Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022

A special issue of Geographies (ISSN 2673-7086).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 42243

Special Issue Editor

Department of Geography, School of Geography and Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
Interests: physical geography; environmental change; lake ecosystem; paleoecology
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Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is open to high-quality papers invited by Editors-in-Chief, Editorial Board Members, or the Editorial Office. Both original research articles and comprehensive review papers are welcome. Contributions to this Special Issue will be published free of charge in open access format after peer review.

Dr. Xu Chen
Guest Editor

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15 pages, 6766 KiB  
Article
Microclimate Refugia: Comparing Modeled to Empirical Near-Surface Temperatures on Rangeland
by Robert B. Srygley, Jacob I. Dixon and Patrick D. Lorch
Geographies 2023, 3(2), 344-358; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies3020018 - 11 May 2023
Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Microhabitats can provide thermal niches that affect geographic range shifts of species as the climate changes and provide refuges for pest and beneficial insect populations in agricultural regions. The spatial distribution of microhabitats is influenced by topography that can influence local extinction and [...] Read more.
Microhabitats can provide thermal niches that affect geographic range shifts of species as the climate changes and provide refuges for pest and beneficial insect populations in agricultural regions. The spatial distribution of microhabitats is influenced by topography that can influence local extinction and recolonization by animal populations. Scaling local temperature-dependent processes to a regional scale of population expansion, and contraction requires the validation of biophysical models of near surface temperatures. We measured temperature at 2.5 cm above and below ground at 25 sites in each of the two regions: southern and northern Utah, USA. Using NichMapR version 3.2.0, we modeled the temperature at these same sites with local slopes and aspects for four years for the former and eight years for the latter region. Empirical and modeled air temperatures differed by 7.4 °C, on average, and soil temperatures differed less (4.4 °C, on average). Site-specific additions of hill shading at 25 m distance or soil parameters did not improve the agreement of the empirical and modeled temperatures. A hybrid model for air temperature that incorporated soil temperature at 0 cm depth when snow depth exceeded 3 cm resulted in an average improvement of 8% that was as great as 31%. Understanding biological processes at the regional scale and in projected future climates will continue to require biophysical modeling. To achieve the widest applications possible, biophysical models such as NichMapR need to be validated with empirical data from as wide a variety of altitudes, latitudes, soil types, and topographies wherein organisms currently inhabit and where their ranges might expand to in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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17 pages, 10475 KiB  
Article
Monitoring and Analyzing the Seasonal Wetland Inundation Dynamics in the Everglades from 2002 to 2021 Using Google Earth Engine
by Ikramul Hasan, Weibo Liu and Chao Xu
Geographies 2023, 3(1), 161-177; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies3010010 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1793
Abstract
Inundation dynamics coupled with seasonal information is critical to study the wetland environment. Analyses based on remotely sensed data are the most effective means to monitor and investigate wetland inundation dynamics. For the first time, this study deployed an automated thresholding method to [...] Read more.
Inundation dynamics coupled with seasonal information is critical to study the wetland environment. Analyses based on remotely sensed data are the most effective means to monitor and investigate wetland inundation dynamics. For the first time, this study deployed an automated thresholding method to quantify and compare the annual inundation characteristics in dry and wet seasons in the Everglades, using Landsat imagery in Google Earth Engine (GEE). This research presents the long-term time series maps from 2002 to 2021, with a comprehensive spatiotemporal depiction of inundation. In this paper, we bridged the research gap of space-time analysis for multi-season inundation dynamics, which is urgently needed for the Everglades wetland. Within a GIS-based framework, we integrated statistical models, such as Mann–Kendall and Sen’s Slope tests, to track the evolutionary trend of seasonal inundation dynamics. The spatiotemporal analyses highlight the significant differences in wet and dry seasons through time and space. The stationary or permanent inundation is more likely to be distributed along the coastal regions (Gulf of Mexico and Florida Bay) of the Everglades, presenting a warning regarding their vulnerability to sea level rise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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20 pages, 2227 KiB  
Article
Net-Zero Target and Emissions from Land Conversions: A Case Study of Maryland’s Climate Solutions Now Act
by Philip C. Hutton, Elena A. Mikhailova, Lili Lin, Zhenbang Hao, Hamdi A. Zurqani, Christopher J. Post, Mark A. Schlautman and George B. Shepherd
Geographies 2023, 3(1), 40-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies3010003 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3155
Abstract
Many climate change “solution” plans include net-zero goals, which involve balancing the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) with their removal. Achieving net-zero goals is particularly problematic for soils because they are often excluded from GHG inventories and reduction plans. For example, Maryland’s Climate [...] Read more.
Many climate change “solution” plans include net-zero goals, which involve balancing the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) with their removal. Achieving net-zero goals is particularly problematic for soils because they are often excluded from GHG inventories and reduction plans. For example, Maryland’s Climate Solutions Now Act (Senate Bill 528) put forward the goal of lowering emissions of GHG to 60% under 2006 quantities by 2031 and with a target of net-zero emissions by 2045. To achieve these goals, the state of Maryland (MD) needs to quantify GHG emissions from various sources contributing to the state’s total emissions footprint (EF). Soils are currently excluded from MD’s GHG assessments, which raises a question about how the soil impacts the net-zero goal. This study examines the challenges in meeting net-zero goals using an example of carbon dioxide (CO2) as one of the GHG types (net-zero CO2 emissions). The current study quantified the “realized” social costs of CO2 (SC-CO2) emissions for MD from new land developments in the period from 2001 to 2016 which caused a complete loss of 2.2 × 109 kg of total soil carbon (TSC) resulting in $383.8M (where M = million, USD = US dollars). All MD’s counties experienced land developments with various emissions and SC-CO2 monetary values. Most of the developments, TSC losses, and SC-CO2 occurred near the existing urban areas of Annapolis and Baltimore City. These emissions need to be accounted for in MD’s GHG emissions reduction plans to achieve a net-zero target. Soils of MD are limited in recarbonization capacity because 64% of the state area is occupied by highly leached Ultisols. Soil recarbonization potential is further reduced by urbanization with Prince George’s, Montgomery, and Frederick counties experiencing the highest increases in developed areas. In addition, projected sea-level rises will impact 17 of MD’s 23 counties. These losses will generate additional social costs because of migration, costs of relocation, and damages to infrastructure. The state of MD has a high proportion of private land ownership (92.4%) and low proportion of public lands, which will limit opportunities for relocation within the state. Net-zero targets are important but meeting these targets without specific and integrative approaches depending on the source and type of emissions may result in failure. These approaches should also focus on the social costs of emissions, which raises the need for a new concept of integrating net-zero emissions and social costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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18 pages, 4939 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the SWAT Model for the Simulation of Flow and Water Balance Based on Orbital Data in a Poorly Monitored Basin in the Brazilian Amazon
by Paulo Ricardo Rufino, Björn Gücker, Monireh Faramarzi, Iola Gonçalves Boëchat, Francielle da Silva Cardozo, Paula Resende Santos, Gustavo Domingos Zanin, Guilherme Mataveli and Gabriel Pereira
Geographies 2023, 3(1), 1-18; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies3010001 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2231
Abstract
The Amazon basin, the world’s largest river basin, is a key global climate regulator. Due to the lack of an extensive network of gauging stations, this basin remains poorly monitored, hindering the management of its water resources. Due to the vast extension of [...] Read more.
The Amazon basin, the world’s largest river basin, is a key global climate regulator. Due to the lack of an extensive network of gauging stations, this basin remains poorly monitored, hindering the management of its water resources. Due to the vast extension of the Amazon basin, hydrological modeling is the only viable approach to monitor its current status. Here, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a process-based and time-continuous eco-hydrological model, to simulate streamflow and hydrologic water balance in an Amazonian watershed where only a few gauging stations (the Jari River Basin) are available. SWAT inputs consisted of reanalysis data based on orbital remote sensing. The calibration and validation of the SWAT model indicated a good agreement according to Nash-Sutcliffe (NS, 0.85 and 0.89), Standard Deviation Ratio (RSR, 0.39 and 0.33), and Percent Bias (PBIAS, −9.5 and −0.6) values. Overall, the model satisfactorily simulated water flow and balance characteristics, such as evapotranspiration, surface runoff, and groundwater. The SWAT model is suitable for tropical river basin management and scenario simulations of environmental changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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26 pages, 2017 KiB  
Article
Local-Level Flood Hazard Management in Canada: An Assessment of Institutional Structure and Community Engagement in the Red River Valley of Manitoba
by Jobaed Ragib Zaman, C. Emdad Haque and David Walker
Geographies 2022, 2(4), 743-768; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2040046 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1815
Abstract
While there is a large body of literature focusing on global-level flood hazard management, including preparedness, response, and recovery, there is a lack of research examining the patterns and dynamics of community-level flood management with a focus on local engagement and institutional mechanism. [...] Read more.
While there is a large body of literature focusing on global-level flood hazard management, including preparedness, response, and recovery, there is a lack of research examining the patterns and dynamics of community-level flood management with a focus on local engagement and institutional mechanism. The present research explores how local communities mobilize themselves, both individually and institutionally, to respond to emerging flood-related situations and recover from their impacts. A case study approach was applied to investigate two towns in the Red River Valley of Manitoba, Canada: St. Adolphe and Ste. Agathe. Data collection consisted of in-depth interviews and oral histories provided by local residents, in addition to analysis of secondary official records and documents. The findings revealed that local community-level flood preparedness, response, and recovery in the Province of Manitoba are primarily designed, governed, managed, and evaluated by the provincial government authorities using a top-down approach. The non-participatory nature of this approach makes community members reluctant to engage with precautionary and response measures, which in turn results in undesired losses and damages. It is recommended that the Government of Manitoba develop and implement a collaborative and participatory community-level flood management approach that draws upon the accumulated experiential knowledge of local stakeholders and institutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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9 pages, 1730 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Different Dielectric Models to Estimate Penetration Depth of L- and S-Band SAR Signals into the Ground Surface
by Abhilash Singh, M. Niranjannaik, Shashi Kumar and Kumar Gaurav
Geographies 2022, 2(4), 734-742; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2040045 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2231
Abstract
We evaluate the penetration depth of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signals into the ground surface at different frequencies. We applied dielectric models (Dobson empirical, Hallikainen, and Dobson semi-empirical) on the ground surface composed of different soil types (sandy, loamy, and clayey). These models [...] Read more.
We evaluate the penetration depth of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signals into the ground surface at different frequencies. We applied dielectric models (Dobson empirical, Hallikainen, and Dobson semi-empirical) on the ground surface composed of different soil types (sandy, loamy, and clayey). These models result in different penetration depths for the same set of sensors and soil properties. The Dobson semi-empirical model is more sensitive to the soil properties, followed by the Hallikainen and Dobson empirical models. We used the Dobson semi-empirical model to study the penetration depth of the upcoming NASA-ISRO synthetic aperture radar (NISAR) mission operated at the L-band (1.25 GHz) and the S-band (3.22 GHz) into the ground. We observed that depending upon the soil types, the penetration depth of the SAR signals ranges between 0 to 10 cm for the S-band and 0 to 25 cm for the L-band. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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10 pages, 1973 KiB  
Article
Using a Simple Methodology to Assess the Acceleration in Daily Precipitation Extreme Events in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region
by Osvaldo Luiz Leal de Moraes
Geographies 2022, 2(4), 724-733; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2040044 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1106
Abstract
This article analyses a near-centennial time series of daily precipitation in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to quantify the detectable increase in intensity and/or frequency of extreme events. This area is the most populated in the southern hemisphere, and [...] Read more.
This article analyses a near-centennial time series of daily precipitation in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to quantify the detectable increase in intensity and/or frequency of extreme events. This area is the most populated in the southern hemisphere, and heavy or extreme precipitation events, mainly those related with hydro-meteorological disasters, have important effects on its society. Indexes derived from daily precipitation data through a simple methodological approach are able to quantify changes at decadal and annual time scales. The analysis was carried out for five thresholds, i.e., daily precipitation higher than 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 mm. The indexes exhibited statistically trends in both precipitation intensity and frequency for all thresholds, indicating significant changes in daily extreme events in the study period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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12 pages, 3104 KiB  
Article
Presence, Absence, Transience: The Spatiotemporalities of Sand
by Jasper Knight
Geographies 2022, 2(4), 657-668; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2040040 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1677
Abstract
Sand grains are ubiquitous in the Earth’s system, and are found in different environmental settings globally, but sand itself as a physical object has multiple conflicting meanings with respect to both its agglomeration into landforms such as sand dunes and beaches, and how [...] Read more.
Sand grains are ubiquitous in the Earth’s system, and are found in different environmental settings globally, but sand itself as a physical object has multiple conflicting meanings with respect to both its agglomeration into landforms such as sand dunes and beaches, and how sand and its dynamics have cultural significance and meaning. This study takes a transdisciplinary approach towards examining the multiple meanings of sand, focusing on sand as a spatiotemporal pheneomenon that exists in different contexts within the Earth system. The nature and spatiotemporalities of sand are framed in this study through the concepts of presence, absence and transience, which are key interpretive approaches that lie at the interface of how the physical and phenomenological worlds interact with each other. This is a new and innovative approach to understanding people–environment relationships. These concepts are then discussed using the examples of the dynamics of and values ascribed to desert dune and sandy beach landscapes, drawn from locations globally. These examples show that the dynamic geomorphic changes taking place in sand landscapes (sandscapes) by erosion and deposition (determining the presence and absence of sand in such landscapes) pose challenges for the ways in which people make sense of, locate, interact with and value these landscapes. This uncertainty that arises from constant change (the transience of sandscapes) highlights the multiple meanings that sandscapes can hold, and this represents the comforting yet also unsettling nature of sand, as a vivid symbol of human–Earth relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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15 pages, 4957 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Coastal Vulnerability by Combining Field Surveys and the Analytical Potential of CoastSat in a Highly Impacted Tourist Destination
by Luis Valderrama-Landeros, Francisco Flores-Verdugo and Francisco Flores-de-Santiago
Geographies 2022, 2(4), 642-656; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2040039 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1709
Abstract
Tropical sandy beaches provide essential ecosystem services and support many local economies. In recent times, however, there has been a massive infrastructure expansion in popular tourist destinations worldwide. To investigate the shoreline variability at a popular tourist destination in Mexico, we used the [...] Read more.
Tropical sandy beaches provide essential ecosystem services and support many local economies. In recent times, however, there has been a massive infrastructure expansion in popular tourist destinations worldwide. To investigate the shoreline variability at a popular tourist destination in Mexico, we used the novel semi-automatic CoastSat program (1980 to 2020) and the climate dataset ERA5 (wave energy and direction). We also measured the beach cross-shore distance and the foredune height with topographic surveys. The results indicate that the section of real estate seafront infrastructure in the study site presents a considerable shoreline erosion due to the fragmentation between the foredune ridge and the beach berm, based on the in situ transects. Moreover, foredune corridors with cross-shore distances of up to 70 to 90 m and dune heights of 8 m, can be seen in the short unobstructed passages between buildings. In the south section we found the coastline in a much more stable condition because this area has not had coastal infrastructures, as of yet. For the most part, the remote sensing analysis indicates constant erosion since 1990 in the real estate section (mainly seafront hotels) and an overall accretion pattern at the unobstructed beach-dune locations. This study demonstrates the catastrophic consequences of beach fragmentation due to unplanned real estate developments, by combining in situ surveys and a freely available big-data approach (CoastSat). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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16 pages, 3093 KiB  
Article
Risk Analysis of Thyroid Cancer in China: A Spatial Analysis
by Yu Wang, Wenhui Wang, Peng Li, Xin Qi and Wenbiao Hu
Geographies 2022, 2(4), 577-592; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2040035 - 25 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1829
Abstract
Thyroid cancer (TC) is the fastest growing cancer in China and has lots of influencing factors which can be intervened to reduce its incidence. In this article, we aimed to identify the risk factors of TC. The regional TC data in 2016 were [...] Read more.
Thyroid cancer (TC) is the fastest growing cancer in China and has lots of influencing factors which can be intervened to reduce its incidence. In this article, we aimed to identify the risk factors of TC. The regional TC data in 2016 were obtained from the China Cancer Registry Annual Report published by the National Cancer Center (NCC). Univariate correlation analysis and generalized linear Poisson regression analysis were used to determine risk factors for morbidity of TC from the provincial and prefecture levels. High urbanization rate (UR) (RR = 1.109, 95%CI: 1.084, 1.135), high GDP per capita (PGDP) (RR = 1.013, 95%CI: 1.007, 1.018), high aquatic products (RR = 1.047, 95%CI: 1.020, 1.075) and dry and fresh fruit consumption (RR = 1.024, 95%CI: 1.007, 1.040) can increase TC incidence. Therefore, high PGDP, high UR, high aquatic products and dry and fresh fruit consumption were all risk factors for TC incidence. Our results may be helpful for providing analytical ideas and methodological references for the regionalized prevention and control of TC in a targeted manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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14 pages, 5050 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Building Height Impact on Land Surface Temperature by Digital Building Height Model Obtained from AW3D30 and SRTM
by Dibyanti Danniswari, Tsuyoshi Honjo and Katsunori Furuya
Geographies 2022, 2(4), 563-576; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2040034 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
Land surface temperature (LST) is heavily influenced by urban morphology. Building height is an important parameter of urban morphology that affects LST. Existing studies show contradicting results where building height can have a positive or negative relationship with LST. More studies are necessary [...] Read more.
Land surface temperature (LST) is heavily influenced by urban morphology. Building height is an important parameter of urban morphology that affects LST. Existing studies show contradicting results where building height can have a positive or negative relationship with LST. More studies are necessary to examine the impact of building height. However, high accuracy building height data are difficult to obtain on a global scale and are not available in many places in the world. Using the Digital Building Height Model (DBHM) calculated by subtracting the SRTM from AW3D30, this study analyzes the relationship between building height and Landsat LST in two cities: Tokyo and Jakarta. The relationship is observed during both cities’ warm seasons (April to October) and Tokyo’s cool seasons (November to February). The results show that building height and LST are negatively correlated. In the morning, areas with high-rise buildings tend to have lower LST than areas with low-rise buildings. This phenomenon is revealed to be stronger during the warm season. The LST difference between low-rise and mixed-height building areas is more significant than between mixed-height and high-rise building areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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21 pages, 7912 KiB  
Article
Identification of Thermal Refuges and Water Temperature Patterns in Salmonid-Bearing Subarctic Rivers of Northern Quebec
by Milad Fakhari, Jasmin Raymond, Richard Martel, Stephen J. Dugdale and Normand Bergeron
Geographies 2022, 2(3), 528-548; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2030032 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
In summer, salmonids can experience thermal stress during extreme weather conditions. This may affect their growth and even threaten their survival. Cool water zones in rivers constitute thermal refuges, allowing fish to be more comfortable to grow and survive in extreme events. Therefore, [...] Read more.
In summer, salmonids can experience thermal stress during extreme weather conditions. This may affect their growth and even threaten their survival. Cool water zones in rivers constitute thermal refuges, allowing fish to be more comfortable to grow and survive in extreme events. Therefore, identifying and understanding the spatiotemporal variability of discrete thermal refuges and larger scale cooling zones in rivers is of fundamental interest. This study analyzes thermal refuges as well as cooling zones in two salmonid rivers in a subarctic climate by use of thermal infrared (TIR) imagery. The two studied rivers are the Koroc and Berard Rivers, in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada. On the 17 km studied section of the Berard River, four thermal refuges and five cooling zones were detected, covering 46% of the surveyed section of the river. On the 41 km section studied for the Koroc River, 67 thermal refuges and five cooling zones were identified which represent 32% of the studied section of the river. 89% of identified thermal refuges and about 60% of cooling zones are groundwater-controlled. Continuity of permafrost and shape of the river valley were found to be the main parameters controlling the distribution of refuges and cooling zones. These data provide important insights into planning and conservation measures for the salmonid population of subarctic Nunavik rivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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12 pages, 2131 KiB  
Article
A Spatial Analysis Approach for Urban Flood Occurrence and Flood Impact Based on Geomorphological, Meteorological, and Hydrological Factors
by Elissavet Feloni, Andreas Anayiotos and Evangelos Baltas
Geographies 2022, 2(3), 516-527; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2030031 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
Urban flooding can cause significant infrastructure and property damage to cities, loss of human life, disruption of human activities, and other problems and negative consequences on people and the local government administration. The objective of this research work is to investigate the relation [...] Read more.
Urban flooding can cause significant infrastructure and property damage to cities, loss of human life, disruption of human activities, and other problems and negative consequences on people and the local government administration. The objective of this research work is to investigate the relation between urban flood occurrence and potentially flood-triggering factors. The analysis is performed in the western part of Athens Basin (Attica, Greece), where over the past decades several flood events caused human losses and damages to properties and infrastructure. Flood impact is measured by the number of citizen calls for help to the emergency line of the fire service, while potentially influencing factors are several geomorphological characteristics of the area and hydrometeorological indices regarding storms, which were determined with the aid of GIS techniques. The analysis is based on the investigation on binary logistic regression and generalized linear regression models that are used to build relationships between the potentially flood-influencing factors and the flood occurrence/impact for three events that were selected for reasons of comparison. The entire analysis highlights the variations attributed to the consideration of different factors, events, as well as to the different cell size of the grid used in the analysis. Results indicate that, the binary logistic regression model performed for flood occurrence achieves higher predictability, compared to the ability of the model used to describe flood impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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23 pages, 6959 KiB  
Article
Understanding Flood Risk and Vulnerability of a Place: Estimating Prospective Loss and Damage Using the HAZUS Model
by C. Emdad Haque, Khandakar Hasan Mahmud and David Walker
Geographies 2022, 2(3), 453-475; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2030028 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2194
Abstract
In the field of flood management, risk and loss estimation is a prerequisite to undertake precautionary measures. Among several available tools, the HAZUS model is one of the most effective ones that can assist in the analysis of different dimensions of natural hazards, [...] Read more.
In the field of flood management, risk and loss estimation is a prerequisite to undertake precautionary measures. Among several available tools, the HAZUS model is one of the most effective ones that can assist in the analysis of different dimensions of natural hazards, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, and tsunamis. The flood hazard analysis portion of the model characterizes the spatial variation of flood regimes for a given study area. This research attempts to illustrate how the geoinformatics tool HAZUS can help in estimating overall risk and potential loss and damage due to floods and how this knowledge can guide the decision-making process and enhance community resilience. Examining a case study in the Rural Municipality of St. Andrews in Manitoba, Canada, this study found that both the ‘Quick Look’ and ‘Enhanced Quick Look’ analyses provided robust results. However, for the RM of St. Andrews, which is characterized by differing levels of exposure on the floodplain, and where many new housing starts occur in high-risk flood zones, ‘Enhanced Quick Look’ with spatially explicit building stock is recommended. The case study of the RM of St. Andrews demonstrates that the HAZUS model can predict loss and damage with increasing magnitude of flooding depth. It is thus recognized that the risk and loss estimation tools can be effective means for future flood loss and damage reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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16 pages, 1514 KiB  
Article
Amplification in Time and Dilution in Space: Partitioning Spatiotemporal Processes to Assess the Role of Avian-Host Phylodiversity in Shaping Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Distribution
by John M. Humphreys
Geographies 2022, 2(3), 419-434; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2030026 - 08 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1643
Abstract
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEv) is an arthropod-borne virus and the causative agent of neurologic disease in humans, horses, poultry, and wildlife. Although EEEv is known to be transmitted in cycles involving avian hosts and ornithophilic mosquitoes, there is ongoing debate about the [...] Read more.
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEv) is an arthropod-borne virus and the causative agent of neurologic disease in humans, horses, poultry, and wildlife. Although EEEv is known to be transmitted in cycles involving avian hosts and ornithophilic mosquitoes, there is ongoing debate about the role avian-host phylodiversity plays in diluting or amplifying virus prevalence across geographic space and through time. This study leveraged seventeen years of non-human EEEv detections to quantify possible EEEv dilution and amplification effects in response to avian-host phylodiversity. In assessing EEEv and avian-host diversity relationships, comparisons were performed to illustrate how modeling decisions aimed at capturing spatial patterns, temporal trends, and space–time interactions impacted results and the interpretations drawn from those results. Principal findings indicated that increased avian phylodiversity promotes EEEv dilution across geographic space, but this dilution effect is scale-dependent and masked by amplification effects that occur through time. Findings further demonstrated that the decisions made when modeling complex spatiotemporal dynamics can readily contribute to contrasting statistical outcomes and results misinterpretation, even when arithmetic and mathematics are strictly correct. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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25 pages, 8109 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Morphological Quality of the Calore River (Southern Italy)
by Paolo Magliulo, Sofia Sessa, Angelo Cusano, Marika Beatrice, Alberto Giannini and Filippo Russo
Geographies 2022, 2(3), 354-378; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2030023 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
As highlighted by the EU Water Framework Directive from 2000, the hydromorphology of a stream, besides water quality and biological aspects, is one of the main elements to be evaluated to correctly assess its ecological state. Notwithstanding this, there are no such studies [...] Read more.
As highlighted by the EU Water Framework Directive from 2000, the hydromorphology of a stream, besides water quality and biological aspects, is one of the main elements to be evaluated to correctly assess its ecological state. Notwithstanding this, there are no such studies in peninsular Southern Italy. This study provides a contribution to filling this gap by assessing the morphological quality of one of the major rivers of this area, i.e., the Calore River, by using the IDRAIM method. The latter presents the advantage of taking into account the specific Italian context in terms of channel adjustments and human pressures, together with pre-existing geomorphological approaches developed in other countries. The method is based on data obtained by means of GIS analysis, remote sensing, and field survey. The analysis provided encouraging results, highlighting the good morphological quality of the Calore River. To maintain such quality, accurate monitoring of the human activities and/or careful planning of structures that could negatively affect the river’s morphological quality is unquestionably needed. The Calore River morphological quality seems to be controlled by artificiality rather than by the channel changes experienced since the 1950s. The results will be fundamental for already planned studies dealing with flood hazard and risk assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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12 pages, 3982 KiB  
Article
Map Projections Classification
by Miljenko Lapaine and Nedjeljko Frančula
Geographies 2022, 2(2), 274-285; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2020019 - 29 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4691
Abstract
Many books, textbooks and papers have been published in which the classification of map projections is based on auxiliary (developable) surfaces and projections are divided into conic, cylindrical and azimuthal projections. We argue that such a classification of map projections is unacceptable and [...] Read more.
Many books, textbooks and papers have been published in which the classification of map projections is based on auxiliary (developable) surfaces and projections are divided into conic, cylindrical and azimuthal projections. We argue that such a classification of map projections is unacceptable and give many reasons for that. Many authors wrote in more detail about the classification of map projections, and our intention is to give a new refined and rectified insight into the classification of map projections. Our approach can be included in map projection publications of general and thematic cartography. Doing this, misconceptions and unnecessary insistence on conceptuality instead of reality will be avoided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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13 pages, 560 KiB  
Communication
On Finding a Projected Coordinate Reference System
by Cornelis Stal, Lars De Sloover, Jeffrey Verbeurgt and Alain De Wulf
Geographies 2022, 2(2), 245-257; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2020017 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2212
Abstract
The digital age has brought about an explosion in the growth of data, of which data with a geographical component stands out. Proper use of geographical data comes with the need for correct coordinate reference systems (CRSs). They are considered the ultimate binder [...] Read more.
The digital age has brought about an explosion in the growth of data, of which data with a geographical component stands out. Proper use of geographical data comes with the need for correct coordinate reference systems (CRSs). They are considered the ultimate binder for interoperability between geospatial data actors and stakeholders. Moreover, CRSs are crucial for the visual and analytical integration of geospatial data from disparate data sources. However, CRSs might be—for numerous reasons—incorrectly assigned or even missing. The result is a time-consuming study of the map, literature, and available resources to ultimately find the alleged right CRS. This study provides a summary of prevailing resources from national mapping agencies of some European countries to address the above problem. Secondly, and most importantly, is the development of an open-source Python-based software package. This software package aims to accurately estimate the best candidate CRS, given a tuple of coordinates at a priori an approximately known location. It is controlled by geocoding the known location and intersecting the resulting coordinate with the bounding box of all CRSs in the EPSG-database. An in-depth review of CRS tools by mapping authorities reveals, in particular, limitations concerning the countries’ spatial areas, in combination with often required know-how of local CRSs. To address these shortcomings, our tool is developed to enable a more generic extraction of CRSs for any given location worldwide. Testing proved successful for 30 different maps, with a grid present on the map and the CRS of the map being included in the EPSG-database. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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12 pages, 1209 KiB  
Article
City Living: Nest-Site Selection Preferences in Urban Herring Gulls, Larus argentatus
by Caitlin Dalla Pria, Fiona Cawkwell, Stephen Newton and Paul Holloway
Geographies 2022, 2(2), 161-172; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2020011 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2607
Abstract
Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) are declining globally, but there are populations who are taking advantage of the new foraging and nesting opportunities afforded to them by urban landscapes. Nest-site selection (NSS) in urban environs is understudied, despite its critical role in [...] Read more.
Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) are declining globally, but there are populations who are taking advantage of the new foraging and nesting opportunities afforded to them by urban landscapes. Nest-site selection (NSS) in urban environs is understudied, despite its critical role in supporting planning policy, biodiversity conservation and the management of human–wildlife conflict. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of anthropogenic habitat features to NSS in urban populations of L. argentatus at different hierarchical levels in Fingal County, Ireland. We used generalised linear models with a logit function to investigate the relationship among nest sites, building features, street furniture (i.e., streetlights and refuse bins), landscape features, and presence of conspecifics at three different hierarchical levels, including the county, town, and colony levels. L. argentatus preferentially chose buildings that were closer to streetlights and food sources at the colony level, while avoiding streetlights when considered in isolation. Conspecific attraction at the county and colony levels indicated that individuals avoided neighbouring nest sites, yet this relationship was inverted at the town level, suggesting preference. Moreover, 75% of nests were within 30 m of each other (the average road width in the study area) when measured at the county level. Various relationships with different food sources were identified, suggesting within-population variation among preferences for nest sites. There appears to be a substantial population variation among preferences for nest sites, which does appear to be driven by the cross-scale decisions involved in nest-site selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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3 pages, 189 KiB  
Commentary
Addressing Knowledge Gaps for Global Climate Justice
by Zaheer Allam, David S. Jones and Phillip Roös
Geographies 2022, 2(2), 201-203; https://doi.org/10.3390/geographies2020014 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1773
Abstract
The Conference of Parties (COP) 26 highlighted the need for global-level deep decarbonization and provided financial instruments to aid climate mitigation in the global south, as well as compensation avenues for loss and damage. This narrative reiterated the urgency of addressing climate change, [...] Read more.
The Conference of Parties (COP) 26 highlighted the need for global-level deep decarbonization and provided financial instruments to aid climate mitigation in the global south, as well as compensation avenues for loss and damage. This narrative reiterated the urgency of addressing climate change, as well as aiding advances in green products and green solutions whilst shifting a portion of responsibility upon the global south. While this is much needed, we argue that the science rhetoric driving this initiative continues to be advantageous to the global north due to their capacity to control consumption gaps and to access human knowledge and resource extraction. If not addressed, this will reinforce a continuing unjust north/south narrative, highlighting neo-climate colonialism precepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Geographies in 2022)
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