and body sway in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This pilot randomized controlled trial [...] Read more.
Objective: To verify the effect of foot reflexology on the electrical muscle activity of the lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscle, and to examine the distribution, plantar pressure, and body sway in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This pilot randomized controlled trial enrolled 17 volunteers who were clinically diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. The sample was assigned to one of two groups: the control group (CG, n = 7), who received information on foot care and health, and the intervention group (IG, n = 10), who received the application of foot reflexology on specific areas of the feet, for 10 consecutive days. There was blinding of the evaluator and the therapist. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to assess the electrical activity of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles in maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and isotonic contraction (IC); baropodometry and stabilometry were used to analyze unloading, plantar weight distribution, and body sway. Results: There was a statistically significant difference for the variables of maximum peak electrical activity of the left medial gastrocnemius (p = 0.03; effect size = 0.87 and power = 0.81) and left lateral gastrocnemius muscles (p = 0.04, effect size = 0.70 and power = 0.66) respectively, in the intragroup IC, and median frequency of the left medial gastrocnemius muscle in the intragroup MVIC (p = 0.03; effect size = 0.64 and power = 0.59), and in the variables intergroups of the total area on the right side (p = 0.04; effect size = 1.03 and power = 0.50) and forefoot area on the left side (p = 0.02; effect size = 0.51 and power = 0.16). Conclusions: We conclude that foot reflexology influenced some variables of the intergroup plantar distribution and intragroup EMG in the sample studied. There is a need for a placebo group, a larger sample and a follow-up to strengthen the findings of these experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation)
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9 pages, 2919 KiB  
Article
Is There a Relation between Brain and Muscle Activity after Virtual Reality Training in Individuals with Stroke? A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912705 - 04 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Objective—The aim was to verify the correlation between cerebral and muscular electrical activity in subjects trained in virtual reality after a stroke. Method—The trial design was a cross-sectional study. Fourteen volunteers who were diagnosed with a stroke participated in the study. The intervention [...] Read more.
Objective—The aim was to verify the correlation between cerebral and muscular electrical activity in subjects trained in virtual reality after a stroke. Method—The trial design was a cross-sectional study. Fourteen volunteers who were diagnosed with a stroke participated in the study. The intervention protocol was to perform functional activity with an upper limb using virtual reality. The functional protocol consisted of four one-minute series with a two-minute interval between series in a single session. Results—We observed, at initial rest, a positive correlation between brachii biceps and the frontal canal medial region (F7/F8) (r = 0.59; p = 0.03) and frontal canal lateral region (F3/F4) (r = 0.71; p = 0.006). During the activity, we observed a positive correlation between the anterior deltoid and frontal anterior channel (AF3/AF4) (r = 0.73; p = 0.004). At final rest, we observed a positive correlation between the anterior deltoid and temporal region channel (T7/T8) (r = 0.70; p = 0.005). Conclusions—We conclude that there was no correlation between brain and muscle activity for the biceps brachii muscle in subjects trained with virtual reality. However, there was a positive correlation for the deltoid anterior muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation)
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13 pages, 364 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Non-Surgical Treatment Experience of Female Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12349; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912349 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a peripheral neuropathy of the upper extremity, characterized by pain, loss of strength, and decreased fine motor function. This study describes the experiences of women with CTS who received non-surgical treatments. A qualitative phenomenological study was undertaken. Purposive [...] Read more.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a peripheral neuropathy of the upper extremity, characterized by pain, loss of strength, and decreased fine motor function. This study describes the experiences of women with CTS who received non-surgical treatments. A qualitative phenomenological study was undertaken. Purposive sampling was used. Women with clinical and electromyographic diagnoses of CTS were included. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted among women with CTS, and field notes were kept. The Giorgi’s approach was used for qualitative analysis of the data collected. Five themes emerged: (a) Seeking help and waiting for a diagnosis, (b) trying non-surgical therapeutic options, (c) avoiding invasive options, (d) treatment expectations, and (e) relationships with clinicians. The women described how diagnoses were delayed because women delay seeking help and referrals to medical specialists. Women avoid surgical options and prefer to opt for more conservative approaches, such as splinting or physical therapy. The main reason for avoiding surgical treatment is the fear of limitations and that surgery will not fully eliminate the symptoms. Conflicts may arise in the relationship with the clinician, and they demand to be able to participate in the decision-making process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation)
13 pages, 1432 KiB  
Article
Knee Kinetics and Kinematics of Young Asymptomatic Participants during Single-Leg Weight-Bearing Tasks: Task and Sex Comparison of a Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095590 - 04 May 2022
Viewed by 1760
Abstract
This cross-sectional study aimed to describe and compare kinetic and kinematic variables of the knee joint during stair descent, single-leg step down, and single-leg squat tasks. It also aimed to investigate potential sex difference during the tasks. Thirty young asymptomatic individuals (15 males, [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study aimed to describe and compare kinetic and kinematic variables of the knee joint during stair descent, single-leg step down, and single-leg squat tasks. It also aimed to investigate potential sex difference during the tasks. Thirty young asymptomatic individuals (15 males, 15 females) were assessed during the performance of single-leg weight-bearing tasks. The kinetic and kinematic data from the knee were evaluated at the peak knee moment and at peak knee flexion. Single-leg squat presented a higher peak knee moment (2.37 Nm/kg) and the greatest knee moment (1.91 Nm/kg) at knee peak angle in the frontal plane, but the lowest knee flexion (67°) than the other two tasks (p < 0.05). Additionally, the single-leg step down task presented a higher varus knee angle (5.70°) when compared to stair descent (3.71°) (p < 0.001). No substantial sex difference could be observed. In conclusion, in asymptomatic young individuals, single-leg squats presented the greatest demand in the frontal and sagittal planes. Single-leg step down demanded a greater angular displacement than stair descent in the frontal plane. We did not identify a significant difference among the sex and studied variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation)
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Review

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16 pages, 1916 KiB  
Review
Effectiveness of Biofeedback in Individuals with Awake Bruxism Compared to Other Types of Treatment: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(2), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20021558 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
Excessive masticatory muscle activity is generally present in awake bruxism, which is related to increased anxiety and stress. It has been hypothesized that biofeedback could potentially manage awake bruxism, however, its effectiveness has not been empirically analyzed in a systematic manner. Therefore, this [...] Read more.
Excessive masticatory muscle activity is generally present in awake bruxism, which is related to increased anxiety and stress. It has been hypothesized that biofeedback could potentially manage awake bruxism, however, its effectiveness has not been empirically analyzed in a systematic manner. Therefore, this systematic review was designed to determine the effectiveness of biofeedback compared to other therapies in adults with awake bruxism. Extensive searches in five databases looking for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included biofeedback to manage awake bruxism were targeted. The risk of bias (RoB) assessment was conducted using the Cochrane RoB-2 tool. Overall, four studies were included in this systematic review, all of which used the electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles during the day and night as the main endpoint. Auditory and visual biofeedback could reduce the excessive level of masticatory muscle activity in a few days of intervention. The majority of the included studies had a high RoB and only one study had a low RoB. The standardization of the biofeedback protocols was also inconsistent, which makes it difficult to establish the ideal protocol for the use of biofeedback in awake bruxism. Thus, it is proposed that future studies seek to reduce methodological risks and obtain more robust samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation)
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Other

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25 pages, 745 KiB  
Systematic Review
Biopsychosocial Factors for Chronicity in Individuals with Non-Specific Low Back Pain: An Umbrella Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(16), 10145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191610145 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3704
Abstract
Low back pain (LBP) is a global and disabling problem. A considerable number of systematic reviews published over the past decade have reported a range of factors that increase the risk of chronicity due to LBP. This study summarizes up-to-date and high-level research [...] Read more.
Low back pain (LBP) is a global and disabling problem. A considerable number of systematic reviews published over the past decade have reported a range of factors that increase the risk of chronicity due to LBP. This study summarizes up-to-date and high-level research evidence on the biopsychosocial prognostic factors of outcomes in adults with non-specific low back pain at follow-up. An umbrella review was carried out. PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and PEDro were searched for studies published between 1 January 2008 and 20 March 2020. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and full texts, extracted data and assessed review quality. Fifteen systematic reviews met the eligibility criteria; all were deemed reliable according to our criteria. There were five prognostic factors with consistent evidence of association with poor acute–subacute LBP outcomes in the long term (high levels of pain intensity and disability, high emotional distress, negative recovery expectations and high physical demands at work), as well as one factor with consistent evidence of no association (low education levels). For mixed-duration LBP, there was one predictor consistently associated with poor outcomes in the long term (high pain catastrophism). We observed insufficient evidence to synthesize social factors as well as to fully assess predictors in the chronic phase of LBP. This study provides consistent evidence of the predictive value of biological and psychological factors for LBP outcomes in the long term. The identified prognostic factors should be considered for inclusion into low back pain explanatory models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation)
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