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Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019) | Viewed by 49596

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
International Center for Ecology, Meteorology, and Environment, School of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
Interests: environmental geochemistry and health; air pollution; atmospheric particulate matters; bioaerosols; emerging contaminants; nano-plastics; heavy metals; toxicology; risk assessments; climate change and health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Interests: environmental biology; soil pollution and control

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Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Surficial Geochemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046, China
Interests: interface geochemistry; environmental mineralogy; soil remediation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Environmental biogeochemistry investigating both elements and pollutants in soil, water, air, and organisms systematically links their behaviours and effects in the pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. For instance, environmental biogeochemical cycles of some bioactive elements (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) are closely related to the climate change or water pollution, while a number of trace metals/metalloids (e.g., lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, copper, and zinc) are more relevant to human health owing to the toxicity or deficiency. Moreover, the increasing new and emerging contaminants have also been attracting widespread concerns, due to their potential risks to both ecosystems and humans. Recently, this inter-discipline of environmental science and geochemistry has developed rapidly and made significant advances.

This Special Issue aims to showcase and summarize the frontiers in environmental biogeochemistry. We welcome papers that address the environmental biogeochemistry of bioactive or trace elements, inorganic or organic pollutants in terrestrial system, in atmospheric system, in aquatic system, and the coupled processes in these interacted systems. Innovative environmental geochemistry studies focused on human health impacts, ecological risks, and pollution control are especially welcome. Those contributions discussing related topics, still of interest in the field of environment and public health research, are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Xiaosan Luo
Prof. Dr. Peng Wang
Prof. Dr. Wei Li
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Environmental biogeochemistry
  • Sources, transport, and fate of trace metals
  • Carbon and nutrient cycling
  • Climate change
  • Soil remediation
  • Air quality
  • Water pollution
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Risk assessments
  • Human health

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 1188 KiB  
Article
Impact of Urea Addition and Rhizobium Inoculation on Plant Resistance in Metal Contaminated Soil
by Guoting Shen, Wenliang Ju, Yuqing Liu, Xiaobin Guo, Wei Zhao and Linchuan Fang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111955 - 1 Jun 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3331
Abstract
Legume-rhizobium symbiosis has been heavily investigated for their potential to enhance plant metal resistance in contaminated soil. However, the extent to which plant resistance is associated with the nitrogen (N) supply in symbiont is still uncertain. This study investigates the effect of urea [...] Read more.
Legume-rhizobium symbiosis has been heavily investigated for their potential to enhance plant metal resistance in contaminated soil. However, the extent to which plant resistance is associated with the nitrogen (N) supply in symbiont is still uncertain. This study investigates the effect of urea or/and rhizobium (Sinorhizobium meliloti) application on the growth of Medicago sativa and resistance in metals contaminated soil (mainly with Cu). The results show that Cu uptake in plant shoots increased by 41.7%, 69%, and 89.3% with urea treatment, rhizobium inoculation, and their combined treatment, respectively, compared to the control group level. In plant roots, the corresponding values were 1.9-, 1.7-, and 1.5-fold higher than the control group values, respectively. Statistical analysis identified that N content was the dominant variable contributing to Cu uptake in plants. Additionally, a negative correlation was observed between plant oxidative stress and N content, indicating that N plays a key role in plant resistance. Oxidative damage decreased after rhizobium inoculation as the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase in roots and peroxidase in plant shoots) were stimulated, enhancing plant resistance and promoting plant growth. Our results suggest that individual rhizobium inoculation, without urea treatment, is the most recommended approach for effective phytoremediation of contaminated land. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
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19 pages, 1819 KiB  
Article
Effect of Warming and Elevated O3 Concentration on CO2 Emissions in a Wheat-Soybean Rotation Cropland
by Yuanyuan Wang, Zhenghua Hu, A. R. M. Towfiqul Islam, Shutao Chen, Dongyao Shang and Ying Xue
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1755; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101755 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3202
Abstract
A deeper understanding of the effects of experimental warming and elevated ozone (O3) concentration on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes is imperative for reducing potential CO2 emissions in agroecosystems, but are less understood particularly in rotational wheat (Triticum [...] Read more.
A deeper understanding of the effects of experimental warming and elevated ozone (O3) concentration on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes is imperative for reducing potential CO2 emissions in agroecosystems, but are less understood particularly in rotational wheat (Triticum aestivum)—soybean (Glycine max) croplands. In order to understand such effects on CO2 fluxes from winter wheat-soybean rotation, a field experiment was conducted by using the open-top chamber (OTCs) during the growing seasons of 2012 and 2013 at an agro-ecological station in southeast China. The experimental treatments included the control (CK), experimental warming (T, crop canopy temperature increased by ~2 °C), elevated O3 concentration (O, O3 concentration about 100 ppb) along with temperature enhancement (OT, elevated ~2 °C temperature plus 100 ppb O3). The results showed that warming significantly increased the mean CO2 fluxes (MCF) and the cumulative amount of CO2 (CAC) from soil and soil-crop systems, while elevated O3 and warming enhancement (OT) significantly reduced MCF and CAC. Besides, warming significantly reduced the biomass of winter-wheat, but it insignificantly decreased the biomass of soybean in the harvest period. The O and OT treatments significantly reduced the biomass of winter-wheat and soybean cropping systems in the harvest time. Both warming and elevated O3 concentration decreased the temperature sensitivity coefficients (Q10) in soil respiration during the experimental period. Overall, our results indicate that elevated O3 concentration compensates the effect of warming on CO2 emission to some extents, which has a positive feedback impact on the climate system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
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12 pages, 1622 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Simulation of the Formation of Cold Seep Carbonates in Marine Sediments
by Tao Ye, Guangrong Jin, Daidai Wu and Lihua Liu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081433 - 22 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2869
Abstract
Cold seep emissions of low temperature fluid from the marine sediment basins are mainly comprised of methane and other hydrocarbons. A series of biogeochemical processes related to methane lead to the formation of authigenic carbonate minerals. In this study, a self-built experimental device [...] Read more.
Cold seep emissions of low temperature fluid from the marine sediment basins are mainly comprised of methane and other hydrocarbons. A series of biogeochemical processes related to methane lead to the formation of authigenic carbonate minerals. In this study, a self-built experimental device was used to study the formation process of carbonate minerals under cold seep conditions. The concentrations of pore water chemicals, HCO3− and Ca2+ at different heights of the reactor under flow conditions can be observed. According to the experimental results, the formation process of carbonate minerals under cold seep conditions was estimated, that 1 m carbonate growth needs 12,000 and 7000 years, respectively, under fast (5 mL·min−1) and slow emission (1 mL·min−1) conditions. Furthermore, TOUGHREACT was used to simulate the diagenesis process. A 1D unsteady react-transport model was developed, and the experimental data was used to constrain the simulation. The results of simulation show that the carbonates need 17,000 and 9700 years to grow 1 m under the condition of fast and slow flow scenarios, respectively. The results of this work will contribute to the study of foundation on the formation of authigenic minerals in cold seep areas, and for the physical properties of sedimentary media as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
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10 pages, 1401 KiB  
Article
Remediation of PAH-Contaminated Soil by Combining Surfactant Enhanced Soil Washing and Iron-Activated Persulfate Oxidation Process
by Yanhua Qiu, Meilan Xu, Zongquan Sun and Helian Li
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030441 - 2 Feb 2019
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4642
Abstract
There is increasing concern regarding soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study, the remediation of soil spiked with PAHs was explored by the combination of soil washing with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and subsequent oxidation through persulfate (PS) [...] Read more.
There is increasing concern regarding soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study, the remediation of soil spiked with PAHs was explored by the combination of soil washing with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and subsequent oxidation through persulfate (PS) activated by Fe2+, nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI), and SiO2-coated nZVI (SiO2/nZVI). Results demonstrated that the removal of phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLU), and pyrene (PYR) by SDS is an efficient means for soil decontamination. At SDS concentration of 20 g/L, the removal efficiencies of PHE, PYR, and FLU were 37%, 40%, and 44%, respectively. For the degradation of PAHs and SDS in the soil washing effluents, the efficiencies of PS activated with SiO2/nZVI were not significantly different from those of PS activated with nZVI and Fe2+ (p > 0.05). In practice, SiO2/nZVI is more preferable due to the improved antioxidation and dispersibility. At the dosage of 2 g/L (in the amount of iron) of SiO2/nZVI, the removal efficiencies of PHE, FLU, PYR, and SDS within 30 min of treatment were 75%, 85%, 87%, and 34%, respectively. The degradation of SDS was much lower than those of PAHs, which facilitated the recycle of SDS. Our findings suggest that PS activated with SiO2/nZVI is a promising method for the treatment of soil washing effluents containing SDS and PAHs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
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12 pages, 7124 KiB  
Article
Spatio-Temporal Change and Pollution Risk of Agricultural Soil Cadmium in a Rapidly Industrializing Area in the Yangtze Delta Region of China
by Xianghua Xu, Jiaying Qian, Enze Xie, Xuezheng Shi and Yongcun Zhao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2743; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122743 - 5 Dec 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3208
Abstract
The impacts of rapid industrialization on agricultural soil cadmium (Cd) accumulation and their potential risks have drawn major attention from the scientific community and decision-makers, due to the high toxicity of Cd to animals and humans. A total of 812 topsoil samples (0–20 [...] Read more.
The impacts of rapid industrialization on agricultural soil cadmium (Cd) accumulation and their potential risks have drawn major attention from the scientific community and decision-makers, due to the high toxicity of Cd to animals and humans. A total of 812 topsoil samples (0–20 cm) was collected from the southern parts of Jiangsu Province, China, in 2000 and 2015, respectively. Geostatistical ordinary kriging and conditional sequential Gaussian simulation were used to quantify the changes in spatial distributions and the potential risk of Cd pollution between the two sampling dates. Results showed that across the study area, the mean Cd concentrations increased from 0.110 mg/kg in 2000 to 0.196 mg/kg in 2015, representing an annual average increase of 5.73 μg/kg. Given a confidence level of 95%, areas with significantly-increased Cd covered approximately 12% of the study area. Areas with a potential risk of Cd pollution in 2000 only covered 0.009% of the study area, while this figure increased to 0.75% in 2015. In addition, the locally concentrating trend of soil Cd pollution risk was evident after 15 years. Although multiple factors contributed to this elevated Cd pollution risk, the primary reason can be attributed to the enhanced atmospheric deposition and industrial waste discharge resulting from rapid industrialization, and the quick increase of traffic and transportation associated with rapid urbanization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
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14 pages, 2764 KiB  
Article
Methyl and Total Mercury in Different Media and Associated Fluxes in a Watershed Forest, Southwest China
by Hongxia Du, Ming Ma, Tao Sun, Siwei An, Yasuo Igarashi and Dingyong Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2618; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122618 - 22 Nov 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2623
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) deposition in the forest ecosystem is a significant source of input for methyl Hg (MeHg) and total Hg (THg) to the subtropical forest field and downstream aquatic systems. Wet deposition, litterfall, runoff, and fluxes with forest soil percolate of MeHg and [...] Read more.
Mercury (Hg) deposition in the forest ecosystem is a significant source of input for methyl Hg (MeHg) and total Hg (THg) to the subtropical forest field and downstream aquatic systems. Wet deposition, litterfall, runoff, and fluxes with forest soil percolate of MeHg and THg were sampled for two years in a watershed forest of southwest China. Results showed that the depositions of THg and MeHg through litterfall and throughfall were 86 µg m−2 yr−1 and 0.8 µg m−2 yr−1 respectively, with litterfall acting as a predominant route for the input of both THg and MeHg. The estimated fluxes of THg and MeHg in the throughfall and litterfall were 3 and 4 times greater than those in the precipitation. Methylmercury in the decomposed litter migrates during its erosion by surface runoff and the concentrations of MeHg were quite consistent with that in the surface runoff. Methylmercury mainly accumulated in the lower layer of the litter and upper layer of the soil (Oi), and its transfer through the soil cross-section was delayed. THg retention was not consistent with MeHg, probably with lower soil layers (Oe and Oa) storing and enriching THg in the forest ecosystem. The forest floor of the lower soil is an effective sink for THg but not for MeHg. Methylmercury accumulated in decomposing litter and upper soil layer might transfer with soil percolate, possessing potential ecological risks for residents living around the downstream aquatic systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
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14 pages, 11517 KiB  
Article
Distribution and Phytoavailability of Potentially Toxic Metals in Different Fe/Mg Mine Tailings
by Xuyin Yuan, Yimin Wang, Doudou Tang, Xiaohui Zhang, Lei Zhang and Haiyan Zhang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112475 - 6 Nov 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2410
Abstract
The environmental risk of potentially toxic metals in tailing soils is of universal concern. We conducted a 3-month pot experiment to research the distribution and variations of potentially toxic metals (PTMs), and the translocation and accumulation capability of these metals (Cr, Ni, Mn, [...] Read more.
The environmental risk of potentially toxic metals in tailing soils is of universal concern. We conducted a 3-month pot experiment to research the distribution and variations of potentially toxic metals (PTMs), and the translocation and accumulation capability of these metals (Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Zu) in natural plants for three Fe/Mg tailing soils (serpentine-type, olivine-type and magnetite-type) with growth of a grass plant-Imperata cylindrica. We used comparative analysis, regression analysis and correlation analysis to process relevant experimental data. Results showed the rhizosphere tailing soils decreased from 3.70% to 16.8%, compared to the bulk soils, after growth of Imperata cylindrica, and the acid soluble fraction of Mn, Cu and Zn increased significantly. Cu and Zn were more bioavailable than other PTMs, especially for serpentine-type tailing soils. Linear regression analysis indicated that non-residual fractions showed different effects on metal concentrations of Imperata cylindrica. The non-residual metal fractions of serpentine-type and olivine-type tailing soils showed better correlations with metal concentrations in grass plants than those of magnetite-type tailing soils. We found that the chemical compositions of tailing soils showed remarkable effects on Ni and Mn compared with other elements, especially Mg and Al. Overall, the grass plant can alter the metal distribution, enhance metal bioavailability and promote land use of Fe/Mg tailing soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
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16 pages, 100732 KiB  
Article
Modeling of Trace Metal Migration and Accumulation Processes in a Soil-Wheat System in Lihe Watershed, China
by Guijie Tong, Shaohua Wu, Yujie Yuan, Fufu Li, Lian Chen and Daohao Yan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112432 - 1 Nov 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3165
Abstract
Samples of wheat and soil were collected in the Lihe watershed in East China, the migration and accumulation processes of four common trace metals (Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni) in each part of the wheat plant (root, stem, leaf and grain) were analyzed, [...] Read more.
Samples of wheat and soil were collected in the Lihe watershed in East China, the migration and accumulation processes of four common trace metals (Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni) in each part of the wheat plant (root, stem, leaf and grain) were analyzed, and a mechanistic model was proposed to simulate these processes based on wheat growth techniques. Model results show that Cu and Cd migrate more easily with wheat grains, while most Pb and Ni accumulate in roots. Modeling results were shown to be relatively good, with an error of 25.29% in value and 26.38% in fluctuation, and had smaller dispersion degree than actual measurement results. Monte Carlo simulation results also match quite well with actual measurement results, and modeling results are slightly smaller in the simulation of Leaf-Cu, Grain-Cu and Leaf-Ni. Trace metal pollution risk in wheat is evaluated based on this model; our results show that the northwest and northeast parts in the research area are not suitable for growing wheat. In general, this model is relatively accurate, and can evaluate the wheat pollution risk before seeding wheat, providing scientific references for the early selection of wheat safety sowing areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
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12 pages, 2015 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Adsorption Performance of Oxytetracycline by Desugared Reed Residues
by Min Zhou, Tao Zhu and Xiaohua Fei
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102229 - 11 Oct 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2577
Abstract
The performance of oxytetracycline adsorption by untreated reed roots, stems and leaves, as well as the desugared reed roots, stems and leaves, was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and surface area analysis to understand the adsorption mechanism. The [...] Read more.
The performance of oxytetracycline adsorption by untreated reed roots, stems and leaves, as well as the desugared reed roots, stems and leaves, was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and surface area analysis to understand the adsorption mechanism. The results showed that the adsorption capacities of untreated reed were 416.35 mg/kg for roots, 341.92 mg/kg for stems and 280.21 mg/kg for leaves, and can be increased significantly by a factor of 8–12 after desugarization. The pseudo-first-order kinetic model was more suitable for describing the adsorption kinetics of reed residues, and the isothermal adsorption process was fitted well by both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The thermodynamic process suggested that the adsorption was a spontaneous endothermic reaction, and mainly physical adsorption-dominated. The desugared reed tissues had a larger surface area and smaller pore area, and the aromaticity of reed residues increased; on the other hand, the polarity and hydrophilicity decreased after desugarization, thus revealing the mechanism of enhanced OTC(oxytetracycline) adsorption by desugared reed residues. This study suggests that the reed residues contribute the complex adsorption ability for both inorganic and organic contaminates. Corruption of the reed can enhance the adsorption; thus, protecting the natural reed residue and letting it naturally corrupt, rather than artificially cleaning it up, can effectively promote the adsorption of pollutants in the environment and protect environmental and public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
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23 pages, 3453 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Heavy Metal Sources in the Soil of Riverbanks Across an Urbanization Gradient
by Shudi Zuo, Shaoqing Dai, Yaying Li, Jianfeng Tang and Yin Ren
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2175; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102175 - 4 Oct 2018
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4797
Abstract
Regional soil quality issues arising from rapid urbanization have received extensive attention. The riverbank that runs through a city is representative of urbanization gradient transformation. Thirty soil samples in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration were collected and analyzed for the concentrations of [...] Read more.
Regional soil quality issues arising from rapid urbanization have received extensive attention. The riverbank that runs through a city is representative of urbanization gradient transformation. Thirty soil samples in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration were collected and analyzed for the concentrations of seven analytes. Correlation, principle component analysis, cluster analysis and GeoDetector models suggested that the four groups (Cr-Ni-Cu, Cu-Zn-As-Sb, Cd and Pb) shared the same sources in the core urban region; five groups (Cr-Ni-Cu-Zn, As, Cd, Sb and Pb) in the suburbs and three groups (Cr-Ni, Cu-Zn-Cd-Sb-Pb and As) in the exurbs. GeoDetector methods not only validated the results of the three other methods, but also provided more possible impact factors. Besides the direct influences, the interaction effects among factors were quantified. Interactive combination with strong nonlinear increment changed from between-two-weak factors in the central region to between-strong-and-weak factors in the suburbs. In the exurbs, the stronger interaction effects were observed between strong and weak factors. Therefore, the GeoDetector model, which provided more detailed information of artificial sources could be used as a tool for identifying the potential factors of toxic elements and offering scientific basis for the development of subsequent pollution reduction strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
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15 pages, 2013 KiB  
Article
The Presence of Cu Facilitates Adsorption of Tetracycline (TC) onto Water Hyacinth Roots
by Xin Lu, Beibei Tang, Qi Zhang, Lizhu Liu, Ruqin Fan and Zhenhua Zhang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1982; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091982 - 11 Sep 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3623
Abstract
Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption characteristics of tetracycline (TC), and the interactive effects of copper (Cu) on the adsorption of TC onto water hyacinth roots. TC removal efficiency by water hyacinth roots was ranging from 58.9% to 84.6%, for virgin [...] Read more.
Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption characteristics of tetracycline (TC), and the interactive effects of copper (Cu) on the adsorption of TC onto water hyacinth roots. TC removal efficiency by water hyacinth roots was ranging from 58.9% to 84.6%, for virgin TC, 1:1 TC-Cu and 1:2 TC-Cu. The Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted the adsorption data well. Thermodynamics parameters ΔG0 for TC were more negative in the TC plus Cu than the TC-only treatments, indicating the spontaneity of TC adsorption increased with increasing of Cu concentrations. An elevated temperature was associated with increasing adsorption of TC by water hyacinth roots. The additions of Cu(II) significantly increased TC adsorption onto water hyacinth roots within the pH range 4 to 6, because copper formed a strong metal bridge between root surface and TC molecule, facilitating the adsorption of TC by roots. However, Cu(II) hindered TC adsorption onto water hyacinth roots on the whole at pH range from 6–10, since the stronger electrostatic repulsion and formation of CuOH+ and Cu(OH)2. Therefore, the interaction between Cu(II) and TC under different environmental conditions should be taken into account to understand the environmental behavior, fate, and ecotoxicity of TC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
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13 pages, 3140 KiB  
Article
Interaction Mechanism between Antibiotics and Humic Acid by UV-Vis Spectrometry
by Xiaoyu Yuan, Shengke Yang, Jie Fang, Xueli Wang, Haizhen Ma, Zongzhou Wang, Runze Wang and Yaqian Zhao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1911; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091911 - 3 Sep 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4385
Abstract
In this study, the interaction between the humus and two antibiotics was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy to describe the interaction mechanism and the effects of different environmental factors on the mechanism. Results showed that humic acid (HA) containing more aromatic groups was easily [...] Read more.
In this study, the interaction between the humus and two antibiotics was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy to describe the interaction mechanism and the effects of different environmental factors on the mechanism. Results showed that humic acid (HA) containing more aromatic groups was easily associated with antibiotics. In the HA-OTC, with the increase of the concentration of OTC, there were obvious absorption peaks in the 230–260 nm and 330–360 nm range, and the absorption band of the HA ultraviolet spectrum underwent a slight blue shift and the absorption intensity increased, demonstrating that a new ground state complex was generated. In the HA-SD, with the increase of SD concentration, an aromatic structure absorption peak appeared in the 190–220 nm range, and the peak value increased and the absorption band underwent a red shift, and the aromatization of HA decreased, which enhanced the interaction between the antibiotics and HA. With the increase of pH, the absorption band of HA, HA-OTC and HA-SD ultraviolet spectrum suffered a blue shift, the degree of polymerization of HA molecules decreased, and the number of adsorption binding sites increased, which resulted in the interaction of HA with antibiotics being enhanced. The absorption band of HA, HA-OTC and HA-SD displayed a red shift with the increase of ionic strength, which indicated that the repulsion within HA particles was weakened, and the molecular polymerization was strengthened and therefore, the interaction between antibiotics and HA was inhibited. The UV characteristics of the HA, HA-OTC and HA-SD systems were insensitive to the temperature. This study lays the foundation for better studying the effect of humus on the distribution of antibiotic residues in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
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13 pages, 2026 KiB  
Article
Pollution Characteristics and Human Health Risks of Elements in Road Dust in Changchun, China
by Na Li, Weizheng Han, Jie Tang, Jianmin Bian, Siyue Sun and Tiehong Song
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091843 - 27 Aug 2018
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 3848
Abstract
Road dust, which contains trace elements and certain organic matter that can be harmful to human health, plays an important role in atmospheric pollution. In this paper, concentrations of 16 elements in the road dust of Changchun, China were determined experimentally. A total [...] Read more.
Road dust, which contains trace elements and certain organic matter that can be harmful to human health, plays an important role in atmospheric pollution. In this paper, concentrations of 16 elements in the road dust of Changchun, China were determined experimentally. A total of 100 samples were collected using plastic brushes and dustpans, and the elements were analyzed by an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). It was indicated that the elements could be divided into major and trace elements. The concentration of trace elements followed the trend: mercury (Hg) > manganese (Mn) > zinc (Zn) > lead (Pb) > chromium (Cr) > copper (Cu) > vanadium (V) > arsenic (As) > nickel (Ni) > cobalt (Co) > cadmium (Cd). Contamination-level-assessment calculated by the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) showed that the pollution-level ranged from non-contaminated to extreme contamination, while the calculations of enrichment factor (EF) showed that EF values exhibited a decreasing trend: Cd > Hg > As > Pb > Cu > Co > Zn > Ni > Cr > V > Mn > Mg > Fe > Sr > Ba. In our study, ingestion was the greatest exposure pathway for humans to intake trace elements by calculating the average daily dose (ADD) from three routes (ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact). According to the health risk assessment results, the non-carcinogenic risks that human beings suffered from these elements were insignificant. Additionally, the hazard quotient (HQ) values were approximately one-tenth in the case of children. Meanwhile, the total excess cancer risk (ECR) was also lower than the acceptable level (10−6–10−4) for both adults and children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
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11 pages, 1067 KiB  
Article
Distribution Characteristics and Ecological Risk Assessment of Tetracyclines Pollution in the Weihe River, China
by Ying Li, Jie Fang, Xiaoyu Yuan, Yangyang Chen, Hongbin Yang and Xiaohua Fei
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1803; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091803 - 22 Aug 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3830
Abstract
To examine the residual and distributions of tetracycline antibiotics in the Weihe River, SPE-UPLC (solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography with UV-Vis detection) was employed to analyze the oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and minocycline (MC) of 41 surface water and 35 sediment samples [...] Read more.
To examine the residual and distributions of tetracycline antibiotics in the Weihe River, SPE-UPLC (solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography with UV-Vis detection) was employed to analyze the oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and minocycline (MC) of 41 surface water and 35 sediment samples collected from main streams, tributaries, and main sewage outlets. The results showed that: (1) The order of residual levels of tetracycline antibiotics in water and sediment from high to low was the following: OTC > CTC > MC., considering the water solubilities are 313 mg/L, 630 mg/L, and 50200mg/L and octanol water partition coefficients (Kow) are 7.94, 4.16, and 1.12 for OTC, CTC, and MC, respectively. Thus, the distribution of antibiotics was not only related to the basic properties of antibiotics, but also some environmental factors. The concentrations of OTC in water and sediment were in the range of 1.56–87.89 ng/L and 6.13–45.38 ng/g (mean value of 16.13 ng/L and 20.60 ng/g), respectively; while CTC was 1.07–26.78 ng/L and 6.17–32.29 ng/g (mean value of 4.96 ng/L and 14.48 ng/g), respectively; and MC was 0.28–12.35 ng/L and 4.80–29.74 ng/g (mean value of 1.70 ng/L and 12.96 ng/g), respectively. There were maximum concentrations in all sewage outlets. Compared with other areas in China, tetracyclines residual in the Weihe river were at a medium level; (2) in spatial distribution, the levels of tetracyclines in water and sediment from the middle and upper reaches were higher than the lower reaches. Meanwhile, the sewage outfalls and livestock farm waste water discharge appeared to be the main sources of tetracycline antibiotics in the Weihe River; (3) ecological risk assessment revealed that in main streams and tributaries, OTC and CTC may be at a low ecological risk level; while in sewage outfalls, they may represent a medium ecological risk level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Biogeochemistry)
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