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Infectious Diseases in the Workplace

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Occupational Safety and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 18548

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Medical University of Łódź, 90-419 Łódź, Poland
Interests: occupational health and safety; epidemiology; nosocomial infection; hospital hygiene; nursing; health behavior; health; hospital epidemiology; infectious disease epidemiology; health promotion
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A Special Issue on “Infectious diseases in the workplace” is being organized in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. For detailed information on the journal, please refer to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

Despite scientific achievements in the form of disinfectants, antibiotics and perhaps the most important preventive vaccinations, an increasing percentage of workers are exposed to infectious agents in the workplace. Biological agents include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites, and they can cause health problems both directly and through exposure to related allergens and toxins.

Work-related exposure to biological agents can cause many health problems, including infectious diseases, allergies and cancer.

Workers in certain economic sectors, such as healthcare and veterinary services, agriculture, wastewater management, and laboratories, are particularly vulnerable. They can work directly with microorganisms or be exposed to them through contact, for example, with body fluids or soil. But not only they are at risk. Certainly, there is no microbial-free profession, every contact with another person is associated with the exchange of bacterial flora. The risk of contamination in the workplace increased further during the covid pandemic. When the source of exposure to a biological agent is known, adverse health effects can be relatively easily prevented. Managing the risks associated with an unknown source is definitely more difficult.

The subject of this special issue is intended for exposure to healthcare workers, but not only. Infectious occupational diseases are diagnosed among teachers, policemen, soldiers, and others.

I cordially invite you to send manuscripts for the special issue "Infectious diseases in the workplace" related to:

  • Epidemiology of infectious diseases in the workplace (airborne diseases, e.g. tuberculosis, covid-19; blood-borne diseases, e.g. HCV, HBV, HIV), and others;
  • A risk factor for infectious diseases in the workplace (direct contact, injuries with sharp tools);
  • Occupational risk assessment (hazard prevention and management);
  • Promotion of safety at the workplace (training for safety, procedures, vaccination, safe medical devices);
  • psychological aspects of occupational diseases - fatigue, stress, burnout in connection with exposure to pathogens in the workplace

Prof. Dr. Anna Garus-Pakowska
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • occupational health
  • exposure
  • infectious diseases
  • injury
  • risk factors
  • risk assessment
  • prevention
  • protective equipment
  • safety
  • healthcare workers
  • workers
  • workplace
  • vaccination

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 274 KiB  
Editorial
Biological Factors in the Workplace—Current Threats to Employees, the Effects of Infections, Prevention Options
by Anna Garus-Pakowska
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5592; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095592 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Infectious diseases or communicable diseases are spread from person to person by various routs [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in the Workplace)

Research

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13 pages, 580 KiB  
Article
Epidemiological Predictors of Positive SARS-CoV-2 Polymerase Chain Reaction Test in Three Cohorts: Hospitalized Patients, Healthcare Workers, and Military Population, Serbia, 2020
by Vesna Šuljagić, Danijela Đurić-Petković, Srđan Lazić, Jovan Mladenović, Bojan Rakonjac, Dolores Opačić, Nenad Ljubenović, Biljana Milojković, Katarina Radojević, Ivana Nenezić and Nemanja Rančić
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 3601; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20043601 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
(1) Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a fast-moving pandemic. Diagnostic testing, aimed to identify patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, plays a key role in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic in different populations. (2) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a fast-moving pandemic. Diagnostic testing, aimed to identify patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, plays a key role in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic in different populations. (2) Methods: This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate predictors associated with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) SARS-CoV-2 test results in hospitalized patients, healthcare workers (HCWs), and military personnel (MP) during 2020, before the widespread availability of COVID-19 vaccines. Persons with a positive test result were compared with persons with a negative test result in three cohorts during the study period. (3) Results: A total of 6912 respondents were tested, and 1334 (19.3%) of them had positive PCR SARS-CoV-2 test results. Contact with a known COVID-19 case within 14 days (p < 0.001; OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.25–1.76), fever (p < 0.001; OR: 3.66; 95% CI: 3.04–4.41), cough (p < 0.001; OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.59–2.30), headache (p = 0.028; OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.02–1.50), and myalgia/arthralgia (p < 0.001; OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.65–2.42) were independently associated with positive PCR SARS-CoV-2 test results in the cohort of MP. Furthermore, fever (p < 0.001; OR: 2.75; 95% CI: 1.83–4.13), cough (p < 0.001; OR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.32–3.13), headache (p = 0.008; OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.15–2.68), and myalgia/arthralgia (p = 0.039; OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.02–2.45) were independently associated with positive PCR SARS-CoV-2 test results in the cohort of HCWs. Moreover, independent predictors of positive PCR SARS-CoV-2 test results in hospitalized patients were contact with a known COVID-19 case within 14 days (p < 0.001; OR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.71–3.83), fever (p < 0.001; OR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.38–2.59), pneumonia (p = 0.041; OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.01–2.09), and neurological diseases (p = 0.009; OR: 0.375; 95% CI: 0.18–0.78). (4) Conclusions: According to data gathered from cohorts of hospitalized patients, HCWs, and MP, before the widespread availability of COVID-19 vaccines in Serbia, we can conclude that predictors of positive PCR SARS-CoV-2 test results in MP and HCWs were similar. Accurate estimates of COVID-19 in different population groups are important for health authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in the Workplace)
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9 pages, 1456 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Non-Compulsory Influenza and COVID-19 Vaccination among Polish Soldiers
by Ewelina Ejchman-Pac, Julian Wójtowicz and Magdalena Zawadzka
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 3304; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20043304 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1450
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic posed many challenges in epidemiology, health care, and vaccinology. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies had to develop effective vaccines as soon as possible in order to halt the spread of infection outbreaks and enable the start of the National Vaccination Program. [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic posed many challenges in epidemiology, health care, and vaccinology. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies had to develop effective vaccines as soon as possible in order to halt the spread of infection outbreaks and enable the start of the National Vaccination Program. Firstly, medical services and security services (the army, fire brigade, and police), i.e., those most involved in the fight against the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, were included in the aforementioned program. The presented publication analyzes the amount and type of vaccination against COVID-19 and influenza among Polish soldiers. Influenza, like COVID-19, is a viral disease that can vary in its course (from mild to acute and life-threatening). Both coronaviruses and influenza viruses are characterized by high genetic variability, resulting in the need for repeated vaccination during each autumn and winter season. Acquired data comes from the Central Register of Vaccination of Professional Soldiers. The collected material was statistically processed. The average level of the phenomenon was presented as a time series using a chronological average. In the analyzed period (December 2020–December 2021), the lowest vaccinations against COVID-19 were performed in December 2020, which is due to the schedule of the National Vaccination Program in Poland. In contrast, the highest number of vaccinations were administered between April and June 2021, or approximately 70.5% of all vaccines administered. In the case of influenza, there is a clear increase in the number of vaccinations during the autumn and winter seasons, which coincides with peaks in disease during these periods. Between August 2020 and January 2021, there is a noticeable increase in the number of flu injections given, nearly 50% compared to the previous period, which may be related to the simultaneous persistence of the COVID-19 pandemic and greater attention to one’s own health. Non-mandatory vaccination is an important point in the vaccination schedule for soldiers. Numerous public campaigns combating misinformation and raising awareness of the need for immunization will help convince even more people, not only among soldiers but also the civilian population, to vaccinate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in the Workplace)
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14 pages, 625 KiB  
Article
Patterns of Systemic Disease Diagnoses among Medical Professionals in Taiwan: Statistical Analysis and Data Mining
by Kai-Jie Ma, Jui-Lien Hung, Ming-Hsien Chou and Jong-Yi Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 14017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192114017 - 27 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Introduction: Although high-risk work environments and heavy workload expose medical professionals to long-term risks of disease, no comprehensive analysis has been conducted on the corresponding risks of diseases to each type of medical professionals. This study pre-analyzed the risks of medical professionals in [...] Read more.
Introduction: Although high-risk work environments and heavy workload expose medical professionals to long-term risks of disease, no comprehensive analysis has been conducted on the corresponding risks of diseases to each type of medical professionals. This study pre-analyzed the risks of medical professionals in developing various systemic diseases in Taiwan to provide a comprehensive examination of the differences between each type of systemic disease. Methods: From the secondary databases of 2002–2013, 15,407 medical professionals were selected for analysis. A chi-squared test and logistic regression were performed to identify the relationship between types of medical professionals and systemic diseases. The life trajectories of diagnosis sequence of the medical professionals were illustrated accordingly. Results: The physicians were the most vulnerable to infectious, parasitic, and digestive diseases. This was possibly associated with their work characteristics and occupational risks. Conclusion: According to the life trajectories, all types of the medical professionals exhibited a similar trend in the orders of risks to each type of systemic disease, which suggests that their work environment exposes them to real risks of health hazard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in the Workplace)
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9 pages, 1247 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Number and Type of Vaccinations Performed among Polish Soldiers in 2018–2021
by Magdalena Zawadzka and Ewelina Ejchman-Pac
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 13724; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192113724 - 22 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Vaccination is a very common topic, but it is rarely raised or discussed with respect to military members. Soldiers are one of the main professional groups to be immunized on a regular basis. The military actively participates in research on new vaccine preparations. [...] Read more.
Vaccination is a very common topic, but it is rarely raised or discussed with respect to military members. Soldiers are one of the main professional groups to be immunized on a regular basis. The military actively participates in research on new vaccine preparations. This paper presents data from 2018–2021 on vaccination among Polish soldiers. The material obtained from the Central Register of Vaccination for Professional Soldiers was analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. The number of injections performed in a given period depends on the location of the ongoing missions and the vaccination schedule specific to a given Polish Military Contingent. In Poland, soldiers undergo preventive vaccinations in accordance with the scheme developed by the Armed Forces Operational Command, taking into account the specific nature of the service, epidemiological risks and the calendar of current preventive vaccinations. Soldiers serving abroad are immunized against typhoid, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies, measles, tick-borne encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, polio, diphtheria, meningococcal disease, chickenpox, cholera and yellow fever. Regular vaccinations for soldiers are necessary to minimize the spread of infectious diseases, and they have a beneficial effect upon the effectiveness of military operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in the Workplace)
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16 pages, 1724 KiB  
Article
Worker Protection Scenarios for General Analytical Testing Facility under Several Infection Propagation Risks: Scoping Review, Epidemiological Model and ISO 31000
by Jong-Myong Park, Joong-Hee Cho, Nam-Soo Jun, Ki-In Bang and Ji-Won Hong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912001 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2892
Abstract
Infectious disease is a risk threating industrial operations and worker health. In gastrointestinal disease cases, outbreak is sporadic, and propagation is often terminated within certain populations, although cases in industrial sites are continuously reported. The ISO 31000 international standard for risk management, an [...] Read more.
Infectious disease is a risk threating industrial operations and worker health. In gastrointestinal disease cases, outbreak is sporadic, and propagation is often terminated within certain populations, although cases in industrial sites are continuously reported. The ISO 31000 international standard for risk management, an epidemiological triad model, and a scoping review were the methods used to establish response procedures (scenarios) to protect workers from the risk of the propagation of a gastrointestinal disease. First, human reservoirs and transmission routes were identified as controllable risk sources based on a scoping review and the use of a triad model. Second, the possibility of fomite- or surface-mediated transmission appeared to be higher based on environmental characterization. Thus, the propagation could be suppressed using epidemiological measures categorized by reservoirs (workers) or transmission routes during a primary case occurrence. Next, using results of a matrix, a strengths–weaknesses–opportunities–threats analysis and a scoping review, the risk treatment option was determined as risk taking and sharing. According to epidemiology of gastrointestinal infections, systematic scenarios may ensure the efficacy of propagation control. Standardized procedures with practicality and applicability were established for categorized scenarios. This study converged ISO 31000 standards, an epidemiological model, and scoping review methods to construct a risk management scenario (non-pharmaceutical intervention) optimized for the unique characteristics of a specific occupational cluster. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in the Workplace)
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18 pages, 375 KiB  
Article
Non-Safety and Safety Device Sharp Injuries—Risk of Incidents, SEDs Availability, Attitudes and Perceptions of Nurses According to Cross-Sectional Survey in Poland
by Anna Garus-Pakowska, Mariusz Górajski and Piotr Sakowski
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811315 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
Sharp injuries are a serious issue among healthcare workers (HCWs). The aim of the study was to examine the frequency of sharps injuries among nurses (who have the most frequent contact with infectious material) when using devices with and without safety features, then [...] Read more.
Sharp injuries are a serious issue among healthcare workers (HCWs). The aim of the study was to examine the frequency of sharps injuries among nurses (who have the most frequent contact with infectious material) when using devices with and without safety features, then to analyse the factors associated with such injuries and to compare the risk of injuries with safety engineered devices (SEDs) and non-safety engineered devices (non-SEDs). An online cross-sectional survey was completed between October 2021 and March 2022 by 280 nurses. The incidence of exposure to sharp injury during their professional life was 51.4%. The percentage of nurses experiencing a sharp injury in the year preceding the study was 29% and 9.6% for superficially and deep injury, respectively. Ampoules and conventional hollow-bore needles caused the most injuries (25.92% and 22.64% of nurses in the last year). Factors including sex (males), age and seniority (elderly), education (higher), work exhaustion and being left-handed were associated with the occurrence of conventional hollow-bore needle injuries. In the case of SEDs: age, seniority and right/left-handed were the most frequent risk factors associated with the occurrence of sharp injuries. SEDs injuries were much less frequent than non-SEDs. There was a significant difference between the risk of injuries with safety and non-safety needles, central cannulas and ampoules. Fisher’s exact test (p-value = 0.000) and positive Spearman’s rho statistics (0.2319, p-value = 0.0001) confirmed that in accredited hospitals, the availability of safety needles was higher. Almost half of the nurses (n = 115, 41.07%) stated that staff had little influence on the type of medical sharp instruments supplied. To reduce the risk of nurse injuries, access to medical devices with safe protection mechanisms should be ensured, the use of sharp instruments should be limited where possible, managers should consult nurses regarding the choice of safe devices, and training programs on the proper use of SEDs should be available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in the Workplace)
17 pages, 1088 KiB  
Article
Prevention from Sharp Injuries in the Hospital Sector: An Italian National Observatory on the Implementation of the Council Directive 2010/32/EU before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Gabriella De Carli, Alessandro Agresta, Maria Giuseppina Lecce, Patrizia Marchegiano, Gianpaolo Micheloni, Dimitri Sossai, Giuseppe Campo, Paola Tomao, Nicoletta Vonesch, Sara Leone, Vincenzo Puro and The Studio Italiano Rischio Occupazionale da HIV (SIROH) Group
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(17), 11144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191711144 - 05 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
Sharp injuries, determining the risk of bloodborne infections and psychological distress in healthcare workers, may be prevented by a set of strategies, legally enforced in Europe through the Directive 2010/32/EU. To assess its level of implementation in Italy, a national survey was conducted [...] Read more.
Sharp injuries, determining the risk of bloodborne infections and psychological distress in healthcare workers, may be prevented by a set of strategies, legally enforced in Europe through the Directive 2010/32/EU. To assess its level of implementation in Italy, a national survey was conducted in 2017 and again in 2021, evaluating the progress and possible drawbacks of the COVID-19 pandemic. Altogether, 285 safety managers and 330 nurses from a representative sample of 97 and 117 public hospitals were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Knowledge of the Directive requirements decreased significantly, with <60% of participants answering correctly in 2021, and nurses’ attendance in specific courses dropped to 25% in 2021 compared to 54% in 2017. Over 75% of hospitals introduced multiple safety-engineered devices (SED), though total replacement occurred in <50% of cases; routine SED availability increased for blood collection (89%) and venous access devices (83%). Incorrect behaviors in handling sharps decreased significantly over time. Nurses’ HBV vaccination coverage was high (89% in both surveys); in the last year, 97% were vaccinated against COVID, and 47% against influenza. Average annual injuries per hospital did not increase significantly (32 in 2021 vs. 26 in 2017). In 2017, nurses’ perceived safety barriers were working in emergency situations (49%) and lack of resources (40%); in 2021, understaffing (73%), physical fatigue (62%), and handling difficulties while wearing full protective equipment (59%). Safety measures were implemented in Italian hospitals, and although the average injuries per hospital did not show a decrease, these measures could have helped protect healthcare workers during the pandemic, mitigating its potential impact on the increase in situations at risk of injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in the Workplace)
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17 pages, 534 KiB  
Article
A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study on the Risk of Getting Sick with COVID-19, the Course of the Disease, and the Impact of the National Vaccination Program against SARS-CoV-2 on Vaccination among Health Professionals in Poland
by Sylwia Kałucka, Ewa Kusideł and Izabela Grzegorczyk-Karolak
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127231 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1841
Abstract
Six months after starting the National Vaccination Program against COVID-19, a cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted among 1200 salaried and non-salaried healthcare workers (HCWs) in Poland. Its aim was to assess factors including the risk of exposure to COVID-19, experiences with COVID-19, the [...] Read more.
Six months after starting the National Vaccination Program against COVID-19, a cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted among 1200 salaried and non-salaried healthcare workers (HCWs) in Poland. Its aim was to assess factors including the risk of exposure to COVID-19, experiences with COVID-19, the trust in different sources of knowledge about the pandemic and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, and the government campaign on vaccination as predictors of vaccination acceptance. The strongest awareness of a high risk of work-associated infection was demonstrated by doctors (D) (72.6%) and nurses and midwives (N) (64.8%); however, almost half of the medical students (MS) and nursing and midwifery students (NS) did not identify as a risk group. Out of several dozen variables related to sociodemographic characteristics and personal experience of COVID-19, only occupation, previous COVID-19 infection, and high stress seemed to significantly influence vaccination acceptance. Interestingly, only 6.7% of respondents admitted that the government campaign impacted their decision to vaccinate. This result is not surprising considering that the vast majority of respondents (87.8%) learned about vaccinations from sources such as academic lectures (29.9%), health professionals (29.0%), or the internet (28.9%). Those who gained information about vaccination from traditional media (radio, television, and daily press), a popular platform of the government campaign, had a lower propensity to vaccinate (OR = 0.16, p < 0.001). Additionally, almost twice as many considered the information provided in the campaign to be unreliable. Our findings, from this retrospective study, do not confirm that the government campaign was effective for healthcare professionals. Therefore, in this group, other forms of vaccination incentives should be sought. However, the vaccinated respondents were significantly more likely to support compulsory vaccination against COVID-19 among health professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in the Workplace)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

10 pages, 727 KiB  
Review
Monkeypox (Mpox) and Occupational Exposure
by Marta Szkiela, Marta Wiszniewska and Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5087; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065087 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1737
Abstract
Recently, there has been a significant increase in interest in biological risk factors, which are increasingly perceived as an important problem in occupational medicine. Exposure to harmful biological agents may be associated with the deliberate use of microorganisms in the work process or [...] Read more.
Recently, there has been a significant increase in interest in biological risk factors, which are increasingly perceived as an important problem in occupational medicine. Exposure to harmful biological agents may be associated with the deliberate use of microorganisms in the work process or with unintentional exposure resulting from the presence of biological risk factors in the work environment. Monkeypox (mpox) is a viral infectious disease that may afflict humans and non-human primates. Since May 2022, mpox has occurred in Europe, North and South America, Asia, Australia and Africa, with some 76,713 cases (75,822 in locations that have not historically reported mpox) and 29 total deaths reported to date. Between 2018 and 2021, several cases of mpox were reported worldwide in high-income countries (Israel, Singapore, United Kingdom, United States: Texas and Maryland). We conducted a literature search in PubMed and Google Scholar web databases for occupational exposure to mpox. The highest work-related risk for mpox transmission has been noted among healthcare professionals, people working with animals, and sex workers. There is general agreement that a paramount issue to avoid transmission of infection in occupational settings is an appropriate decontamination of often-touched surfaces and usage of appropriate personal protective equipment by the workers at high risk of infection. The group that should especially protect themselves and be educated in the field of early symptoms of the disease and prevention are dentists, who are often the first to detect the symptoms of the disease on the oral mucosa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases in the Workplace)
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